Skip to main content

Full text of "The Papers Of Thomas Jefferson Volume II 1 January To 6 August 1787"

See other formats




Thomas Jefferson 

Volume 1 1 
i January to 6 August 1787 





" " - ; *- '" 

-* : 1*9 55 "" / .-".-- 

Copyright, 1955, by Princeton University Press 
London: Geoffrey Cumberleg-e, Oxford University Press 

X-.C.CABD 5O-7486 

Printed in? thtej iJiiit<-il Stages of America by 
Prii%c<3torivUniversity Press, Prisxceton, New Jersey 































PROFESSOR RAYMOND S. WILLIS, Consultant in Spanish 

FRANCE C. RICE, Consultant in French 

HOWARD C. RICE, JR., Consultant, Princeton University Library 

DOROTHY S. EATON, Consultant, The Library of Congress 

LAURA B. STEVENS, Assistant Editor 



The following devices are employed throughout the work to 
clarify the presentation of the text. 

[. . .], [....] One or two words missing and not conjecturable. 

[. . .]% [. . . .J 1 More than two words missing and not conjectur- 
able; subjoined footnote estimates number of 
words missing. 

[ ] Number or part of a number missing or illegible. 

[roman] Conjectural reading for missing or illegible mat- 

ter. A question mark follows when the reading 
is doubtful. 

[italic] Editorial comment inserted in the text. 

(italic) Matter deleted in the MS but restored in our text. 

[ ] Record entry for letters not found. 


The following symbols are employed throughout the work to 
describe the various kinds of manuscript originals. When a series 
of versions is recorded, the first to be recorded is the version used 
for the printed text. 

Dft draft (usually a composition or rough draft; 

later drafts, when identifiable as such, are 
designated "2d Dft," &c. ) 

Dupl duplicate 

MS manuscript (arbitrarily applied to most docu- 

ments other than letters) 

N note, notes (memoranda, fragments, &c.) 

PoC polygraph copy 

PrC press copy 

RC recipient's copy 

SC stylograph copy 

Tripl triplicate 

All manuscripts of the above types are assumed to be in the 
hand of the author of the document to which the descriptive symbol 
pertains. If not, that fact is stated. On the other hand, the follow- 


ing types of manuscripts are assumed not to be in the hand of the 
author, and exceptions will be noted: 

FC file copy (applied to all forms of retained copies, 
such as letter-book copies, clerks' copies, &c.) 

Tr transcript ( applied to both contemporary and later 
copies; period of transcription, unless clear by 
implication, will be given when known) 


The locations of documents printed in this edition from originals 
in private hands, from originals held by institutions outside the 
United States, and from printed sources are recorded in self-ex- 
planatory form in the descriptive note following each document. 
The locations of documents printed from originals held by public 
institutions in the United States are recorded by means of the sym- 
bols used in the National Union Catalog in the Library of Congress; 
an explanation of how these symbols are formed is given above, 
Vol. 1 : xl. The list of symbols appearing in each volume is limited 
to the institutions represented by documents printed or referred to 
in that and previous volumes. 

CLU William Andrews Clark Memorial Library, 
University of California at Los Angeles 

CSmH Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, 

Ct Connecticut State Library, Hartford, Connecti- 


CtY Yale University Library 

DLC Library of Congress 

DNA The National Archives 

G-Ar Georgia Department of Archives and History, 

ICHi Chicago Historical Society, Chicago 

IHi Illinois State Historical Library, Springfield 

MB Boston Public Library, Boston 

MH Harvard University Library 

MHi Massachusetts Historical Society, Boston 

MHi:AMT Adams Family Papers, deposited by the 
Adams Manuscript Trust in Massachusetts 
Historical Society 

MdAA Maryland Hall of Records, Annapolis 



MdAN U.S. Naval Academy Library 

MeHi Maine Historical Society, Portland 

MiU-C William L. Clements Library, University of 


MoSHi Missouri Historical Society, St. Louis 
MWA American Antiquarian Society, Worcester 
NBu Buffalo Public Library, Buffalo, New York 
NcU University of North Carolina Library 
NHi New-York Historical Society, New York City 
NK-Iselin Letters to and from John Jay bearing this 
symbol are used by permission of the Estate 
of Eleanor Jay Iselin. 

NN New York Public Library, New York City 

NNC Columbia University Libraries 
NNP Pierpont Morgan Library, New York City 
NNS New York Society Library, New York City 
NcD Duke University Library 
NjP Princeton University Library 
PEL Lehigh University Library 
PHC Haverford College Library 

PHi Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Philadel- 

PPAP American Philosophical Society, Philadelphia 
PPL-R Library Company of Philadelphia, Ridgway 


PU University of Pennsylvania Library 

RPA Rhode Island Department of State, Providence 
RPB Brown University Library 
Vi Virginia State Library, Richmond 

ViHi Virginia Historical Society, Richmond 
ViU University of Virginia Library 
ViW College of William and Mary Library 
ViWC Colonial Williamsburg, Inc. 
WHi State Historical Society of Wisconsin, Madison 


The following abbreviations are commonly employed in the an- 
notation throughout the work. 

Second Series The topical series to be published at the end of this 
edition, comprising those materials which are best suited to a 
classified rather than a chronological arrangement (see Vol. 
1: xv-xvi). 


TJ Thomas Jefferson 

TJ Editorial Files Photoduplicates and other editorial materials 
in the office of The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Princeton 
University Library 

TJ Papers Jefferson Papers (Applied to a collection of manu- 
scripts when the precise location of a given document must 
be furnished, and always preceded by the symbol for the 
institutional repository; thus "DLC: TJ Papers, 4:628-9" 
represents a document in the Library of Congress, Jefferson 
Papers, volume 4, pages 628 and 629,) 

PCC Papers of the Continental Congress, in the National Archives 

RG Record Group (Used in designating the location of docu- 
ments in the National Archives. ) 

SJL Jefferson's "Summary Journal of letters" written and re- 
ceived (in DLC: TJ Papers) 

SJPL "Summary Journal of Public Letters," an incomplete list 
of letters written by TJ from 16 Apr. 1784 to 31 Dec. 1793, 
with brief summaries, in an amanuensis 7 hand (in DLC: TJ 
Papers, at end of SJL). 

V Ecu 

f Florin 

Pound sterling or livre, depending upon context (in doubtful 
cases, a clarifying note will be given) 

s Shilling or sou 

d Penny or denier 

tt Livre Tournois 

^ Per (occasionally used for pro, pre) 


The following list includes only those short titles of works cited 
with great frequency, and therefore in very abbreviated form, 
throughout this edition. Their expanded forms are given here only 
in the degree of fullness needed for unmistakable identification. 
Since it is impossible to anticipate all the works to be cited in such 
very abbreviated form, the list is appropriately revised from volume 
to volume. 

Atlas of Amer. Hist., Scribner, 1943 James Truslow Adams 
and R. V. Coleman, Atlas of American History, N.Y., 1943 

Barbary Wars Dudley W. Knox, ed., Naval Documents Related 
to the United States Wars with the Barbary Powers 

Betts, Farm Book Edwin M. Betts, ed., Thomas Jefferson's Farm 


Betts, Garden Book Edwin M. Betts, ed., Thomas Jefferson's 
Garden Book 

Biog. Dir. Cong* Biographical Directory of Congress , 1774-1927 

B.M. Cat. British Museum, General Catalogue of Printed Books, 
London, 1931 . Also, The British Museum Catalogue of 
Printed Books 1881-1900, Ann Arbor, 1946 

B.N. Cat. Catalogue general des Irvres imprimes de la Biblio- 
theque Nationale. Auteurs. 

Burnett, Letters of Members Edmund C. Burnett, ed., Letters of 
Members of the Continental Congress 

Cal. Franklin Papers Calendar of the Papers of Benjamin Frank- 
lin in the Library of the American Philosophical Society , ed. 
I. Minis Hays 

CVSP Calendar of Virginia State Papers . . . Preserved in the 
Capitol at Richmond 

DAB Dictionary of American Biography 

DAE Dictionary of American English 

DAH Dictionary of American History 

DNB Dictionary of National Biography 

DipL Corr., 1783-89 The Diplomatic Correspondence of the 
United States of America, from the Signing of the Definitive 
Treaty of Peace . . . to the Adoption of the Constitution, 
"Washington, Blair & Rives, 1837, 3 vol. 

Evans Charles Evans, American Bibliography 

Ford Paul Leicester Ford, ed., The Writings of Thomas Jeffer- 
son, "Letterpress Edition," N.Y., 1892-1899. 

Freeman, Washington Douglas Southall Freeman, George 

Fry-Jefferson Map The Fry &? Jefferson Map of Virginia and 
Maryland: A Facsimile of the First Edition, Princeton, 1950 

Gottschalk, Lafayette^ 1783-89 Louis Gottschalk, Lafayette be- 
tween the American Revolution and the French Revolution 
(1783-1789), Chicago, 1950 

Gournay Tableau general du commerce, des marchands, nego- 
cians, armateurs, sfc., . . . annges 1789 &? 1790, Paris, n.d. 

HAW Henry A. Washington, ed., The Writings of Thomas Jef- 
ferson, Washington, 1853-1854 

Hening William W. Hening, The Statutes at Large; Being a 
Collection of All the Laws of Virginia 

Henry, Henry William Wirt Henry, Patrick Henry, Life^ Cor- 
respondence and Speeches 


JCG Journals of the Continental Congress, 1774-1789 , ed. W. C. 
Ford and others, Washington, 1904-1937 

JHD Journal of the House of Delegates of the Common-wealth 
of Virginia (cited by session and date of publication) 

Jefferson Correspondence, Bixby Thomas Jefferson Correspond- 
ence Printed from the Originals in the Collections of William 
K. Bixby, ed. W. C. Ford, Boston, 1916 

Johnston, "Jefferson Bibliography" Richard H. Johnston, "A Con- 
tribution to a Bibliography of Thomas Jefferson," Writings 
of Thomas Jefferson, ed. Lipscomb and Bergh, xx, separ- 
ately paged following the Index. 

L & B Andrew A. Lipscomb and Albert E. Bergh, eds., The Writ- 
ings of Thomas Jefferson, "Memorial Edition," Washington, 

L.C. Cat. A Catalogue of Books Represented by Library of Con- 
gress Printed Cards, Ann Arbor, 1942-1946; also Supple- 
ment , 1948. 

Library Catalogue, 1783 Jefferson's MS list of books owned and 
wanted in 1783 (original in Massachusetts Historical Society) 

Library Catalogue, 1815 Catalogue of the Library of the United 
States, Washington, 1815 

Library Catalogue, 1829 Catalogue. President Jefferson's Li- 
brary, Washington, 1829 

MVHR Mississippi Valley Historical Review 

OED A Netv English Dictionary on Historical Principles, Oxford, 

PMHB The Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 

Randall, Life Henry S. Randall, The Life of Thomas Jefferson 

Randolph, Domestic Life Sarah N. Randolph, The Domestic Life 
of Thomas Jefferson 

Sabin Joseph Sabin and others, Bibliotheca Americana. A Dic- 
tionary of Books Relating to America 

Sowerby Catalogue of the Library of Thomas Jefferson, compiled 
with annotations by E. Millicent Sowerby, "Washington, 

Swem, Index E. G. Swem, Virginia Historical Index 

Swem, "Va. Bibliog." Earl G. Swem, "A Bibliography of Vir- 
ginia," Virginia State Library, Bulletin, vin, x, xir (1915- 

TJR Thomas Jefferson Randolph, ed., Memoir, Correspondence, 
and Miscellanies, from the Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Char- 
lottesville, 1829 



Tucker, Life George Tucker, The Life of Thomas Jefferson^ 
Philadelphia, 1837 

Tyler, Va. Biog. Lyon G. Tyler, Encyclopedia of Virginia Biog- 

Tylers Quart. Tyler*s Quarterly Historical and Genealogical 

VMHB Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 

Wharton, Dipl. Corr. Am. Rev* The Revolutionary Diplomatic 
Correspondence of the United States, ed. Francis Wharton 

WMQ William and Mary Quarterly 


Guide to Editorial Apparatus vii 

Jefferson Chronology 2 


From Maria Cosway, 1 January 3 

From H. Fizeaux & Cie., 1 January 5 

From Thomas Boylston, 2 January 5 

From Goltz, 2 January 6 

From Brissot de Warville, with Enclosure, 3 January 6 

From Etienne Clavi&re, 3 January 9 

From Le Couteulx & Cie., 3 January 10 

To Alexander McCaul, 4 January 10 

From C. W. F. Dumas, 5 January 12 

To William Jones, 5 January 14 

From Chartier de Lotbiniere, 5 January 18 

To Samuel Osgood, 5 January 18 

From Jos6 da Maia, 5 January 20 

From Thomas Barclay, 6 January 20 

Thomas Barclay to the American Commissioners, 6 January 21 

From S. & J. H. Delap, 6 January 22 

From Jean Nicolas D6meunier, 6 January 23 

From Ferdinand Grand, 6 January 24 

[To Abigail Adams, 7 January} 24 

To Calonne, 7 January 25 

To Colonia, 7 January 25 

To Matthew Boulton, 8 January 26 

From Duler, 8 January 26 

From R. & A. Garvey, 8 January 26 

From C. W. F. Dumas, 9 January 27 

From George Gilrner, 9 January 27 

To John Jay, 9 January 29 

[To Pierre Louis Lacretelle, 9 January 1 34 

From Elizabeth Blair Thompson, 10 January 34 

To John Adams, 11 January 35 

To John Bondfield, 11 January 36 

To David S. Franks, 11 January 36 

From the Abb6 Morellet [1 1 ? January] 37 

From R. & A. Garvey, 12 January 38 



To Philippe-Denis Pierres, 12 January 38 

From Mrs. Rider, 13 January 39 

To Ferdinand Grand, 14 January 39 

To an Agent of Antoine-Fglix Wuibert, 14 January 40 

To Harcourt, 14 January 40 

To Louis Guillaume Otto, 14 January 42 

To St. John de Crevecoeur, 15 January 43 

From Philippe-Denis Pierres, 15 January 45 

To Abigail Adams Smith, 15 January 45 

To William Stephens Smith, 15 January 46 

[From John Bondfield, 16 January] 47 

From Carburi, 16 January 47 

To Edward Carrington, 16 January 48 

From Champagni [17? January] 50 

To S. & J. H. Delap, 17 January 51 

To Duler, 17 January 51 

To Jean Durival, 17 January 52 

From Miguel de Lardizabel y Uribe, 17 January 52 

From Segond, 17 January 53 

To John Adams, 19 January 54 

To Champagni [19 January] 54 

From Chevallie Fils, 19 January 55 

To R. & A. Garvey, 19 January 55 

To Frangois Soul6s, 19 January 56 

[To the Abbg Morellet, 19 January} 56 

To Elizabeth Blair Thompson, 19 January 56 

From Charles Burney, 20 January 58 

From Jean Durival, 20 January 60 

From Uriah Forrest, 20 January 60 

From Madame de Tessg, 21 January 60 

From William Jones, 22 January 61 

[From Tarbe, 22 January] 62 

From St. Victour & Bettinger, 23 January 62 

From C. W. F. Dumas, 23 January 62 

From Madame de Tess, 23 January 65 

From John Adams, 25 January 65 

From R. & A. Garvey, 25 January 67 

From Le Veillard [before 26 January] 67 

From John Sullivan, 26 January 68 

From John Sullivan, 26 January 68 

From Benjamin Vaughan, with Enclosure, 26 January 69 

The American Commissioners to John Jay, 27 January 77 



The American Commissioners to Taher Fennish, 27 January 79 

To Hilliard d'Auberteuil, 27 January 80 

To Gelhais, 27 January 81 

From De Langeac, 27 January 81 

[From Schweighauser & Dobr6e, 27 January 1 82 

To Segond, 27 January 82 

From Edmund Randolph, 28 January 83 

From Edmund Randolph, 28 January 84 

To John Stockdale, 28 January 85 

To Anthony Vieyra [28 January] 85 

From Abigail Adams, 29 January 86 

From William Cunningham, 29 January 88 

To R. & A. Garvey, 29 January 88 

From Thomas Haddaway, 29 January 89 

From Rochambeau, 29 January 89 

From Rosaubo, 29 January 90 

From William Stephens Smith, 29 January 90 

To Zachariah Loreilhe, 30 January 92 

To James Madison, 30 January 92 

From Thomas Silbey, SO January 98 

From Andr6 Limozin, 31 January 98 

From Partout [January?] 98 

From George Wythe, January 99 

To Cunningham and Haddaway, 1 February 99 

To John Jay, 1 February 99 

From Louis Le Pelletier, 1 February 104 

From Puisaye, 1 February 1O5 

To John Stockdale, 1 February 107 

To the Commissioners of the Treasury, 1 February 108 

To Mary Barclay, 2 February 108 

From C. W. F. Dumas, 2 February 109 

From Mademoiselle de Lausanne, 2 February 109 

[From Alexander McCaul, 2 February] 109 

To Francois Soul6s, 2 February 110 

From Andre Limozin, 3 February 11O 

To Christian Frederick Michaelis and Others, 4 February 111 

From Henry Champion, 5 February 112 

From Degaseq, with Enclosure, 5 February 112 

From Anthony Garvey, 5 February 116 

From Madame de Tott [early February] 117 

To John Adams, 6 February 118 

From Mary Barclay, 6 February 119 



To William Drayton, 6 February 119 

To John Banister, 7 February 120 

To John Banister, Jr., with Enclosure, 7 February 121 

To Anne Willing Bingham, 7 February 122 

To the Governor of Virginia, 7 February 124 

To James Madison, 7 February 125 

To David S. Franks, 8 February 125 

To John Jay, 8 February 126 

To Andre* Limozin, 8 February 127 

To C. W. F. Dumas, 9 February 127 

From John Jay, 9 February 129 

[From John Banister, Jr., 10 February] 132 
Thomas Barclay to the American Commissioners, 10 February 132 

From Thomas Barclay, 10 February 133 

From David S. Franks, 10 February 135 

[To Madame de Doradour, 11 February] 136 

From Duler, 11 February 136 

From David S. Franks, 11 February 136 

To Andre* Limozin, 11 February 138 

To De Puisaye, 11 February 139 

To Tarb6, 11 February 139 

To Vergennes, 11 February 140 

To Charles Burney, 12 February 140 

To Borgnis DesBordes, FrSres, 12 February 141 

To Schweighauser & Dobree, 12 February 141 

From C. W. F. Dumas, 13 February 142 

From Andre* Limozin, 13 February 142 

From John Stockdale, 13 February 143 

To John Adams, 14 February 143 

To John Jay, 14 February 144 

To John Jay, 14 February 144 

From John Jay, 14 February 145 

To Andre" Limozin, 14 February 145 

From Louis Guillaume Otto, 14 February 146 

From Maria Cosway, 15 February 148 

From L. J. M. Daubenton, 15 February 151 

From Louis Le Pelletier, 15 February 151 

From James Madison, 15 February 152 

From John Trumbull, 15 February 155 

To Simon B&rard, 16 February 156 

From Simon B6rard, 16 February 157 

To Henry Champion, 16 February 157 

r xviii 1 


From C. W. F. Dumas, 16 February 158 

To Philip Mazzei, 16 February 159 

From the Commissioners of the Treasury, 16 February 159 

From Vandenyver FrSres, 16 February 161 

From Benjamin Vaughan, 16 February 162 

From FroullS, 17 February 163 

To Thomas Barclay, 18 February 163 

To William Carmichael, 18 February 164 

To De Corny, 18 February 165 
To the Prevdt des Marchands et Echevins de Paris, 18 February 165 

From Andre* Limozin, 18 February 166 

From Anne Blair Banister, 19 February 166 

To Alexander McCaul, 19 February 167 

To William Stephens Smith, 19 February 168 

To John Adams, 20 February 169 

From John Adams, 20 February 170 

From De Corny, 20 February 170 

From William Gordon, 20 February 172 

To Barradelle, 21 February 173 

From Henry Champion, 2,1 February 173 

To Abigail Adams, 22 February 174 

To De Langeac, 22 February 175 

To John Adams, 23 February 176 

To Mrs. Champernoune, 23 February 178 

To John Jay, 23 February 179 

To Eliza House Trist, 23 February 180 

To John Trumbull, 23 February 181 

To Michel Capitaine, 25 February 182 

From D'Hancarville, 25 February 182 

[From William Jones, 25 February ] 182 

To Richard Peters, 26 February 182 

To John Stockdale, 27 February 183 

To John Adams, 28 February 184 
Jefferson's Letter of Credit from Ferdinand Grand 

[ca. 28 February] 184 

To Ferdinand Grand, 28 February 185 

From Richard Paul Jodrell, 28 February 186 

To Lafayette, 28 February 186 

To Madame de Tess, 28 February 187 

To Madame de Tott, 28 February 187 

To St. John de CrSvecoeur [ca. February] 188 

From John Adams, 1 March 188 


From Elias Hasket Derby, 1 March 191 

From Alexander Donald, 1 March 193 

From Benjamin Vaughan tea. 1 March] 195 

C. W. F. Dumas to William Short, 2 March 195 

C. W. F. Dumas to William Short, 2 March 197 

From Lavoisier, 3 March 197 

From De Saint-Paterne, 3 March 198 

From Madame de Tott, 4 March 198 

From Gaudenzio Clerici, 5 March 199 

[To Visly, 6 March} 200 

From De GuichSn, 7 March 200 

From Benjamin Hawkins, 8 March 201 

From Martha Jefferson, 8 February [i.e., March] 203 

From Brissot de Warville, with Enclosure, 8 March 204 

[From Alexander McCaul, 9 March} 206 

From Sir John Sinclair, 9 March 206 

From Madame de Tesse, 11 February [i.e., March] 206 

From William Short, 12 March 207 

To Parent, 13 March 211 

From William Short, 14 March 213 

[To Adrien Petit, 15 March} 214 

To William Short, 15 March 214 

[From Adrien Petit, 17 March} 216 

From John Ledyard, 19 March 216 

From James Madison, 19 March 219 

To Jose* da Maia, 19 March 225 

To Madame de Tesse, 20 March 226 

From Richard Gary, 21 March 228 

William Short to the Governor of Virginia, 21 March 230 

William Short to John Jay, 21 March 231 

From William Short, 22 March 232 

From the Governor of Georgia, 23 March 235 

From William Carmichael, 25 March 236 

From Martha Jefferson, 25 March 238 

From William Short, 26 March 239 

From Edward Bancroft, 27 March 242 

[From Buffon, 27 March} 243 

To Adrien Petit, 27 March 243 

C. W. F. Dumas to William Short, 27 March 243 

To William Short, 27 March 246 

From John Blair, 28 March 248 

To Martha Jefferson, 28 March 250 


From the Rev. James Madison [ca. 28 March] 252 

To William Short, 29 March 253 

From John Bondfield, 30 March 255 

From Francis Eppes, 30 March 255 

From Ferdinand Grand [ca. 30 March] 257 

From Madame de Tess6, 30 March 257 

From Elizabeth Wayles Eppes [31 March] 260 

From Mary Jefferson [ca. 31 March] 260 

From Andre* Limozin, 31 March 261 

[From Adrien Petit, 31 March\ 261 

To Chastellux, 4 April 261 

From Ralph Izard, 4 April 262 

From the Papal Nuncio, 4 April 266 

To Philip Mazzei, 4 April 266 

From William Short, 4 April 267 

[To John Banister, 5 April} 270 

From Pierre Poinsot des Essarts, 5 April 270 

To Madame de Tott, 5 April 270 

From William Macarty, 6 April 273 

From Rigoley d'Ogny, 6 April 274 

From William Short, 6 April 274 

To Martha Jefferson, 7 April 277 

[From Adrien Petit, 7 April} 278 

From David Ramsay, 7 April 279 

To William Short, 7 April 280 

From Martha Jefferson, 9 April 281 

From Jacques Nicolas Mayeux, 9 April 282 

From A. E. van Braam Houckgeest, 10 April 283 

To Lafayette, 11 April 283 

From Louis Guillaume Otto, 11 April 285 

To William Short, 12 April 287 

To the Abbe's Arnoux and Chalut, 12 April 287 

From Francis Hopkinson, 14 April 288 

From Francis Hopkinson, 14 April 290 

[From Adrien Petit, 14 April} 291 

From Thomas Mann Randolph, Jr., 14 April 291 

From David Rittenhouse, 14 April 293 

From Francis Hopkinson, 15 April 294 

From St. John de CrSvecoeur, 16 April 294 

From David Ramsay, 16 April 295 

From John Sullivan, 16 April 295 

From Thomas Brand Hollis, 17 April 297 



From Philip Mazzei, 1 7 April 297 

[From John Sullivan, 1 7 April] 298 

From John Adams, 18 April 298 

From Peter Carr, 18 April 299 

From Castries, 19 April 300 

From Benjamin Franklin, 19 April 301 

[From St. Victour, 19 April} 302 

From Bellon, 21 April 302 

From the Abbe's Arnoux and Chalut, 23 April 303 

From John Banister, Jr., 23 April 303 

From David S. Franks, 23 April 305 

From David Hartley, 23 April 306 

From James Madison, 23 April 307 

From Edward Carrington, 24 April 310 

From John Jay, 24 April 312 

From William Short, 24 April 315 

From William Hay, 26 April 318 
From John Sullivan, with Account of Expenses for Obtaining 

Moose Skeleton, 26 April 320 

From John Sullivan, 27 April 321 

From Richard O'Bryen, 28 April 321 

From Charles Thomson, 28 April 323 

From Chastellux, 29 April 324 

From John Sullivan, 50 April 326 

To William Short, 1 May 326 

From James Currie, 2 May 327 

From William Fleming, 2 May 330 

From Peter J. Bergius, 3 May 331 

To Castries, 3 May 332 

From William Hay, 3 May 332 

From Martha Jefferson, 3 May 333 

To Rigoley d'Ogny, 3 May 334 

From Edmund Randolph, 3 May 335 

From American Traders in Guadeloupe, 3 May 336 

To Ferdinand Grand, 4 May 337 

From Delahais, 4 May 337 

To John Jay, 4 May 338 

From Edmund Randolph, 4 May 344 

To William Short, 4 May 344 

William Short to John Jay, 4 May 345 

To Thomas Barclay, 5 May 347 

To Martha Jefferson, 5 May 348 



From Andre" Limozin, 5 May 349 

To William Short, 5 May 349 

To Edward Bancroft, 6 May 351 

From John Banister, Sr., and Anne Blair Banister, 6 May 351 

To Jean Baptiste Guide, 6 May 352 

To Philip Mazzei, 6 May 354 

To St. Victour & Bettinger, 6 May 355 

To George Wythe, 6 May 355 

From Elizabeth Wayles Eppes [7 May] 356 

From William Short, 8 May 356 

From Stephen Cathalan, Jr., 9 May 358 

From John Sullivan, 9 May 359 

From John Ammonet, 10 May 360 

From G. A. Auckler, 11 May 360 

[From the Abb6 Guibert, 14 May] 361 

From William Short, 1 4 May 361 

From James Madison, 15 May 363 

John Stockdale to William Short, 15 May 364 

From Ferdinand Grand, 19 May 364 

From William Stephens Smith, 19 May 365 

From Madame de Tott, 19 May 367 

From John Lamb, 20 May 368 

To Martha Jefferson, 21 May 369 

From James Maury, 21 May 370 

To William Short, 21 May 371 

From William Short, 21 May 373 

From William Drayton, 22 May 374 

From Andre" Limozin, 22 May 375 

From Robert Montgomery, 22 May 376 

From Ferdinand Grand, 23 May 377 

[From the Abb6 Gaubert, 25 May] 377 

[From Wilt, Delmestre & Cie., 25 May] 377 

To John Banister, Jr., 26 May 377 

To William Carmichael, 26 May 378 

To Francis Eppes, 26 May 378 

From Robert Montgomery, 26 May 379 

From G. Pin, 26 May 379 

To William Stephens Smith, 26 May 380 

From Martha Jefferson, 27 May 380 

From William Short, 29 May 381 

From John Sullivan, 29 May 384 

From Miguel de Lardizbel y Uribe, 30 May 384 

[ xxiii ] 


From George Washington, 30 May 385 

From Jeudy de THommande, 31 May 391 

From Anne Willing Bingham, 1 June 392 

From J. P. P. Derieux, 1 June 394 

To Martha Jefferson, 1 June 394 

To William Short, 1 June 395 

From Feger, Gramont & Cie., 2 June 396 

From C. W. F. Dumas, 5 June 397 
From John Churchman, with a Memorial on Magnetic 

Declinations, 6 June 397 

From Lafayette, 6 June 399 

From James Madison, 6 June 4OO 

From Charles Thomson, 6 June 4O3 

From Eliza House Trist, 6 June 403 

From C. W. F. Dumas, 7 June 405 

From John Rutledge, 7 June 405 

From C. W. F. Dumas, 8 June 4O6 

From Edward Carrington, 9 June 407 

From Richard Claiborae, with Enclosure, 9 June 411 

From Benjamin Hawkins, 9 June 413 

Notes of a Tour into the Southern Parts of France, &c., 

3 March to 11 June 415 

From Dr. Lambert, 11 June 464 

From Thomas Barclay, 12 June 466 

From Thomas Barclay, 12 June 467 

From Motture, 12 June 468 

[To Cassini, 13 June} 468 

[To Champion, 13 June] 468 

From Richard Claiborne, 13 June 468 

[To the Abbe Gaubert, 13 June] 469 

To William Carmichael, 14 June 469 

To C. W. F. Dumas, 14 June 471 

To Martha Jefferson, 14 June 472 

To Parent, 14 June 472 

From Joel Barlow, 15 June 473 

From Wilt, Delmestre & Cie., 15 June 474 

To the Commissioners of the Treasury, 1 7 June 474 

To Du Pin d' Assarts, 18 June 476 

To John Banister, Jr., 19 June 476 

To Thomas Barclay, 19 June 477 

To Feger, Gramont & Cie., 19 June 479 

From the Abbe's Arnoux and Chalut, 20 June 479 

t xxiv } 


To William Macarty, 20 June 479 

To James Madison, 20 June 480 

From Parent, 20 June 484 

From Richard Claiborne, 21 June 485 

To George Rogers Clark, 21 June 487 

To John Jay, 21 June 487 

To Barrois, 22 June 500 

From John and Lucy Ludwell Paradise, 22 June 501 

To R. & A. Garvey, 24 June 501 

From Abigail Adams, 26 June 501 

From Abigail Adams, 27 June 502 

To Martha Jefferson, 28 June 503 

From Thomas Barclay, 29 June 504 

From R. & A. Garvey, 29 June 506 

From Pierre Bon, 30 June 506 

From Stephen Cathalan, Sr., 30 June 507 

To Madame de Corny, 30 June 509 

From C. W. F. Dumas, SO June 510 

From Feger, Gramont & Cie., 30 June 510 

From William Stephens Smith, 30 June 511 

From Vernes, SO June 513 

To Abigail Adams, 1 July 514 

To John Adams, 1 July 515 

To Matthew Boulton, 1 July 518 

To Richard Claiborne, 1 July 518 

To Maria Cosway, 1 July 519 

To Anne Cleland Kinloch, 1 July 520 

To John Stockdale, with Orders for Books, 1 July 521 

To John Bondfield, 2 July 524 

To Francis Eppes, 2 July 524 

To William Gordon, 2 July 525 

To David Hartley, 2 July 525 

To Thomas Brand Hollis, 2 July 527 

To Richard Paul Jodrell, 2 July 527 

From Lormerie, 2 July 528 

To James Maury, 2 July 528 

To the Abbg Morellet, 2 July 529 

Jefferson's Instructions to Adrien Petit [ca. 2 July] 531 

To Sir John Sinclair, 2 July 532 

To Benjamin Vaughan, 2 July 532 

From Villedeuil, 2 July 533 

To Wilt, Delmestre & Cie., 2 July 534 



From Thomas Barclay [ca. 3 July] 534 

From John Bondfield, 3 July 538 
Jefferson's Observations on Calonne's Letter Concerning 

American Trade [ca. 3 July} 539 

From the Abb6 Morellet [3 July] 542 

From Andre Pepin, 3 July 543 

To Andre" Pepin, 3 July 543 

To Thomas Barclay, 4 July 544 

[From Clesle, 4 July] 545 

To Feger, Gramont & Cie., 4 July 545 

From Lanchon Fr&res & Cie., 4 July 546 

To Andre* Limozin, 4 July 546 

[From Parent, 4 July} 546 

To Herault, 5 July 547 

John Jay to William Short, 5 July 549 

To Villedeuil, 5 July 550 

From Abigail Adams, 6 July 550 

From Thomas Barclay, 6 July 552 

To Dr. Lambert, 3 July 552 

To Miguel de Lardizbel y Uribe, with Enclosure, 6 July 553 

To Lormerie, 6 July 554 

To Robert Montgomery, 6 July 555 

To G. Pin, 6 July 555 

From Andrew Ramsay, 6 July 556 

To Thomas Mann Randolph, Jr., 6 July 556 

To G. A. Auckler, 7 July 559 

[To Guillaume Delahaye, 7 July I 559 

To Pierre Poinsot des Essarts, 7 July 559 

From Thomas Barclay, 8 July 560 

From Francis Hopkinson, 8 July 561 

From William Macarty, 8 July 563 

To Abbe* d'Arnal, 9 July 563 

From William Carmichael, 9 July 565 

From Maria Cosway, 9 July 567 

From Madame de Corny, 9 July 569 

To Jan Ingenhousz, 9 July 570 

To Lanchon Freres & Cie., 9 July 571 

From Wilt, Delmestre & Cie., 9 July 571 

To Abigail Adams, 10 July 572 
From Abigail Adams, with List of Purchases for Mary 

Jefferson, 10 July 572 

From John Adams, 10 July 575 

C xxvi } 


From Blumendorf, 10 July 575 

From C. W. F. Dumas, 1O July 576 

From John Stockdale, 10 July 576 

From John Trumbull, 10 July 578 

From Nathaniel Barrett, 11 July 578 

From Richard Claiborne, 11 July 579 

From Abigail Adams Smith, 11 July 580 

From C. W. F. Dumas, 12 July 581 

From Ladevese, 12 July 582 

Thomas Barclay to the American Commissioners, 13 July 582 

[From John Stockdale, 13 July] 584 

From Thomas Barclay [14 July] 584. 

From Gaudenzio Clerici, 14 July 585 

From Feger, Gramont & Cie., 14 July 587 

To Edward Rutledge, 14 July 587 

From Frederick Softer, 14 July 589 

To Wilt, Delmestre & Cie., 14 July 589 
Notes on the Rice Trade Supplied by Jean Jacques Be"rard 

& Cie. 590 

To Abigail Adams, 16 July 592 

From Thomas Barclay, 16 July 593 

From Joseph Fenwick, 16 July 594 

To John Trumbull, 16 July 594 

To John Adams, 17 July 595 

From John Bondfield, 17 July 596 

To La Boullaye, 1 7 July 596 

From Dr. Lambert, 1 7 July 596 

To Andre Limozin, 17 July 597 

To John Stockdale, 17 July 597 

To John Trumbull, 17 July 598 

To Adam Walker, 1 7 July 599 

To La Boullaye, IS July 599 

From James Madison, 18 July 600 

From Burrill Carnes, 19 July 601 

From Guillaume Delahaye, 20 July 603 
From Langlade, 20 July 604 

From Andre" Limozin, 20 July 604 

To Stephen Cathalan, Jr., 21 July 605 

To Joseph Fenwick, 21 July 606 

From R. & A. Garvey, 21 July 607 

From Ferdinand Grand, 21 July 607 

To William Macarty, 21 July 608 

{ xxvii ) 


To Parent, 21 July 608 

To Ferdinand Grand, 22 July 609 

To the Rhode Island Delegates in Congress, 22 July 609 

To John Adams, 23 July 610 

To Mary Jefferson Boiling, 23 July 612 

To H. Fizeaux & Cie., 23 July 613 

To Ladevese, 23 July 613 

To Montmorin, 23 July 614 

To Abigail Adams Smith, 23 July 618 

From John Jay, 24 July 618 

From Robert Montgomery, 24 July 620 

To Moustier, 24 July 621 

From Moustier, 24 July 622 

From the Abbe de Raymond de St. Maurice, 24 July 622 

To Martha Jefferson Carr, 25 July 623 

From Mantel Duchoqueltz, 25 July 624 

To John Stockdale, 25 July 624 

To Nathaniel Barrett, 26 July 625 

[From John Sandford Dart, 26 July} 625 

From Thomas Barclay, 27 July 625 

From John Jay, with Enclosure, 27 July 627 

From John Jay, 27 July 629 

From Andr6 Limozin, 27 July 629 

From James Monroe, 27 July 630 

To John Adams, 28 July 632 

To Alexander Donald, 28 July 632 

To Elizabeth Wayles Eppes, 28 July 634 

To John Wayles Eppes, 28 July 635 

To Henry Skipwith, 28 July 635 

To La Boullaye, 29 July 637 

From John Ledyard, 29 July 637 

To Nicholas Lewis, 29 July 639 

To Andr6 Limozin, 29 July 642 

[From St. Victour, 29 July} 643 

From Thomas Barclay, 30 July 643 

To William Drayton, 30 July 644 

To Francis Eppes, 30 July 650 

From Parent, 30 July 654 

From Mainville, [ca. July] 655 

From Madame Oster [July] 655 

To Francis Hopkinson, with Enclosure, 1 August 655 

To Ralph Izard, 1 August 659 

[ xxviii } 


From Andr6 Limozin, 1 August 66O 

From Abbe* Morellet, 1 August 661 

[From Thomas Barclay, 2 August] 662 

To James Madison, with Enclosure, 2 August 662 

To Thomas Barclay, with Enclosure, 3 August 669 

To Thomas Barclay, 3 August 671 

From Zachariah Loreilhe [3] August 671 

To Edmund Randolph, 5 August 672 

To the Governor of Virginia, 3 August 673 

From William Stephens Smith, 5 August 674 

From Stael de Holstein, 3 August 675 

From John Stockdale, 3 August 676 

From Wilt, Delmestre & Cie., 3 August 677 

To Edward Carrington, 4 August 678 

From Madame de Corny, 4 August 680 

To James Currie, 4 August 681 

To Benjamin Hawkins, 4 August 683 

To William Hay, 4 August 685 

To David Ramsay, 4 August 686 

To James Monroe, 5 August 687 

To the Commissioners of the Treasury, 5 August 689 

To Anne Blair Banister, 6 August 691 

To John Banister, Sr., 6 August 691 

To St. John de CrSvecoeur, 6 August 692 

To Benjamin Franklin, 6 August 693 

To John Hannum Gibbons, 6* August 693 

To John Jay, 6 August 693 

To Andre" Limozin, 6 August 70O 

To John Rutledge, 6 August 7OO 

xxix 3 


,," 1786 

A specimen of the experimental French crown, in silver, 
executed by Jean Pierre Droz in 1786. On 7 Jan. 1787, 
Jefferson made the following entry in his Account Book: 
"pd for one Drost's coins 9f"; this was probably one of the 
two coins which Jefferson sent to Congress by David S. 
Franks, in the hope that Congress would negotiate with 
Droz for removing to America and undertaking coinage 
there. The economy of the process by which the two faces 
and the edge of the coin were struck at one time, together 
with the perfection of the result, excited the interest of 
Jefferson, Boulton, and others in the new machine in- 
vented by Droz. Jay did not acknowledge receipt of the 
coins that Jefferson sent; they have not been found among 
the objects connected with the Papers of the Continental 
Congress; and evidently they have not survived. See TJ 
to John Jay, 9 Jan. and 1 Feb. 1787. (Courtesy of the 
Bibliothdque Nationale, Cabinet des M6dailles, through 
Howard C. Rice, Jr.) 


Jefferson was deeply moved by this painting of Jean 
Germain Drouais (1763-1788), son and student of Fran- 
ois Hubert Drouais, who joined the school of Louis David 
and accompanied David to Rome in 1785. While in Rome 
Drouais sent several paintings to Paris, among them the 
picture of Marius. He died of a fever in Rome in 1788. 
Though Jefferson was perceptive enough to choose Hou- 
don to do the statue of Washington and to have it executed 
in modern dress; though he associated with the Cosways, 
Trumbull, Peale, and other artists; and though he 
was a diligent student of the fine arts, he was led by pop- 
ular enthusiasm into an extravagant estimate of Drouais' 
painting and then forced to retreat from an unfamiliar 
and not wholly congenial ground when Madame de Tort 
advanced a contrary opinion. For this revealing incident, 
compare the reproduction of Drouais' "Marius at Min- 
turnes" with TJ to Mme. de Tort, 28 Feb.; Mme. de Tott 
to TJ, 4 Mch.; TJ to Mme. de Tott, 5 Apr. 1787. (Cour- 
tesy of The Louvre, and Archives Photographiques, 
through U.S. Information Service, Paris. ) 

PARIS IN 1787 

A detail of a map of Paris, entitled, "Nouveau Plan Routier 
de la Ville et Faubourgs de Paris, avec ses Principaux 
Edifices par M. Pichon," engraved by Glot and published by 

Cxxxi } 



Esnauts and Rapilly, Paris, 1787. The HStel de Langeac 
(not shown in this section) is located west of the Champs 
Elys6es (center, left). North of the Rue Saint-Honore is 
the Place de Louis le Grand or Place Vendome, a residen- 
tial section much favored by the bankers and farmers-gen- 
eral; toward the right is the Palais Royal, the fashionable 
center of Paris; still farther right, the circular "Halle au 
Bled. 1 " The Pont Royal (center, right) was the^main link 
between the Faubourg Saint Honore* on the Right Bank 
and the Faubourg Saint Germain on the Left Bank. Along 
the Left Bank of the Seine, to the west of the Pont Royal, 
the site of the H6tel de Salm is indicated by the word 
"chantiers," i.e. construction (see TJ to Mme. de Tesse", 
2O Mch. 1787). Also to the west of the Pont Royal, on 
the Rue de Grenelle, is the Abbaye Royale de Pentemont, 
the school attended by Martha and Mary Jefferson. Below 
this, in the Rue de Varenne, near the corner of the Rue de 
Bourgogne, and next door to the H6tel de Castries, is the 
H6tel de Tess6, the town residence of Lafayette's aunt and 
Jefferson's friend, the Comtesse de Tesse". On the Left 
Bank, at the extreme right-hand edge of the map, near the 
tip of the lie de la Cite, is the H6tel de la Monnaie, where 
Condorcet, as director of the Mint, resided. Slightly to the 
west of this, between the Rue de Seine and the Rue des 
Petits Augustins, is the H6tel de La Rochefoucauld, where 
Jefferson was a frequent visitor. It was in the Rue des 
Petits Augustins, at the H6tel d' Orleans, that Jefferson 
spent several weeks in the autumn of 1784, shortly after 
his arrival in Paris. (Photo by Rigal, courtesy of the 
BibliothSque Historique de la Ville de Paris, through 
Howard C. Rice, Jr. ) 


Jefferson's daily memoranda for the first part of his jour- 
ney through southern France. These notes, together with 
similar notes for the latter part of his journey and copies 
of his letters during his absence from Paris, were later 
incorporated in his fair copy of "Memorandums taken on 
a journey from Paris into the Southern parts of France 
and Northern of Italy, in the year 1787," q.v. under 1O 
June 1787. (Courtesy of the Massachusetts Historical 
Society. ) 

The following six illustrations of places visited by Jefferson on 
his tour into the southern parts of France have all been re- 
produced from plates in the Voyage Pittoresque de la France^ 
compiled by Laborde, Guettard, and BSguillet, Paris, 1784- 
1802. The plans for this voluminous work were laid in 178O 

[ xxxii } 



by Jean-Benjamin de Laborde and the first portfolios were pub- 
lished in 1784. The work was interrupted by the French Revo- 
lution and the final volumes were not published until 1802. The 
engravings reproduced here were all made by Frangois Denis 
N6e or under his supervision. The drawings from which the 
engravings were taken were executed in the 1780's and there- 
fore represent the scenes essentially as Jefferson saw them. For 
a full bibliographical description of this work, see Andrg Mon- 
gland, La France Revolutionnaire et Impgriale, Grenoble, v 
(1938), 921-69. (Courtesy of The Boston Athenaeum.) 


From a drawing by Lallemand, Plate No. 53, Bourgogne. 
See Notes of a Tour, 3 Mch. (p. 415) 


From a drawing by Lallemand, Plate No. 64, Bourgogne. 
See Notes of a Tour, 7-8 Mch. (p. 416-18). 


From a drawing by Lallemand, Plate No. 35, Bourgogne. 
See Notes of a Tour, 9 Mch. (p. 418). 


From a drawing by Genillion, Plate No. 69, Provence. 
See Notes of a Tour, 19-23 Mch. (p. 424). 


From a drawing by Meunier, Plate No. 2, Depart, des 
Bouches du Rh6ne. See Notes of a Tour, 25-28 Mch. 
(p. 426-7). 


From a drawing by Genillion, Plate No. 76, Provence. 
See Notes of a Tour, 8 May (p. 443). 


This map, printed at Paris by Dezauche in 1787, was en- 
closed in Jefferson's letter to George "Washington, 2 May 
1788, together with the relevant extracts of the memo- 
randa of his tour. The Canal of Languedoc was one of the 
primary objectives of his journey and the detailed memo- 
randa he accumulated on the construction and navigation 
of the canal comprise a large portion of the Notes of a 
Tour (p. 446-54) . (Courtesy of the Library of Congress.) 

C . . , 
XXXlll } 


1743 1826 

1743. Born at Shadwell. 

1772. Married Martha Wayles Skelton. 

1775-76. In Continental Congress. 

1776-79. In Virginia House of Delegates. 

1779-81. Governor of Virginia. 

1782. His wife died. 

1783-84. In Continental Congress. 

1784-89. In France as commissioner and mi 

1790-93. U.S. Secretary of State. 

1797-1801. Vice President of the United States 

1801-09. President of the United States. 

1826. Died at Monticello. 


1 January to 6 August 1787 

9 January. Recommended Droz's new method 
age to Jay. 

27 January. With Adams, reported to Congress 

success of Barclay's negotiations with More 

28 February. Departed on journey to southern 

and northern Italy. 
15 March, At Lyons, 
20 March. At Nlmes. 

29 March. Went from Aix to Marseilles. 
11 April. At Nice. 

20 April. At Milan. 

23 April At Rozzano. 
25 April. At Genoa. 

4 May. At Marseilles. Reported to Jay on Ita 
and possibility of Brazilian revolt against 1 
15-21 May. On the Canal of Languedoc. 

24 May. At Bordeaux. 
1 June. At Nantes. 

10 June. Returned to Paris. 

June. Mary Jefferson arrived in London and sta 1 

Mrs. John Adams. 
July. Mary Jefferson brought to Paris by Petit 



From Maria Cosway 

[STIM]AT.MO: AMICO Londra 1 Gennaio 1787 

Ho aspettato con infinita ansieta la lunga lettera che m'annunzid 
ma non so per qua! delitto devo provar la penitenza di Tantalo, L 
credo ogni giorno vicina, ma quel giorno non arriva mai; nella suj 
ultima lettera d'un secolo passato mi dice aver ricevuta una mi; 
lettera, ne o scritte fino tre, che mi ricordi, tutte dirette all' Ban 
chiere secondo 1'indirizzo che mi dette Mr. Trumbull. La perdit; 
e mia, perche mi priva di quei momenti che sacrifica in legger 
le mie lettere, mi richiamo per qualche instante alia sua memoria 
e mi giustifica nel desiderio che o di f arli i miei complimenti e d 
presentarli quelle attenzioni che lei tanto si merita per la sua coir 
piacenza, ed amicizia per me; e quel che mi preme ancor di piu no 
mi dice come sta, se il suo braccio e guarito, se a ricevuto un libr 
di musica che gli mandai, tempo fa, * * * Eccoli soggetti bastanl 
da impiegare due linee, che la conseguenza non & interessante ch 
a me e che puo scrivere per f armi piacere. 

Sono la peggio persona del mondo per mandar No-vitd, sicchd no 
entrerd mai in quel soggetto; sono sensibile alia severita dell 
stagione; a quest'ingrato clima, e alia malinconia del Paese; fors 
mi par piu severo adesso, doppo i mesi allegri che passai in Paris 
ove tutto allegro, sono suscettibile e tutto quel che mi sta attorn 
a gran potere a magnetisarmi. Se tengo piu dalla Natura d'u 
senso, e quello di malinconia, secondo gli oggetti che mi stanr 
attorno, si puo dissipare o accrescere. Tale e 1'influenza sopra 
suscettibilita. Sono circondata da amabili Persone, Amici, e tuti 
quel che 6 lusinghevole, ma passo piu tempo in casa e posso d 
che i piaceri vengono in traccia a me, perche non gli vado cercanc 
altrove. Tutto il giorno dipingo, ed esercito la mia fantasia a tut 
quel che indica, e tale e il piacere nella Pittura quando si a 
liberta di seguire solo quando il desiderio c'inspira; la sera la pasi 
generalmente in esercitarmi alia musica, e una amabile socie 
rende Parmonia perfetta, ed ambi si uniscono a produrre il ve 

1 JANUARY 1787 

passatempo. Non son stata all' Opera, ma sento che e cattiva, non 
vado mai all Teatro, ed o piu piacere in ricusare ogni altro diverti- 
mento e impegni, che di accettarli. Ma cos a serve tutto questo 
preambolo, quando cominciai avevo intenzione di dir solo due 
parole, per confessar la verit& voglio tenermi alP suo esempio; 
non voglio scancellare quel che o scritto perche sono riconoscente 
all' piacere che mi a procurato in conversar con lei, ma voglio 
esser crudele a me stessa e mortificarmi privandomi di continuar 
di pid e finir con assicurarla che sono sempre con Tistessa stima 
ed affezione, Sua serva e vera arnica, M.C. 

RC (MHi). Recorded in SJL as re- 
ceived 8 Jan. 1787. 

Translations [Esteemed] friend, I 
have awaited with infinite anxiety the 
long letter which you announced to 
me, but I do not know for what crime 
I must experience the punishment of 
Tantalus, every day I believe it near, 
but that day never comes; in your last 
letter of a century ago you tell me you 
have received one letter of mine, I 
have written as many as three of them, 
as I recall, all directed to the banker 
according to the address which Mr. 
Trumbull gave me. The loss is mine, 
because it deprives me of those moments 
which you sacrifice in reading my let- 
ters, I recall myself for a few instants to 
your memory, and it justifies me in 
the desire which I have to pay you 
my compliments and to offer you those 
attentions which you so well deserve 
through your kindness and friendship 
for me; and what concerns me still 
more you do not tell me how you are, 
whether your arm is cured, whether 
you have received a book of music 
which I sent you some time ago * * * 
Here are subjects enough for you to 
fill two lines, whose import is of in- 
terest only to me and which you may 
write to please me. I am the worst 
person in the world for sending ne-ws 
since I never enter upon that subject; 
I arn sensitive to the severity of the 
season; to this unpleasant climate, and 
to the melancholy of this country; per- 
haps it seems more severe now, after 
the gay months I spent in Paris where 

everything is gay, I am susceptible 
and everything that surrounds me has 
great power to magnetize me. If I am 
more endowed by nature with any one 
sense, it is that of melancholy, accord- 
ing to the objects which surround me, 
it may be dissipated or increased. Such 
is the influence upon susceptibility. I 
am surrounded by amiable persons, 
friends, and everything that is flatter- 
ing, I spend more time at home and 
I may say that pleasures come in search 
of me, because I do not go hunting 
for them elsewhere. All day I paint, and 
exercise my fancy on anything which 
it points out, and such is the pleasure 
in painting when one is free to follow 
only when desire inspires us; the eve- 
ning I generally spend in practicing 
music, and a charming society makes 
the harmony perfect, and both unite 
to produce the true pastime. I have 
not been to the opera, but I hear that 
it is bad, I never go to the theater, 
and I take more pleasure in declining 
every other pastime and eng-agements, 
than in accepting them. But for what 
does all this preamble serve, when I 
began I intended to say only two words, 
to confess the truth I wish to hold my- 
self to your example; I do not wish to 
erase what I have written because I 
am grateful for the pleasure which it 
has brought me in conversing with 
you, but I wish to be cruel to myself 
and mortify myself by depriving myself 
of continuing further and finish by as- 
suring you that I am always with the 
same esteem and affection your most 
humble servant and true friend. 

From H. Fizeaux 8c Cie. 

MONSR. Amsterdam le 1. Janr. 1787 

Nous avons ITionneur de vous prgvenir, qu'en remboursement 

des interets chus d\m emprunt de /51000. a 5 p% pour les Etats 

unis de 1'Amerique Septentrionale, nous fournissons ce jour sur 
M. Grand a Paris, notre traite de V. 1893.1.6 a 3 usances, 

faisant au change de 52^- Bo./2475.14.8 

ce qui balance cet objet suivant la Notte que nous joignons ici; 

Nous vous prions Monsieur de vouloir bien autoriser ce Banquier 

a 1'acceuil de n6tre traite, et pour qu'il en soit passg gcriture de 

nStre conformitg. 

Nous saisissons au mgme terns cette occasion pour vous pr6venir 

que le remboursement de cet emprunt echeoit le le. Janvr. 1788; 

afin que vous presices, dans Hntervale, les msures qui vous 

paraitront necessaires pour nous x des fonds qu'exige ce 


Nous avons ITionneur d'etre avec la plus parfaite consideration 

Monsieur &c., H. FIZEAUX & Co. 

Tr (DNA: PCC, No. 107, i). Record- called Cassa) or bank money, commonly 

ed in SJL as received 11 Jan. 1787. En- referred to as Banco (or abbreviated as 

closure (DLC): "la Notte" included an Bo. as in the above instance). Banco 

item as follows: "Agio a 3 p% , . . was preferred and therefore bore a 

"74.5.8" which balanced the total of premium called Agio (Kelly, Universal 

/S550, being the whole of the interest Cambist, London, 1811, I, 13). 
at 5% on fS 1,000. This item is explained 

by the fact that accounts were usually 1 Blank in MS; **f ournir" probably 

kept in either current money (sometimes intended. 

From Thomas Boylston 

SR. London Jany. 2. 1787 

I am favor'd with a Letter, adviseing me of your success in the 
reduction of the duties on Whale Spermacoeti Oil, which was the 
Object of my pursuit last Winter at Paris, and left undetermined, 
under your care and vigilance to perfect and carry to the happy 
issue, its now arrived at. Mr. Garvey who favors me with this in- 
teligence, does not say, whether the Oil I had in the Diana, and 
paid this duty, receives the benefit of this reduction or not. I pre- 
sume and don't doubt it does; it was on that Oils Account the appli- 
cation was first made, and rested with the Minister to deside upon. 
I must beg the favor of your attention to any necessary steps, 
to secure the repayment of it to me, and leave no room for Objec- 


2 JANUARY 1787 

tions arising to any lapse of time on Account of my absence, or want 
of a Seasonable application made in my behalf. An Order from 
Court or the Minister to the Collector of the Customs who received 
it, to refund the Money, seems to me a ready, and direct method 
to be taken in this case. However you are undoubtedly the best 
judge of the necessary steps to be taken, and beg the favor of 
your kind aid and assistance in it. 

I propose being in Paris as soon as possible and presume it will 
be some time in Feby. In the mean while the honor of a line from 
you on this business will be most gratefully acknowledge by Sr, 
Your most Obliged hume. Serv., THO BOYLSTON 

RC (DLC); endorsed. Recorded in SJL as received 8 Jan. 1787. 

From Goltz 

Le 2. Janvier 

Le Cte. de Goltz regoit tout a Pheure les exemplaires de TActe 
de La Virginie, que Monsieur Jefferson a La bont6 de lui envoyer 
et s'empresse de Lui en f aire tous ses remerciemens et de renouveler 
les assurances de Sa consideration distingu^e pour Lui. 

RC (MHi); without indication of the year, but presumably 1787, since TJ 
was at this time still distributing copies of the Virginia Act for Establishing Re- 
ligious Freedom. Not recorded in SJL,. Baron de Goltz was envoy extraordinary 
from Prussia in 1786-1788 (Almanack Royal). 

From Brissot de Warville, with Enclosure 

MONSIEUR Chancellerie d'orleans ce 3 Janvier Ian 1787. 

J'ai L'honneur de Vous adresser ci Joint Les questions sur les 
fonds publics des Etats unis dont je Vous ai parle. Vous m'av6s 
fait esperer, ainsi que M. decrevecoeur, que Vous pourri^s en Vous 
adressant au treasury Board du CongrSs nous procurer une reponse 
complete et exacte sur tous Les points. 

Cette reponse est singulierement importante pour fonder le 
credit des Etats unis, et Je ne doute point que mon digne ami 
Claviere avec son ami d' Amsterdam ne parviennent a Leur etablir 
un grand credit, quand une fois, ils auront des Lumieres sufisantes 
sur leur situation. 

Vous Voudr6s done bien, Monsieur, Mettre ces questions au 
Nombre de Vos depeches prochaines et me faire parvenir ou & 
M. Claviere La reponse aussitot qu'elle sera dans vos mains. 1 


3 JANUARY 1787 

J'ai Communiqu6 M. Le Marquis du Crest Le resultat de La 
derniere conversation que J'ai eu 1'honneur d'avoir avec Vous. La 

reponse de M. de V ne L'effraie point, et II est Convenu 

qu'apr&s avoir eu L'honneur de Vous faire une Visite ainsi qu'a 
Monsr. Le Marquis De la fayette, il concerteroit un rends vous, 
avec vous et avec lui, pour determiner La Marche prendre. En 
atendant ce moment je m'ocupe du memoire a. presenter aux 

Puisque Je viens de Nommer M. Le Mis. de la fayette, Voul6s 
Vous bien me permettre de me feliciter avec vous et avec tous Les 
amis du bien public de sa Nomination pour L'assembl6e prochaine. 
Je ne sais pas & qui elle fait plus dlionneur, ou aux ministres ou 
si Lui; mais Je sais a qui ce choix fera du bien. C'est au peuple. 

Aussitdt que J'aurai un Moment de Libre, Je m'empresserai de 
vous porter Les plans que Je vous ai promis. 

Je suis avec respect Monsieur Votre trds humble et tres obeissant 


Questions Sur Les fonds Publics des Etats unis 

On Suppose que le CongrSs des Etats unis d'Amerique met quelqu'im- 
portance a leur 6tablir un bon Credit en Europe. Us ne peuvent y 
trouver que de grands avantages. La grande affaire des Americains est 
sans contredit les dffrichemens, et ces deffrichemens demandent tou- 
jours plus de Numeraire parce qu'ils le r6pandent sur une plus grande 
6tendue de Pais. II sera done avantageux aux Americains de donner l 
leurs papier s un tel credit qu'il puisse se placer dans les Etats de 
1'Europe, ou 1'argent est tres abondant, et dans ceux ou le Commerce 
peut les admettre; car ces papier s pourroient venir chercher 1'argent 
Europ6en de plusieurs manieres, soit directement et par voye d'emprunt, 
soit indirectement, et en retour de fournitures Europeennes lorsque les 
productions Americaines ne suffiroient pas au moment mme pour les 

La constitution Republicaine est, de toutes, celle qui favor ise le mieux 
un Credit public; et sous ce point de vue les Etats unis ont droit au 
Credit le plus Stendu puisqu'il s'apuie sur un sol immense fertilis6 par 
la Iibert6. 

Mais dans ce moment, soit par la malice de leurs ennemis, soit par 
les difiicultes qui s'6lvent entr'eux sur leurs dettes et leurs regulations 
intgrieures, on ne peut pas encore faire naltre en Europe en faveur des 
Americains une confiance gen6rale. Une infmit6 de faits, vrais ou faux, 
ou mal representes, donnent des ombrages perp&tuels, et font croire 
& beaucoup de gens que les Americains eux memes ne sont pas encore 
persuades de 1'importance de leur credit au dehors, ou ne connoissent 
pas toute Fetendue des egards dus aux maximes que fondent et maintien- 
nent le Credit public. 


3 JANUARY 1787 

II seroit done trds n6cessaire d'avoir, tant de la part du congrfcs que 
de la chambre de la Trsorerie, toutes les instructions necessaires pour 
se former des Idees justes sur Fetat present des dettes Americaines 
interieures et exterieures; sur la maniere dont elles sont considerees en 
g6n6ral et en particulier, par la reunion des Etats, et par chacun d'eux 
individuellement, et pour juger s'il y a des dettes dont le remboursement 
soit conside*re~ sous des degre*s differens de certitude. 

Les fonds (Stocks) Americains se divisent en effets continentaux, 
et effets particuliers a chaque Etat. 

On desire Sur les premiers d'avoir 

Leur Liste. 

Leur Origine. 

Le Capital. 

La forme. 

Le terme de remboursement s'il y en a. 

Par qui il est paye". 

Quand, Comment, ou? 

Quels sont ceux qui ont cours dans le Commerce? 

S'il y en a qui soyent regus aux payemens des taxes, ou qui servent 
a ce payement? 

Est-il du des arrerages et en quelle quantite? 

Sur quel Objet chaque emprunt ou fond continental est-il hypotheque"? 

Les mSmes questions sont & repondre sur les fonds particuliers a 
chaque etat; et s'il y en a de ceux ci qui soient regus dans tous les Etats, 
on desire d'en avoir la liste; comme aussi de connoitre ceux qui n'y sont 
pas re$us et qu'elle en est la raison? 

On desireroit aussi d'avoir la liste des prix auxquels tous les differens 
effets Americains se n6gocient actuellement, et la distinction de ceux 
dont le rembours prochain est le plus probable. 

Enfin, cette question regarde plus particulierement le CongrSs. 

On demande quel interest le Congrds accorderoit a des particuliers 
qui lui preteroient de Pargent, a la condition de n'en pouvoir tre 
rembourse" qu'en fonds de terres appartenantes au Congres, et dans le 
cours d'un certain nombre d'ann^es, que le Congrds designeroit, et 
qui ne devroit pas tre trop court. 

Si de pareils emprunts pouvoient avoir lieu, ils exigeroient la de- 
termination d'une certaine etendue de terres avantageusement situe"es 
pour le commerce et la culture, lesquelles seroient reservees pour 
acquitter ces emprunts, en determinant d'avance la maniere dont les 
porteurs de ces effets pourroient en prendre possession. 

Si une telle idee peut s'apliquer a un Plan quelconque, d'une execution 
sure et facile, et qu'il soit possible de lui donner une forme s6duisante 
pour ceux qui cherchent a varier 1'employ de leur argent, il ne seroit 
pas impossible que cette maniere d'emprunter ne reussit en Europe, 
surtout si le produit de tels emprunts servoit a aquitter des parties de 
dettes etrangdres, parce qu'alors ils donneroient lieu des traites entre 
des particuliers et les Etats mSme a qui le CongrSs a des avances a 

Mais il faudroit que les Plans de tels Emprunts arrivassent en Europe 
avec des pleins pouvoirs aux Ambassadeurs du Congres de traiter, et 

3 JANUARY 1787 

meme de pouvoir admettre certaines modifications, et y engager le 
Congres, s'il s'en presentoit de convenables aux preteurs, sans etre 
nuisibles aux interest des Etats unis. 

RC (DLC); endorsed. Tr (DLC); tions Sur les fonds Publics des Etats 

extract in the hand of William Short. unis." Tr (DL.C); in Short's hand, also 

Recorded in SJL as received 4 Jan. 'without date. 
1787. Enclosure (MoSHi); undated and 
at head of text in Brissot's hand; "Ques- 1 Text of Tr ends at this point. 

From tienne Claviere 


J'ay Phonneur de vous envoyer un petit me*moire 5 que Monsieur 
de Warville m'a dit que vous voudriez bien faire passer en 
Amrique. Je crois une reponse a ce m6moire utile a vos Etats si 
elle est bien Cir constancies. 

Je ne puis voir sans douleur, comnae sans gtonnement, qu'en 
Am6rique, ou il y a taut de lumidres, on s'6carte encore des vrais 
principes sur le papier monoye. Toute contrainte est diametralement 
opos6e a son credit et sans credit c'est une peste qui fait des 
ravages affreux sur les propri6te"s et sur les mceurs. II introduit 
un esprit d'agiotage qui devient bientot une cruelle usure. Comment 
ne voit-on pas que Les monoye d'or et d'argent ne tirent leur credit 
que de 1'usage qu'on peut en faire partout? Et le papier monoye a-t-il 
cet avantage? Quand la liberte* de le refuse[r] ne peut pas L'ac- 
cr^diter, il n'en faut point faire, car toute situation, dans la paix, 
est prfferable a celle ou Ton ordonne la circulation force6 du 

Pardonnes ces reflexions a un pauvre r6publicain d6pays6 qui 
ne cessera d'aimer et d'adorer la Iibert6 dont il ne peut plus jou'ir, 
et qui 6prouve une cruelle douleur lorsqu'il voit qu'elle se calomnie 
par ignorance. 

Agrees mes voeux pour votre bonheur et votre Contentement 
dans cette nouvelle anne"e et les suivantes. 

Je suis avec respect Monsieur 1'Ambassadeur Votre trs humble 
& tr^s obe'issant serviteur, E CLAVIERE 

RC (MoSHi); endorsed. Recorded in SJL as received 4 Jan. 1787. 

The PETTT MEMOERE enclosed by Claviere has not been identified. It may have 
been his Lettre & Vauteur du Mercure politique par les auteurs du trait intitule: 
De la France et des Etats-Unis^ 1787. 

From Le Couteulx Sc Cie. 

SIR Paris 3 Jany. 1787 

By the inclosed from Mr. Barrett, your Excellency will observe 
that no order has been as yet officially given to the farmers people 
at Ruan, relative to the Relaxation of the Duties, which they have 
perceived upon an American Oil Spermaceti Cargoe, much less 
have they had the necessary Orders relative to the entire taking 
off of them in those, that come for Account of Mr. Barrett's Con- 
tract. It would be then Sir, of a very urging Moment to have your 
Excellency interfere in this Affair and write to Mr. de Calonne that 
he should order the farmers to give at Ruan the necessary Orders 
in favor of Mr. Barrett's Contract, as he has promised it already 
in the printed Letter written by him to your Excellency and that 
he should give your Excellency at the same time an Answer by 
writing that could in the mean Time serve Mr. Barrett as a Title 
to refuse himself to the Payment of the Duties, without running the 
Risks of being prosecuted by the Agents of the farm. 

I profit of this Occasion to repeat myself at the Obedience of 
your Excellency & subscribe myself Your most obedt. hble. Servt., 


RC (DLC). Recorded in SJL as received 5 Jan. 1787. Enclosure: Barrett to 
TJ, 25 Dec. 1786. 

To Alexander McCaul 

DEAR SIR Paris Jan. 4. 1787. 

In the letter which I had the honor of addressing you from 
London on the 19th. of April 1786 I informed you that I had left 
my estate in the hands of a Mr. Eppes and a Mr. Lewis, who were first 
to clear off some debts which had been necessarily contracted dur- 
ing the war, and afterwards to apply the whole profits to the paiment 
of my debt to you (by which I mean that to the several firms with 
which you were connected) and of my part of a debt due from Mr. 
Wayles's estate to Farrell & Jones of Bristol. Being anxious to 
begin the paiment of these two debts, and finding that it would be 
too long postponed if the residuary ones were to be paid merely 
from the annual profits of the estate, a number of slaves have been 
sold, and I have lately received information from Messrs. Eppes 
and Lewis that the proceeds of that sale with the profits of the 
estate to the end of 1786 would pay off the whole of the residuary 


4 JANUARY 1787 

debts. As we are now therefore clear of embarrassments to pursue 
our principal object, I am desirous of arranging with you such, 
just and practicable conditions as will ascertain to you the receipt 
of your debt, and give me the satisfaction of knowing that you are 
contented. What the laws of Virginia are, or may be, will in no 
wise influence my conduct. Substantial justice is my object, as 
decided by reason, and not by authority or compulsion. 

The article of interest may make a difficulty. I had the honour 
of observing to you, in my former letter, that I thought it just I 
should pay it for all the time preceding the war, and all the time 
subsequent to it. But that for the time during the war I did not 
consider myself as bound in justice to pay. This includes the period 
from the commencement of hostilities Apr. 19. 1775. to their 
cessation Apr. 19. 1783, being exactly eight years. To the reasons 
against this paiment which apply in favor of the whole mass of 
American debtors, I added the peculiar circumstance of having 
already lost the debt, principal and interest, by endeavoring to pay 
it by the sale of lands and by the depreciation of their price: 
and also a second loss of an equal sum by Ld. Cornwallis's bar- 
barous and useless depredations. I will therefore refer you to that 
letter, to save the repetition here of those reasons which absolve 
me in justice from the paiment of this portion of interest. In law, 
our courts have uniformly decided that the treaty of peace stipulates 
the paiment of the principal only and not of any interest whatever. 

This article being once settled, I would propose to divide the 
clear proceeds of my estate (in which there are from 80. to 100. 
labouring slaves) between yourself and Farrell & Jones, one third 
to you and two thirds to them: and that the crop of this present 
year 1787. shall constitute the first paiment. That crop you know 
cannot be got to the warehouse completely till May of the next 
year, and I presume that three months more will be little enough 
to send it to Europe, or to sell it in Virginia and remit the money. 
So that I could not safely answer for placing the proceeds in your 
hands till the month of August, and so annually every August after- 
wards till the debt shall be paid. It will always be both my interest 
and my wish to get it to you as much sooner as possible, and 
probably a part of it may always be paid some months sooner. If 
the assigning the profits in general terms may seem to you too 
vague, I am willing to fix the annual paiment at a sum certain. 
But that I may not fall short of my engagement, I shall name it 
somewhat less than I suppose may be counted on. I shall fix your 
part at two hundred pounds sterling annually: and as you know our 


5 JANUARY 1787 

crops of tobacco to be incertain, I should reserve a right, if they 
should fall short one year, to make it up the ensuing one, without 
being supposed to have failed in my engagement. But I would be 
obliged every second year to pay any arrearages of the preceding 
one together with the full sum for the current year: so that once in 
every two years the annual paiment should be fully paid up. 

I do not know what the balance is; having for a long time before 
the war had no settlement, yet there can be no difficulty in making 
that settlement, and in the mean while the paiments may proceed 
without affecting the right of either party to have a just settlement. 

If you think proper to accede to these propositions, be so good 
as to say so at the foot of a copy of this letter. On my receipt of 
that, I will send you an acknolegement of it, which shall render 
this present letter obligatory on me for the paiment of the debt 
before mentioned, and interest, at the epochs and in the proportions 
beforementioned, excepting always the interest during the war. 
This done, you may count on my faithful execution of it. 

I avail myself of this, as of every other occasion of recalling 
myself to your friendly recollection, and of assuring you of the 
sentiments of perfect esteem and attachment with which I am Dear 
Sir your most obedt. & most humble servant, 


PrC ( DLC ) ; endorsed. BE so GOOD AS TO SAY so AT THE FOOT OF A COPY 

OF TBDCS LETTER: This means that TJ enclosed a second PrC, but it has not been 

From C. W. F. Dumas 

MONSIEUR Lahaie 5e. Janv. 1786 [i.e., 1787] 

Je suis affect6 de Taccident qui, faisant souffrir votre Excel- 
lence, m'avoit priv6 de Phonneur de sa correspondance. JPespere 
qu'une main si pr^cieuse a PAmerique, a vos Amis, a FHumanitg, 
se remettra tout-^-fait, et apprendrai avec joie que Votre Excellence 
est hors de souff ranee. 

tFai v6rifi6 et trouv6 conformes les dates de mes Lettres jusqu'au 
ler. Dec. inclus, ou 6toit No. 13 pour Mr. Jay. V. E. doit avoir 
regu depuis, No. 14, du 2 au 6. Dec. au meme. No. 15 du 22 Dec. 
au mSme. et puis une du 29 Dec. a. V. E. 

J'attends r6ponse de Mr. De la Fayette a celles qu'il doit avoir 
regues de moi en date du 8, du 9 et du 22 Dec: etant surtout en 
peine de celle du 9. 

5 JANUARY 1787 

J'ai 6crit Mr. Luzac ce qif il f alloit pour donner au public une 
id6e juste dans son papier des petits mouvemens qui ont eu lieu 
en Am6rique. Je 1'ai prig aussi confidemment, de supprimer la 
Piece falsifie, si elle lui parvient. 

Quant a la question que V. E. me propose, son importance 
m'impose la n6cessit6 de demander au moins une quinzaine de 
jours pour en donner mon opinion. Je ferai dans cet intervalle un 
voyage exprs pour cela a Amsterdam, afin de m'y aboucher la- 
dessus avec une personne de confiance, de la discretion de laquelle, 
ainsi que de ses dispositions pour les Etats-Unis, je suis stir, et je 
sonderai ce terrain avec toute la prudence et la d6licatesse requise. 
J'ignore si maintenant tous les Etats se sont mis entierement en 
regie quant au Revenu qu'il f aut au CongrSs pour payer les Intr6ts 
de la Dette commune tant interne qu'externe. Si cela est, cela 
donnera certainement le plus grand poids et relief si la proposition. 
En attendant que je puisses la meurir et en parler avec plus de 
connoissance de cause, il est bon que cela reste secret entre V. E. et 
moi; tout comme, lorsque le projet auroit pris quelque consistence, 
il n'en seroit que mieux que son excution ne passant par d'autres 
mains que celles de V. E. et les miennes. J'ai de fortes raisons pour 
dire cela et suis avec grand respect De V. E. le tres humble & trs 
obeisst. serviteur, C W F DUMAS 

RC (DLC); endorsed. FC (Rijksar- 
chief, The Hague, Dumas Papers; 
photostats in DLC); date corrected to 
"1787" by overwriting. Entry in SJL 
of its receipt on 11 Jan. 1787 reads: 
"Dumas. Haie. Jan. 5. (1786 for 
1787)." There is no mention of an en- 
closure, but Dumas must have sent 
with this letter his "No. 16" for Con- 
gress which he had told TJ (Dumas 
to TJ, 29 Dec. 1786) he did not wish 
to send by post. This was Dumas* let- 
ter to Jay of 1 Jan. 1787, containing 
his "Divinatio quarto" in which he in- 
serted a "Pro-Memoria" that had been 
drawn up the 23rd of December, trans- 
lated the 24th, and transmitted to the 
same person who received the first 
memoir, a copy of which was in Du- 
mas* despatch No. 14 of Dec. 2nd; and 
stating that the negotiations started by 
Rayneval and Goertz had fallen through; 
that the States General, suspended dur- 
ing the holidays, would reassemble on 
the 16th; that a crisis is at hand, and 
Rayneval probably only awaits the last 
courier sent to Versailles in order to 
return, thoroughly put out at the stub- 
bornness of the prince; that there are 

to be no more diplomatic conversations, 
but categorical measures will be taken; 
that Dumas was obliged at the end of 
December to draw on WHlink, Nicolas 
and Jacob Van Staphorst for part of 
the arrears due him according to the 
act of Congress of Oct. 14th, 1785; 
that his situation is miserable: "Me 
laissera-t-on succomber et perir lente- 
ment?"; and that Goertz has returned 
from Nijmegen 6C Veritablement et au 
pied de la lettre rebus infectis." This 
letter is among those listed as missing 
in Dipl. Corr., 1783-89, m, 541; al- 
though dated 1 Jan. it includes a con- 
tinuation of events in Holland up 
through 6 Jan. 1787. 

letter from TJ to Jay, 27 May 1786, 
which TJ claimed was **mutilated" in 
its publication in American newspapers. 
Dumas may have spoken to Luzac about 
suppressing the piece if it should come 
to him, as TJ had requested, for 
there is no letter recorded in Dumas' 
letter book covering this subject, and 
none has been found in the Luzac Pa- 
pers at the University of Leiden. The 
present letter was enclosed in one to 


5 JANUARY 1787 

Brantzen, ambassador of the States (indiscrete)] a etre ouvertes en chemin. 

General at Versailles, to whom Dumas Je prends la Liberte" de commencer 

wrote on 4 Jan. 1787 asking- permission par 1'incluse sous le couvert de V.E., 

to continue the practice for the time esp&rant que V.E. me la pardonnera 

being: "J'ai besoin d'ecrire quelques et me permettra de la continuer" (FC, 

Lettres & Mr. Jefferson et de les sous- Rijksarchief, The Hague, Dumas Pa- 

traire pendant quelques temps [. . . pers; photostats in DLC). 

To William Jones 

SIR Paris Jan. 5. 1787. 

When I had the pleasure of seeing you in London, I mentioned 
to you that the affairs of Mr. Wayles's estate were left to be 
ultimately settled by Mr. Eppes, the only acting executor; that I 
had left in his hands also and in those of a Mr. Lewis the part of 
Mr. Wayles's estate which came to me, together with my own: 
that they were first to clear off some debts which had been neces- 
sarily contracted during the war, and would after that apply the 
whole profits to the paiment of my part of Mr. Wayles^s debt to 
you, and to a debt of mine to Kippen & co. of Glasgow. Being 
anxious to begin the paiment of these two debts, and finding that 
it would be too long postponed if the residuary ones were to be 
paid merely from the annual profits of the estate, a number of 
slaves have been sold, and I have lately received information from 
Messrs. Eppes and Lewis that the proceeds of that sale, with the 
profits of the estate to the end of 178 1. 1 would pay off the whole 
of the residuary debts. As we are now therefore clear of embarass- 
ment to pursue our principal object, I am desirous of arranging 
with you, such just and practicable conditions as will ascertain 
to you the terms at which you will receive my part of your debt, 
and give me the satisfaction of knowing that you are contented. 
What the laws of Virginia are, or may be, will in no wise influence 
my conduct. Substantial justice is my object, as decided by reason, 
and not by authority or compulsion. 

The first question which arises is as to the article of interest. 
For all the time preceding the war, and all subsequent to it, I think 
it reasonable that interest should be paid; but equally unreasonable 
during the war. Interest is a compensation for the use of money. 
Your money in my hands is in the form of lands and negroes. From 
these, during the war, no use, no profits could be derived. Tobacco 
is the article they produce. That can only be turned into money at 
a foreign market. But the moment it went out of our ports for that 
purpose, it was captured either by the king's ships or by those of 


5 JANUARY 1787 

individuals. The consequence was that tobacco, worth from twenty 
to thirty shillings the hundred, sold generally in Virginia during 
the war for five shillings. This price it is known will not maintain 
the labourer and pay his taxes. There was no surplus of profit 
then to pay an interest. In the mean while we stood insurers of the 
lives of the labourers and of the ultimate issue of the war. He who 
attempted during the war to remit either his principal or interest, 
must have expected to remit three times to make one paiment; 
because it is supposed that two out of three parts of the shipments 
were taken. It was not possible then for the debtor to derive any 
profit from the money which might enable him to pay an interest, 
nor yet to get rid of the principal by remitting it to his creditor. 
With respect to the Creditors in Great Britain they mostly turned 
their attention to privateering, and, arming the vessels they had 
before emploied in trading with us, they captured on the seas, not 
only the produce of the farms of their debtors, but of those of the 
whole state. They thus paid themselves by capture more than their 
annual interest and we lost more. Some merchants indeed did not 
engage in privateering. These lost their interest but we did not 
gain it. It fell into the hands of their countrymen. It cannot there- 
fore be demanded of us. As between these merchants and their 
debtors it is the case where, a loss being incurred, each party may 
justifiably endeavor to shift it from himself. Each has an equal 
right to avoid it. One party can never expect the other to yeild a 
thing to which he has as good a right as the demander. We even 
think he has a better right than the demander in the present in- 
stance. This loss has been occasioned by the fault of the nation 
which was creditor. Our right to avoid it then stands on less 
exceptionable ground than theirs. But it will be said that each 
party thought the other the aggressor. In these disputes there is but 
one umpire, and that has decided the question where the world 
in general thought the right laid. 

Besides these reasons in favor of the general mass of debtors, 
I have some peculiar to my own case. In the year 1776. before a 
shilling of paper money was issued, I sold lands to the amount of 
4200 in order to pay these two debts. I offered the bonds of the 
purchasers to your agent Mr. Evans, if he would acquit me, and 
accept of the purchasers as debtors, in my place. They were as 
sure as myself. Had he done it, these debts, being turned over to 
you, would have been saved to you by the treaty of peace. But he 
declined it. Great sums of paper money were afterwards issued. 
This depreciated, and paiment was made me in this money when 


5 JANUARY 1787 

months more will be little enough to send it to Europe, or to sell 
it in Virginia and remit the money. So that I could not safely answer 
for placing the proceeds in your hands till the month of August, 
and so annually every August afterwards till the debt shall be 
paid. It will always be both my interest and my wish to get it to you 
as much sooner as possible, and probably a part of it may always 
be paid some months sooner. If the assigning the profits in general 
terms may seem to you too vague, I am willing to fix the annual 
paiment at a sum certain. But that I may not fall short of my en- 
gagement, I shall name it somewhat less than I suppose may be 
counted on. I shall fix your part at four hundred pounds sterling 
annually. And as you know our crops of tobacco to be incertain, 
I should reserve a right if they fall short one year, to make it up 
the ensuing one, without being supposed to have failed in my en- 
gagement. But every other year at least all arrearages shall be 
fully paid up. 

My part of this debt of Mr. Wayles's estate being one third, I 
should require that in proportion as I pay my third, I shall stand 
discharged as to the other two thirds, so that the painient of every 
hundred pounds shall discharge me as to three hundred pounds 
of the undivided debt. The other gentlemen have equal means 
of paying, equal desires, and more skill in affairs. Their parts of 
the debt therefore are at least as sure as mine: and my great object 
is, in case of any accident to myself, to leave my family uninvolved 
with any matters whatever. 

I do not know what the balance of this debt is. The last account 
current I saw was before the war, making the whole balance, 
principal and interest somewhere about nine thousand pounds: and 
after this there were upwards of four hundred hogsheads of tobacco 
and some paiments in money to be credited. However this settle- 
ment can admit of no difficulty: and in the mean time the paiments 
may proceed without affecting the right of either party to have a 
just settlement. 

Upon the whole then I propose that on your part you relinquish 
the claim to interest during the war, say from the commencement 
of hostilities April 19. 1775. to their cessation April 19. 1783. 
being exactly eight years: and that in proportion as I pay my third 
I shall be acquitted as to the other two thirds. On my part I take 
on myself the loss of the paper money deposited in the treasury, I 
agree to pay interest previous and subsequent to the war, and 
oblige myself to remit to you for that and the principal four hun- 
dred pounds sterling annually, till my third of the whole debt 


5 JANUARY 1787 

shall be fully paid; and I will begin these paiments in August of 
the next year. 

If you think proper to accede to these propositions, be so good 
as to say so at the foot of a copy of this letter. On my receipt of 
that, I will send you an acknowlegement of it, which shall render 
this present letter obligatory on me. In which case you may count 
on my faithful execution of this undertaking. 

I have the honour to be with great respect Sir Your most obedient 
& most humble servant, TH: JEFFERSON 

RC (NN); endorsed. PrC (DLC). 
Entry in SJL reads: "[Jan.] 5. Jones 
Wm. (Bristol)," to distinguish him 
from William Jones of London. TJ en- 
closed a second PrC OF THIS LETTER as 
he did in his to McCaul of 4 Jan. 1787, 
but it has not been found. 

When the question of TJ's debts to 
British merchants (and those that de- 
volved upon him in the Wayles estate) 

became political matters at a later date, 
this letter was "produced in court by 
Jones's agent, and afterwards published 
in the Aurora," whence it was also 
published by John Wood, History of 
the Administration of John Adams, 
New York, 1802, p. 

i Thus in MS; 1786 was intended; 
see TJ to McCaul, 4 Jan. 1787. 

From Chartier de Lotbiniere 

Paris, rue de Bourgogne No. 75, au Coin de la rue de Varenne, 
5 Jan. 1787. Asks TJ for an appointment during the next week to 
confer about a letter he had received from John Jay, dated 15 Aug. 

within any of the states had to be 
determined by its laws and that Con- 
gress could not with propriety inter- 
fere in such matters; he promised to 
give his "friendly attentions" to Lot- 
bini&re's son, but added: "In this Coun- 
try protection and personal Influence, 
whether more or less, are no avail in 
our judicial proceedings and decisions, 
which are entirely directed and gov- 
erned by the Laws of the Land" ( copies 
of this exchange were sent by Lot- 
biniere to Vergennes, and are to be 
found in Arch. Aft*. Etr., Corr. Pol., 
E.-U., xxxi; Tr in DLC). 

RC (DLC); 2 p.; in French; endorsed. 
Not recorded in SJL. 

Jay's letter was in response to one 
from LotbiniSre of 11 Mch. 1786 con- 
cerning his claim to the seigniories of 
Alainville and Hocquart on Lake Cham- 
plain, a subject, he reminded Jay, that 
Vergennes took a great interest in and 
had more than once recommended to 
the attention of the United States. 
LotbiniSre had also urged Jay to give 
the benefit of his protection to his son 
who was coming to America to claim 
lands in Massachusetts. Jay replied that 
all titles and claims to lands lying 

To Samuel Osgood 

DEAR SIR Paris Jan. 5. 1787. 

I am desired to forward to you the inclosed queries, and to ask 
the favor of you to give such an answer to them as may not give 
you too much trouble. Those which stand foremost on the paper 
can be addressed only to your complaisance; but the last may 

t 18} 

5 JANUARY 1787 

possibly be interesting to your department, and to the United 
states: I mean those which suggest the possibility of borrowing 
money in Europe, the principal of which shall be ultimately paiable 
in land, and in the mean time a good interest. You know best 
whether the suggestion can be turned to any profit, and whether it 
will be worth while to introduce any proposition to Congress 
thereon. Among the possible shapes into which a matter of this 
kind may be formed, the following is one. Let us suppose the public 
lands to be worth a dollar, hard money, the acre. If we should 
ask of a monied man the loan of 100 dollars, paiable with 100 
acres of land at the end of 10. years, and in the mean time an 
interest of 5. per cent, this would be more disadvantageous to the 
lender than a common loan paiable ultimately in cash. But if we 
should say we will deliver you the 100 acres of land immediately, 
which is in fact an immediate paiment of the principal, and will 
nevertheless pay your interest of 5. per cent for 10. years, this 
offers a superior advantage, and might tempt money holders. But 
what should we in fact receive in this way for our lands? 37J dollars 
being left in Europe on an interest of 5. per cent would pay an- 
nually the interest of the 100 for 10^. years. There would remain 
then only 62f dollars for the 100 acres of land, that is to say about 
two thirds of it's price. Congress can best determine whether any 
circumstances in our situation should induce us to get rid of any 
of our debts in that way. I beg you to understand that I have 
named rates of interest, term of paiment and price of land merely 
to state the case, and without the least knowlege that a loan could 
be obtained on these terms. It remains to inform you from whom 
this suggestion comes. The person from whom I receive them is 
a Monsr. Claviere, connected with the monied men of Amsterdam. 
He is, on behalf of a company there, actually treating with the 
Comptroller general here for the purchase of our debt to this coun- 
try at a considerable discount. Whether he has in idea any thing 
like a loan to us on terms such as I have above spoken of I know 
not; nor do I know that he is authorised to make the suggestion he 
has made. If the thing should be deemed worthy the attention of 
Congress, they can only consider it as a possibility and take meas- 
ures to avail themselves of it if the possibility turns out in their 
favor, and not to be disappointed if it does not. Clavier e's proposi- 
tion not being formal enough for me to make an official communica- 
tion of it, you will make what use of it you see best. I am with very 
sincere esteem & attachment, Dear Sir, your most obedient & most 
humble servant, TH: JEFFERSON 


5 JANUARY 1787 

PrC (DLC). Enclosure: Queries concerning: the public funds of the United 
States, printed above as enclosure to Brissot de Warville to TJ t 4 Jan. 1787. 

From Jose da Maia 

MONSEGNEUR & Montpellier 5 de Janvier 1787 

La nouvelle, que je viens d'avoir ITtioneur de recevoir de Votre 
voyage dans cette partie de France, m'a fait un tres grand plaisir, 
et je m'en felicite; puisque je voyols, qu'il m'etoit tres essential 
d'avoir Fhoneur de Vous parler, et 1'etat de ma santfi ne me per- 
mettoit pas de faire le voyage de Paris* Si je pouvois savoir le jour 
de Votre arriv6e a. Nismes, et votre logement, je ne manquerois 
pas d'avoir Phoneur d'y aller Vous rencontrer, ce que je suis pret 
& faire dans quelque autre, oft il Vous fair a plaisir: et pour cela 
je n'attends que Vos commandemens. En attendant je me flate 
d'etre avec le plus grand respect Monsegneur Votre tres humble 
et obeissant serviteur, VENDER 

RC (DLC); endorsed. Entry in SJL, noting its receipt on 15 Jan. 1787, reads: 
"Vendek (Maya Barbalho Dr) Monpelier Jan. 5." See TJ to Jose" da Maia, 26 
Dec. 1786. 

From Thomas Barclay 

DEAR SIR Alicante 6th. Janry. 1787. 

The inclos'd letter to you and Mr. Adams of this date contains 
every thing that occurs relative to my business here, and the Day 
after tomorrow I shall leave it and remain at Madrid untill I can 
decide on the necessity of going to Coruila. The objects there are 
the Effects belonging to the United States left by Mr. Guillon 
and the proceeds of some prizes carried in by Capt. Cunyingham. 
It is three years since attempts have been made to settle these 
matters by correspondence and from appearances at present Noth- 
ing but an application to this Government will extort it. After 
consulting Mr. Carmichael I will abide by his opinion. I have 
been for some time a little uneasy respecting your state of health, 
but as Col: Franks has written ine a few lines I think it probable 
if you had been indisposed he wouM have mentioned it. I sincerely 
wish you many returns of the year attended with Health and Hap- 
piness. When Col: Franks left Spain for Paris I paid him 1266 
livres for which he promised to account with you. After deducting 
his Expences the balance will not be great but you will have the 

6 JANUARY 1787 

Goodness to receive it, or to save you trouble he may pay it to Mrs. 
Barclay. He also promis'd to place in your hands as soon as he 
wou'd get to Paris an account of his last voyage from America. But 
as he does not mention either of these Settlements I take it for 
granted they are neither of them Made. Inclosed is a letter for 
him which please to send and if agreeable, you will have the 
Goodness to tell him there is a necessity for his furnishing the 
account of his voyage to Europe. 

It will give me great pleasure to receive a line from you under 
cover to Mr. CarmichaeL Mean time I am Dr. Sir Your most obedt. 
hble. Servant, THOS BARCLAY 

RC (DLC); in an unidentified Hand, signed by Barclay; endorsed. Recorded in 
SJL as received 27 Jan. 1787. Enclosures: (1) Barclay to the Commissioners, 
6 Jan. 1787. (2) A letter to Franks, presumably from Barclay, not found. 

Thomas Barclay to the American 

GENTLEMEN Alicante 6 Jany. 1787 

I Have Not had the pleasure of addressing You since My ar- 
rival at this place, being hitherto without any thing to say worth 
Your Attention. Mr. Lamb was Embarked for Minorca before I 
got here, but as he is in Correspondance with Mr. Montgomery, 
I was in hopes of learning through that Channel, the possibility 
of our Meeting before I shou'd return to France, a Matter that 
I am of opinion might have been attended with some Advantages. 
But the Letters which he has lately written Hold out Nothing, and 
therefore I Contented My self with writing to him the Motives 
which Induced me to Come here, and am without any Expectation 
of seeing him. As the Spanish Portugueze and Neapolitan Ministers 
were preparing to Embark from Carthagena, I went and passed 
one Day at that place in hopes of learning something that Might 
be useful, and I took that opportunity of Impressing on the 
Mind of the Count D'Espilly, some Matters that had before been 
talked over at Madrid and the Escurial, and I left him seemingly in 
the Best Disposition towards our People at Algiers, and very 
Ready to obey the Instructions Concerning us which the Count 
de Florida Blanca had given him. Since my Return from Carthagena 
I have Received letters from thence informing me that the Count 
DTEspilly has Orders from Court not to proceed to Algiers without 
Further Instructions, as the Plague is at Constantina within Fifty 


6 JANUARY 1 787 

leagues of that place. But as it was lately reported that the Dey, 
who is very far advanced in Years was much Indisposed, it is 
no ways Improbable that this Circumstance may have had its 
weight, for the Knowledge of the Plague being at Constantina is 
Not New. It was Even beleived before I left Africa that the City 
of Bona was Depopulated with that Distemper. However this May 
Be, I most Sincerely wish the Negociations respecting our Country 
Cou'd go Hand in Hand with those of the European Powers, For 
there is no Doubt that when the Barbary States have made peace 
with them, they will Turn all their Views towards Us, and If 
another Capture or Two be made, the Terms of Peace will be 
Risen most Extravagantly. I shall make no appology to you Gentle- 
men for Communicating whatever has occurM to me on this Sub- 
ject, and as it is probable I shall not have occasion again to Resume 
it, I will now add that I know No American subject in Spain or 
France Mr. Jefferson is out of the Question So adequate to the 
Task of negociating at Algiers, as is Mr. Carmichael. I am Per- 
fectly Convinced that when it is Renewed He ought if Possible to 
undertake it and I Beg leave to Recommend this Hint to Your 
serious Consideration. I am sure Mr. Carmichael has No objects 
under his Care half so Interesting, and if His situation will permit, 
he ought Not to Hestitate. 

I wish much to Know your sentiments of the Treaty with 
Morocco. Though it is Not Quite as Good as I Desire, It is as much 
so as I Cou'd make it. I Beg you will Favor me with Your Opinion 
when you are at Leisure. The answer from Coruna is what I Feared 
it wou'd beNo ways Decisive. It is Two or Three Years since 
Mr. Carmichael Endeavord to Procure a Settlement, and I much 
Fear I shall be obliged to Go and Force one. 

I am with Great Respect and Esteem Gentlemen Your Most 
obed. and Very Huml. Servant, THOS BARCLAY 

RC (DLC); addressed: "Their Excellencies John Adams and Thomas Jef- 
ferson Esqrs. Paris"; endorsed by TJ. Tr (DNA: PCC, No. 107, i). Recorded 
in SJL as received 27 Jan. 1787. 

From S. 8c J. H. Delap 

SIR Bordeaux 6 January 1787 

In the month of March 1785, Thomas Barclay Esquire ap- 
pointed by the Honorable Congress of the United States of Amer- 
ica to Audit the accounts of the different particulars who trans- 
acted business for that honorable body, called upon us for our 


6 JANUARY 1787 

accounts, which we furnished him to transmit them, and on which 
there is a balance due us of 79945. 4. Tournois; we have since 
been Deprived of any answer, 'tho he gave us every reason to ex- 
pect we should be immediately paid. We have therefore to request 
your letting us know, if you have received any orders relative to 
the payment of our account, or to whom we are to apply for same. 
Our present situation is such, that it absolutely requires our tak- 
ing some active measures to extricate ourselves from the Em- 
barras, into which we were plunged by the great advances we 
entered into, for Numbers of Gentlemen on your Continent, who 
since our misfortunes have never deigned to remit us a Sous or even 
answer our letters. There is due us by private persons in America 
upwards of Four hundred Thousand livers Tournois, exclusive of 
what the Congress owes us, payable in France, and about Three 
hundred Thousand Dollars that we are possessed of in Loan Of- 
fice certificates &c. We should esteem it a particular favor when 
you do us the honor of answering us, to let us know if there is 
any prospect of this paper ever being paid, and on what footing. 
For your Government we hand you inclosed Copy of the account 
settled with Thomas Barclay Esqr. to whom we exhibited the 
different orders of Congress in vertue of which we made these 

We have the honor to be with great respect Sir, Your most 
obedient Humble Servants, S & J. H. DELAP 

RC (DLC); endorsed. Recorded in SJL as received 17 Jan. 1787. Enclosure: 
Account of S. & J. H. Delap with the U.S. to 7 Mch. 1785 (DLC), showing: 
balance due of 79,945 livres tournois. 

From Jean Nicolas Derneunier 

Rue Ste Anne no. 87 Le 6 Janvier 

Les abonnes au Sallon des Echecs ont regu une Lettre pareille & 
Celle qu'a regu Monsieur Jefferson. On est Le Maitre de ne pas 
renouveller Son abonnement, et M. D6meunier dira que Les affaires 
et L'eloignement de Monsieur Jefferson ne Lui permettent pas de 
renouveller Le Sien. 

On Sera Fach de perdre L'esperance de voir Monsieur Jef- 
ferson, Mais c'est une chose toute simple, dent il ne doit pas 
s'occuper davantage. M. D&meunier Le prie d'agrer mille Tendres 
et respectueux Complimens. II desire toujours LTiistoire du nouvel 
hampshire et M. Massei qui L'a emprunt6 devroit bien L'envoygr 


6 JANUARY 1787 

Rue Ste aime no. 87 ou Faire dire, quel Jour, et en quel endroit, on 
pourroit L'envoyer chercher. 

ES. M. Dmeunier en rendant Justice a La Constitution du 
nouvel hampshire qui Lui paroit trs belle, et d'une precision et 
d\me nettete remarquables, S'est permis de demander, Si elle a 
Form Le Conseil executif de La Maniere La plus avantageuse? 
Pour Separer davantage Les individus qui exercent La puissance 
Legislative, Judiciaire, ou executrice, il est Tent de croire, qtfon 
Auroit du choisir pour Les Membres du Conseil executif des 
hommes qui ne Fussent ni dans Le Senat, ni dans La chambre des 
reprsentans; il voit bien Les raisons qui ont determine Le nouvel 
hampshire, et Les Autres provinces, mais il voit aussi beaucoup de 
raisons en Faveur de L'opinion Contraire, et il voit surtout une 
petite Contradiction, avec Les articles de declarations des droits, 
qui ordonnent expressement de separer Les trois pouvoirs, et de 
Les separer Le plus qu'il est possible. 

M. D6meunier Soumet cette ide aux Lumieres de Monsieur 
Jefferson; il seroit bien Aise de Savoir, Si on ri'y a pas Song6; ou 
Si on y a Song6, pourquoi on ne L'a pas adopt6. 

RC (DLC); endorsed; undated. Not under date of 6 Feb. 1786) and it 
recorded in SJL. The date is established was on 6 Jan. 1786 that Dfimeunier 
by internal evidence; e.g., TJ was not first wrote him; the letter that TJ re- 
admitted to the SALLON DES ECiiECS ceived in common with other ABONNES 
until Feb. 1786 (see Account Book has not been found. 

From Ferdinand Grand 

MONSIEUR Paris le 6. Janvier 1787. 

J'ai Phonneur de vous informer que Mrs. Hy. Fizeaux & Cie. se 
sont prgvalus sur moi le ler. de ce mois pour le 11 avril de 
5679.1.6. qu'ils m'avisent etre pour compte des Etats unis. 
Veuillez me faire savoir, Monsieur, si je dois acceuillir cette traitte 
et en d6biter les tats. 

JTai Thonneur d'etre avec une parfaite consideration Monsieur 
Votre tres humble & tres obissant Serviteur, GRAND 

RC (DLC); endorsed. Not recorded in SJL. 

To Abigail Adams 

{Paris, 7 Jan. 1787. Recorded in SJL under this date. Not found; 
but see Mrs. Adams' reply, 29 Jan. 1787.] 


To Calonne 

[SiR] Paris Jan. 7. 1787. 

I had the honour on the 2cL of November last to acknowlege the 
receipt of your Excellency's letter of October the 22d. wherein you 
were so good as to communicate to me the arrangements which the 
king had been pleased to make for the encouragement of the com- 
merce of the United states of America with his subjects. I im- 
mediately made known the same to the Agents of the United States 
in the several seaports of this kingdom, that they might give 
information thereof to the persons concerned in that commerce. 
Unacquainted with the forms in which his Majesty usually declares 
his will in cases of this kind, and the manner in which it is com- 
municated to the Officers of the customs at the seaports, I am 
unable to answer those agents who inform me that the officers of 
the customs and fauns do not as yet consider themselves bound 
to conform to the new regulations. I take the liberty therefore of sol- 
liciting your Excellency's interposition for the issuing such orders 
as may be necessary for carrying into effect the gracious intentions 
of the king, and of repeating the assurance of those sentiments of 
perfect respect and esteem with which I have the honour to be your 
Excellency's most obedient & most humble servant, 


PrC (DLC). menting Calonne's regulations of 22 

Oct. 1786, see Short to TJ, 4 Apr. 

THOSE AGENTS WHO INFORM: ME: See, 1787; Short to Jay, 4 May 1787; TJ 
among- others, Boylston to TJ, 2 Jan. to Jay, 21 June 1787; Villedeuil to 
1787 and Le Couteulx to TJ, 3 Jan. TJ, 2 July 1787; Barrett to TJ, 11 
1787. On the whole problem of imple- July 1787. 

To Colonia 

7me. Janvier 1787. 

Monsieur Jefferson avoit Phonneur, il y a quelques jours de f aire 
passer a Monsieur de Colonia un passeport pour Pexpedition des 
armes k 1'etat de Virginie, sign6 par sa majeste" le roi, mais man- 
quant la signature de son excellence Monsieur le Comtrolleur 
general: et il prenoit la liberte* de supplier Monsieur de Colonia de 
lui procurer la signature de ce Ministre. Peut il oser de le prier, 
quand cette f ormalite* sera suppl6e, de vouloir bien lui f aire repasser 
le passeport par le moyen de la petite poste? II a 1'honneur de lui 
renouveller les assurances de sa consideration distingu6e pour lui. 

PrC (DLC); endorsed. 


To Matthew Boulton 

Paris Jan. 8. 1787. 

Mr. Jefferson's compliments to Mr. Boulton and will beg the 
favor of him, when he shall be arrived in England, to have an 
estimate made of the cost of the underwritten articles, plated in 
the best manner, with a plain bead, and to send him the estimate to 
Paris. If Mr. Jefferson should on the estimate decide to buy them, 
he will take the liberty of addressing a letter to Mr. Boulton for 

2. Soup-terreens middlesized, say 11. Inches long. 
2. dishes for the terreens to stand in, 
10. dishes, round, of 10 J Inches diameter. 
2. dishes, oval, 16 I. long, 10J I. wide. 
4. dishes, oval, 12 I. long, 9 I. wide. 

PrC (MHi)j endorsed. 

From Duler 

Rouen, 8 Jan. 1787. TJ's letter has emboldened him to state that he 
did not expect aid in securing a position in "any Bureau at Paris"; hopes 
he can secure a position in England or France "in some of the American 
affairs" or possibly "a place of Consul for the french nation in some of 
the American Ports"; sends testimonial as to character from D'Anmours 
of Baltimore, which, though in French, he thinks TJ may "perfectly 
understand" and which he asks to have returned; can supply other testi- 
monials respecting "my morals and Capacity in the line of trade and 
sea affairs." 

RC (DLC); 2 p.; endorsed. Recorded in SJL as received 10 Jan. 1787. En- 
closure not found. 

From R. 8c A. Garvey 

SIR Rouen 8 January 1787 

We are desired by Mr. Thorns. Boylston to apply to your Excel- 
lency, and to beg the favour of you, to take such Measures as may 
be necessary, to secure him the repayment of the duties which he 
paid last year on his oil, which is an object of 9252: its in 
Consequence of the letter M. de Callonne wrote your Excellency 
the 22d. of last October, which you forwarded me the 29th. same 
Month, that Mr. Boylston thinks himself entitled to call for said 
restitution; we cant say in what light his demand May be seen, 


9 JANUARY 1787 

but we think that its possible he May recover the Money under 
the Patronage and protection of your Excellency. We have the 
Honour to be Sir Your Excellencys most humble & most obedient 
Servants, ROBT. & ANT. GARVEY 

RC (MHi); endorsed. Recorded in SJL as received 11 Jan. 1787. 

From Q W. F. Dumas 

MONSIEUR Lahaie 9e. Janv. 1787 

En consequence de ma derniere, qui doit Stre parvenue a V.E, 

par Mr. Brantsen, sous le couvert de qui je L'ai mise, je me propose 

d'aller 111 oft j'ai dit, sonder le terrain discretement, dans 5 ou 6 

jours d'ici. 

Dds que Votre Excellence saura quelque chose de positif sur 

1'accession finale et complete de PEtat de N. York, aux mesures des 

autres, il sera bon et il importe qu'Elle Veuille bien m'en donner 

connoissance d'abord. 

Je suis toujours avec grand respect, De Votre Excellence Le 

trs-humble & tres-obeissant Serviteur, C W F DUMAS 

RC (DLC). FC (Rijksarchief, The Hague, Dumas Papers; photostats in DLC). 
Recorded in SJL as received 14 Jan. 1787. Evidently this also was enclosed in 
one to MR. BRANTSEN (see note to Dumas to TJ, 5 Jan. 1787). 

From George Gilmer 

DEAR SIR Pen Park 9th. January 1787 

Your kind attention to me in sending the Vegitable system gave 
me great pleasure; and could only have been increased by a line 
from you. This may be a reproof for my inattention that you may 
have thought me guilty of, in not writing to you. Believe I have 
often wrote, 'and should more frequent could my sheding ink 
furnish you one moments satisfaction, but too late have I discovered 
the misfortune of not laying up a large stock of contemplative 
treasure, the true foundation of all sublunary satisfaction. A large 
purchass of this fund, might have given me powers that would 
have merited your friendship, but as I can have no claim from the 
head, let a warm and affectionate heart, beg the continuance of 
your esteem, which reluctates your distance, and augures from 
your sweet little olive branch intending for Paris must lament a 
long absence. This Idea is the more distressing at this period 

9 JANUARY 1787 

a title to the said estate then I direct the same to be conveyed to 
my sister Hannah Lambert if she in her lifetime can acquire prop- 
erty in this country. 

But if the said John Harmer, John Lambert and Hannah Lam- 
bert should all die before they can acquire any property legally 
in this country then I desire that my trustees aforesaid may cause 
the said Estate of every kind to be sold and the money arising from 
each sale together with intermediate profits of the said estate shall 
be by them remitted to the Mayor and Corporation of the City 
of Bristol in England to be by them distributed according to the 
laws of England to the right Heirs of my said Sister Hannah 
Lambert to whom I hereby give all such excepting the sum of one 
hundred pounds lawful money to each of the aforementioned 
trustees, which shall be paid out of the first money arising from 
the sales aforementioned or from the profits arising to my heirs, 
in witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand and affixed my 
seal this twenty fifth day of June one thousand seven hundred and 
eighty two. 

RC (DLC); unsigned; endorsed: and now for the first time discover 

**Gilmer George." Recorded in SJL as marks of it's being yours." There is 

received 11 June 1787. no endorsement or deleted endorsement 

Despite the abrupt ending of this on the letter save that indicated above, 

letter and the absence of a signature or but TJ's first and erroneous endorse- 

a complementary close, it is clear that ment was probably made on the ad- 

this is the whole of the text as TJ re- dress leaf which- as was the case with 

ceived it. For, in his reply of 12 Aug. so many of the address leaves of letters 

1787, TJ described it as unsigned and written to TJ was later detached and 

said that for this and other reasons he used for scrap paper. The SWEET LIT- 

had ascribed the letter to John Harmer TLE OLIVE BRANCH was Mary Jeffer- 

and had so endorsed it. He added: "I son, who was, however reluctantly, IN- 

sat down to answer it to John Harmer, TENDING FOR PARIS. 

To John Jay 

SIR Paris Jan. 9. 1787. 

My last of Dec. 31. acknowleged the receipt of yours of Oct. 12. 
as the present does those of Oct. 3d. 9th. and 27th. together with 
the resolution of Congress of Octob. 16. on the claim of Shweig- 
hauser. I will proceed in this business on the return of Mr. Barclay, 
who being fully acquainted with all the circumstances, will be 
enabled to give me that information the want of which might 
lead me to do wrong on the one side or the other. 

Information of the signature of the treaty with Marocco has 
been long on it's passage to you. I will beg leave to recur to dates, 
that you may see that no part of it has been derived from me. The 


9 JANUARY 1787 

first notice I had of it was in a letter from Mr. Barclay dated Daral- 
beyda August llth. I received this on the 13th. of September. No 
secure conveyance offered till the 26th. of the same month, being 
13. days after my receipt of it. In my letter of that date, which went 
by the way of London, I had the honour to inclose you a copy of 
Mr. Barclay's letter. The conveyance of the treaty itself is suffering 
a delay here at present, which all my anxiety cannot prevent. Colo. 
Franks's baggage, which came by water from Cadiz to Rouen, has 
been long and hourly expected. The moment it arrives he will set 
out to London to have duplicates of the treaty signed by Mr, Adams, 
and from thence he will proceed to New-York. The 

Chevalier del Pinto, who treated with us on behalf of Portugal, 
being resident at London, I have presumed that the causes of the 
delay of that treaty had been made known to Mr. Adams, and by 
him communicated to you. I will write to him by Colo. Franks in 
order that you may be answered on that subject. 

The publication of the inclosed extract from my letter of May 
27. 1786. will, I fear, have very mischeivous effects. It will tend 
to draw on the Count de Vergennes the formidable phalanx of the 
Farms: to prevent his committing himself to ine in any conversation 
which he does not mean for the publick papers: to inspire the same 
diffidence into all other ministers with whom I might have to 
transact business: to defeat the little hope, if any hope existed, of 
getting rid of the farm on the article of tobacco; and to damp that 
freedom of communication which the resolution of Congress of 
May 3. 1784. was intended to reestablish. 

Observing by the proceedings of Congress that they are about 
to establish a coinage, I think it my duty to inform them, that a 
Swiss, of the name of Drost, established here, has invented a 
method of striking the two faces and the edge of a coin at one 
stroke. By this and other simplifications of the process of coinage 
he is enabled to coin from 25000 to 30000 peices a day, with the 
assistance of only two persons, the peices of metal being first pre- 
pared. I send you by Colo. Franks three coins of gold, silver and 
copper, which you will percieve to be perfect medals: and I can 
assure you from having seen him coin many, that every peice 
is as perfect as these. There has certainly never yet been seen any 
coin, in any country, comparable to this. The best workmen in this 
way acknolege that his is like a new art. Coin should always be 
made in the highest perfection possible because it is a great guard 
against the danger of false coinage. This man would be willing 
to furnish his implements to Congress, and if they please, he will 


9 JANUARY 1787 

go over and instruct a person to carry on the work: nor do I beleive 
he would ask any thing unreasonable. It would be very desireable 
that in the institution of a new coinage, we could set out on so 
perfect a plan as this, and the more so, as while the work is so 
exquisitely done, it is done cheaper. 

I will certainly do the best I can for the reformation of the 
Consular Convention, being persuaded that our states would be very 
unwilling to conform their laws either to the Convention, or to 
the Scheme. But it is too difficult, and too delicate to form sanguine 
hopes. However that there may be room to reduce the convention as 
much as circumstances will admit, will it not be expedient for 
Congress to give me powers, in which there shall be no reference 
to the scheme? The powers sent me, oblige me to produce that 
scheme, and certainly the moment it is produced, they will not 
abate a tittle from it. If they recollect the scheme and insist on it, 
we can but conclude it: but if they have forgotten it (which may be) 
and are willing to reconsider the whole subject, perhaps we may 
get rid of something the more of it. As the delay is not injurious to 
us, because the Convention whenever and however made is to put 
us in a worse state than we are in now, I shall venture to defer say- 
ing a word on the subject till I can hear from you in answer to 
this. The full powers may be sufficiently guarded by private instruc- 
tions to me not to go beyond the former scheme. This delay may be 
well enough ascribed (whenever I shall have received new powers) 
to a journey I had before apprised the minister that I should be 
obliged to take to some mineral waters in the South of France, to 
see if by their aid I may recover the use of my right hand, of which 
a dislocation about 4. months ago threatens to deprive me in a 
great measure. The Surgeons have long insisted on this measure. 
I shall return by Bourdeaux, Nantes and Lorient to get the neces- 
sary information for finishing our commercial regulations here. 
Permit me however to ask as immediately as possible an answer 
either affirmative or negative as Congress shall think best, and to 
ascribe the delay on which I venture to my desire to do what is 
for the best. 

I send you a copy of the late Marine regulations of this country. 
There are things in it which may become interesting to us. Par- 
ticularly what relates to the establishment of a marine militia, and 
their classification. 

You will have seen in the publick papers that the king has 
called an Assembly of the Notables of his country. This has not 
been done for 160 years past. Of course it calls up all the attention 


9 JANUARY 1787 

of the people. The objects of this assembly are not named. Several 
are conjectured. The tolerating the Protestant religion; removing 
all the internal custom houses to the frontier; equalising the gabels 
on salt thro' the kingdom; the sale of the king's domains to raise 
money; or finally the effecting this necessary end by some other 
means, are talked of. But in truth nothing is known about it. This 
government practises secrecy so systematically that it never pub- 
lishes it's purposes or it's proceedings sooner or more extensively 
than necessary. I send you a pamphlet which giving an account of 
the last Assemble des notables, may give an idea of what the pres- 
ent will be. 

A great desire prevails here of encouraging manufactures. The 
famous Boulton & Watts, who are at the head of the plated manu- 
factures of Birmingham, the steam mills of London, Copying 
presses and other mechanical works, have been here. It is said 
also that Wedgwood has been here, who is famous for his steel 
manufactories and an earthen ware in the antique stile: but as to 
this last person I am not certain. It cannot, I believe, be doubted, 
but that they came at the request of government, and that they 
will be induced to establish similar manufactures here. The trans- 
ferring hither those manufactures which contribute so much to 
draw our commerce to England, will have a great tendency to 
strengthen our connections with this country, and loosen them with 

The enfranchising the port of Honfleur at the mouth of the 
Seine, for multiplying the connections with us, is at present an 
object. It meets with opposition in the ministry; but I am in hopes 
it will prevail. If natural causes operate, uninfluenced by accidental 
circumstances, Bourdeaux and Honfleur or Havre must ultimately 
take the greatest part of our commerce. The former by the Garonne 
and canal of Languedoc opens the Southern provinces to us, the 
latter the Northern ones and Paris. Honfleur will be peculiarly 
advantageous for our rice, and whale oil, of which the principal 
consumption is at Paris. Being free, they can be re-exported when 
the market here shall happen to be overstocked. 

The labours of the ensuing summer will close the Eastern half 
of the harbour of Cherbourg, which will contain and protect forty 
sail of the line. It has from 50 to 35 feet water next to the cones, 
shallowing gradually to the shore. Between this and Dunkirk the 
navigation of the channel will be rendered much safer in the event 
of a war with England, and invasions on that country become more 


9 JANUARY 1787 

The gazettes of France and Leyden to the present date accom- 
pany this. I have the honour to be with sentiments of the most 
perfect esteem & respect, Sir, your most obedient & most humble 
servant, TH: JEFFERSON 

mer and fall of 1834, lie arranged, 
bound (mounted), and prepared *a 
summary descriptive list 7 of the Papers 
of the Continental Congress. The Jef- 
ferson despatches for 1787 are not 
mounted with others received from Jef- 
ferson (PCC, No. 87). Weaver's sum- 
mary descriptive list of the papers, 
printed by Blair in 1835 under the title, 
Catalogue of Manuscript Books, states 
moreover, under PCC, No. 87, that 
'most of the correspondence of 1787 is 
missing.' (Information from Dorothy 
Eaton, Library of Congress.) It would 
have been more accurate to say that all 
of the despatches of 1787 from the 
United States Legation in Paris are 
missing- except three from William 
Short. Did "Weaver make a point of 
calling attention to the missing Jeffer- 
son despatches because they had disap- 
peared so recently? We do not know the 
answer. John Laurens' original des- 
patches, January 3 September 6, 1781 
also are missing, yet Weaver fails to 
note the fact." 

TJ did not send THREE COINS OF 
but only those of gold and silver (for 
notes on the experimental "e*cu de 
Calonne" struck by J.-P. Droz, see TJ 
to Jay, 1 Feb. 1787). To the various 


feared as a result of the indiscreet and 
unauthorized publication of his letter 
to Jay might possibly be added the 
very dilatory and reluctant implemen- 
tation of the trade regulations as set 
forth in Calonne's letter to TJ of 22 
Oct. 1786. TJ himself was the author 


MAY 3. 1784. which placed all letters 
of ministers at all times under an in- 
junction of secrecy "except as to such 
parts of them as Congress shall by spe- 
cial permission allow to be published 
or communicated" and Congress had 
on 7 Aug. 1786 taken off "The in- 
junction of Secresy . . . from this letter 
of May 27 from Mr. Jefferson and 
the papers accompanying it as far as 
relates to the tobacco Contract" (Vol. 
7: 207; JCC, XXXI, 488). YOURS OF 
OCT. . . . 9TH was Jay's to the president 
of Congress, not to TJ. 

PrC (DLC). Tr (DNA: PCC, No. 
1O7, l). Enclosures: (1) Extract from 
an unidentified American newspaper 
containing TJ's letter to Jay, 27 May 
1786 (see notes there). (2) The "late 
Marine regulations" that TJ enclosed 
may have been a copy of Ordonnances 
et RSglemens concernant la Marine , 
Paris, 1786 (Sowerby, No. 2222) and 
that relating "to the establishment of 
a marine militia" may have been the 
arrgt of 5 Sep. 1782 for the "creation 
d'une milice maritime" (Recueil Gin- 
eral des Anciennes Lois Frangaises, 
Paris, 1827, xxvn, p. 224, No. 1692). 
(3) The "pamphlet . . . giving an ac- 
count of the last AssemblSe des nota- 
bles" has not been identified. (4) Vari- 
ous unidentified "gazettes of France and 

The recipient's copies of TJ's des- 
patches to Jay from France are missing 
for the year 1787$ only those from Short 
to Jay of 21 Mch., 4 May, and 19 Sep. 
1787 are present hi DNA: PCC, No. 87. 
In the Daily Journals or Despatch Books 
of the Office of Foreign Affairs, 1784- 
1790 (DNA: PCC, No. 127), there are 
entries showing that Jay received eight- 
een despatches from TJ during the year. 
These were dated 9 Jan.; 1, 8, 14 (bis), 
and 23 Feb.; 4 May; 21 June; 6 and 15 
Aug.; 19, 22 (bis), and 24 Sep.; 3 and 
7 Nov.; and 21 and 31 Dec. 1787. The 
following communication to the editors 
from Dr. Carl L. Lokke, Chief of the 
Foreign Affairs Division, the National 
Archives, of 29 Oct. 1954, is of interest: 
<e When did the original despatches of 
1787 disappear? It is possible to pin- 
point the time within a year or two. 
William A. Weaver obviously had the 
despatches at hand (either originals or 
copies) when he compiled the Diplo- 
matic Correspondence of the United 
States of America* 1783-89 (7 vols., 
Washington, 1833-34; new edition, 3 
vols., printed 1837, published 1855), 
as all of them are included in this pub- 
lication except those dated November 7 
and December 21, 1787. (He may have 
had all of them in 1833 and merely de- 
cided not to include these two in the 
publication.) But he did not have the 
original despatches when, in the sum- 


To Pierre Louis Lacretelle 

[Paris, 9 Jan. 1787. Recorded in SJL. Not found; it may possibly 
have related to Lacretelle's Discours sur le prejugg des peines infa- 
mantes, couronnes d PAcademie de Metz, Paris, 1784, of which TJ 
possessed a copy (Sowerby, No. 2362).] 

From Elizabeth Blair Thompson 

Titchfield the 10 of Janry. 87 

Two years last summer I experienced a sever mortification; that 
of not seeing my old friend, and acquaintence Mr: Jefferson, when 
he did me the favor of calling: my stuped servant ought to have 
told you that I was confined up stairs with a little one, (I had 
just lost,) instead of saying I was not at home: that Captn. and 
Miss Thompson was not is true; but had I known you was in the 
house, I should not have denyed my self the pleasure of seeing you, 
and should certainly have interduced you into my Bed Chamber. 
Captn. T. set out the next day in hopes of meeting of you, but had 
the mortification of hearing you were gone: I dont know that I was 
ever more vexed, for believe me I should have rejoyced much to 
see you; and I flatter my self if ever you come to this country 
again, you will do us the favor of spending some time with us; 
where you will always find a sincere welcome. I have not very 
lately heard from, our friends in America, but my last letters was 
from my sister Gary: her Son, and his Amiable Lady were then her 
visitors; and in pretty good health, tho the little Boy had bad Eyes: 
but its most probable you have heard since that account. I wish 
they lived in a more healthy situation then Richneck, where I fear 
they will seldom enjoy health for any time together. You will 
excuse I hope the trouble I am about to give you; which is to beg 
of you (if you can,) to give us some information of Mr. John 
Banister; who we have not heard of for some time: in his last, 
which I think was dated at Nantes, but I am not quite sure, for 
we were involved at the time in great distress, on account of Miss 
Thompson's last illness; one of the most amiable creatures that 
ever Parent was blesst with: she had long been in a decline, and 
she was released the day after Xmas from a \Vorld, where she had 
known little else then pain. In our distress, we have laid his letter, 
where we cannot find it; but I think he does not say where we shall 
find him, and we are very uneasy about him, as he tells us he had 
then another severe attack; and as it is some time since, we fear 


1 1 JANUARY 1787 

he may still be too ill to write. If you can inform us where he is, 
and what state of health he is in; you will greatly oblige us. 

I have never heard what family you have, or if any part of them 
are with you; but I sincerely hope if you have any, they may be 
all comforts to you. Mine is greatly increased, I have two Sons and 
four Daughters living; beside two I lost in their in[fancy.] My 
eldest Son, almost begins to write man; and is ente[ring] our Navy; 
which I hope he will be a credit to. Captn. Thompson, tho he has 
not the pleasure of being known to you, begs to unite with me in 
respectfull good wishes, and believe me: I shall always be happy 
to hear of your welfare, and I am with great sincerity your obliged, 
Friend & Humble St:, ELIZA: THOMPSON 

RC (DL.C); slightly mutilated. Re- WRITE MAN: The allusion is to an ex- 
corded in SJL as received 17 Jan. 1787. pression in Samuel Richardson, The 

"MX SISTER GARY: Sarah Blair (1738- History of Sir Charles Grandison, Lon- 

1804), sister of Elizabeth Blair Thomp- don, 1762, 4th ed., n, Letter iv, p. 48: 

son, was the wife of Wilson Miles Gary. "I never feared man, since I could write 


To John Adams 

DEAR SIR Paris Jan. 11. 1787 

Mr. Jay, in his last letter to me, observes that they hear nothing 
further of the treaty with Portugal. I have taken the liberty of 
telling him that I will write to you on the subject, and that he may 
expect to hear from you on it by the present conveyance. The 
Chevalier del Pinto being at London, I presume he has, or can 
inform you why it is delayed on their part. I will thank you also 
for the information he shall give you. 

There is here an order of priests called the Mathurins, the 
object of whose institution is the begging of alms for the redemp- 
tion of captives. About 18. months ago they redeemed 300, which 
cost them about 1500 livres a peice. They have agents residing in 
the Barbary states, who are constantly employed in searching and 
contracting for the captives of their nation, and they redeem at 
a lower price than any other people can. It occurred to me that their 
agency might be engaged for our prisoners at Algiers. I have had 
interviews with them, and the last night a long one with the 
General of the order. They offer their services with all the benignity 
and cordiality possible. The General told me he could not expect 
to redeem our prisoners as cheap as their own, but that he would 
use all the means in his power to do it on the best terms possible, 
which will be the better as there shall be the less suspicion that 


11 JANUARY 1787 

he acts for our public. I told him I would write to you on the 
subject, and speak to him again. "What do you think of employing 
them, limiting them to a certain price, as 300 dollars for instance, 
or any other sum you think proper? He will write immediately to 
his instruments there, and in two or three months we can know the 
event. He will deliver them at Marseilles, Cadiz, or where we 
please, at our expence. The money remaining of the fund destined 
to the Barbary business may I suppose be drawn on for this 
object. Write me your opinion if you please, on this subject, finally, 
fully, and immediately, that, if you approve the proposition, I may 
enter into arrangements with the General before my departure for 
the waters of Aix, which will be about the beginning of February. 
I have the honour to be with very sincere esteem and respect 
Dear Sir your most obedient & most humble servt., 


RC (MHi: AMT); endorsed in part; "ansd. Jan. 25." PrC (DLC). 

To John Bondfield 

SIR Paris Jan. 11, 1787. 

In the moment of receiving your letter inclosing the passport, 
which wanted the Comptroller's signature, I inclosed it to his 
bureau to obtain that ceremony. It is but this instant returned to 
me, and in the same I take the liberty of inclosing it to you and 
of assuring you of the esteem & respect with which I have the 
honour to be Sir Your most obedient & most humble servt., 


PrC (DLC). See TJ to Calonne, 20 Dec. 1786 and 7 Jan. 1787. If 

Calonne sent the passport under a covering: letter, it has not been found. 

To David S. Franks 

Thursday Jan. 11. 1787 

My anxiety, my dear Sir, on the detention of the Marocco treaty, 
is inexpressible. However cogent and necessary the motives which 
detain you, I should be deemed inexcusable were I to let so safe 
an opportunity as that by Colo. Blackden pass without sending the 
papers on to London. Mr. Jay complained that a treaty signed in 
June was not ratified in October. What will they say when they 
shall observe that the same treaty does not reach them till March, 


1 1 JANUARY 1787 

nine months? In the mean time our whole commerce is paying a 
heavy tax for insurance till it's publication. Can you fix a day as 
early as Monday or Tuesday for your departure whether your 
baggage arrives or not? Or would you rather decline the going with 
the papers? In the former case, if your baggage does not arrive 
before your departure, any orders you may think proper to leave 
respecting it shall be punctually executed. I can send it to Mr. 
Limosin at Havre so that it may go to America in the February 
packet. I shall see you at the Marquis's to-day and we will speak 
about this matter. 

PrC (DLC); unsigned. plies in the present letter, was of no 

MR. JAY COMPLAINED in his to TJ importance in so urgent a matter o 

of 27 Oct. 1786. In none of his let- state, but the threatened use of COLO. 

ters to Jay subsequent to Franks' ar- BLACKDEN would not have been so safe 

rival in Paris early in December had an expedient as TJ had reason to 

TJ explained that Franks was in Paris think (see Short to TJ, 21 and 29 

or why he was detained. The question May 1787; Claiborne to TJ, 21 June 

of personal baggage, as TJ clearly im- 1787). 

From the Abbe Morellet 

MONSIEUR jeudy [11? Jan. 1787?] 

Mr. de Crevecoeur m'a dit hier que dans la lecture plus suivie 
que vous avez f aite de notre traduction vous aves et6 mcontent de 
quelques articles oft. je vous ai mal entendu et de Tinsertion que 
j'ai f aite dans votre texte des notes de Mr. Thomson et peut etre de 
quelques autres points. Je vous prie de m'envoyer les corrections 
que vous croires necessaires. Je ferai faire des cartons. Quant aux 
notes si j'ai mal fait de les placer dans le texte c'est un mal 
aujourd'hui irremediable mais je vous en avois demand^ la per- 
mission et vous me Tavies accordee. S'il y a quelque autre faute de 
ma part si laquelle on puisse apporter remede vous n'aves qu'S. 
ordonner. Toubliois de vous dire que les notes de Mr. Thomson 
etant tou jours distingu^es de votre texte par des crochets qui les 
enferment il me semble que le lieu qu'elles occuppent dans 1'ouvrage 
est bien indifferent. Faites moi savoir vos intentions je m'y con- 
formerai avec le zele que j'aurai toujours vous montrer mon 
respectueux devouement. J'ai Phonneur d'etre avec respect Mon- 
sieur Votre trs humble et trds ob6issant Serviteur, 


RC (DLC); endorsed: "Morellet list of "Errors in the Abbe" Morellet's 

AbbS"; undated and not recorded in translation of the Notes on Virginia 

s JL, but evidently sent to TJ before the correction of -which is indispensable" 

he dispatched to Morellet the 7-page (PrC in DLCs TJ Papers, 27: 4717- 


12 JANUARY 1787 

23); this list, with an excellent com- dot>s not appear to be in TJ's hand, 

mentary, has been published by Joseph Nevertheless, the Editors incline to 

M. Carriere in "The Manuscript of the opinion that the date inscribed on 

Jefferson's Unpublished Errata List for this errata list is the correct one. If 

Abbe Morellet's Translation of the this is so, MoreUet's letter must have 

Notes on Virginia," Papers of the Bibli- been \\ritten several days earlier, for 

ographical Society University of Vir- if it had been written on the "jeudy" 

ginia, I (1948-9), 1-24. It bears at immediately precfclinfir 19 Jan. 1787, 

the head of the text the date "January TJ would have had only twenty-four 

19. 1787." which Carriere accepts with- hours, more or U'.ss, in which to compile 

out question and which may indeed be the seventy errors that he listed so 

correct, but the following facts may be carefully in parallel columns. For this 

noted: (1) this date is in a different reason, the "jeucly" of the week pre- 

mk from that of the press copy; (2) ceding has been conjectured as the 

it is in a different form from that usual- probable date of Morellet's letter, 
ly employed by TJ (on this date he The list of errata and LF.S CARTONS 

wrote several letters, all of which were made in Morellefs edition will be dis- 

dated "Jan. 19. 1787," which was his cussed in the Second Series, where a 

customary form); (3) it was pre- critical edition of Notes on Virginia 

sumably added later, perhaps on the will appear, 
basis of an entry in SJI-; and (4) it 

From R. fc A. Garvey 

SIR Roxien 12th. January 1787 

We have the honor to rernitt you Inclosed the notes of our dis- 

bursments for your Excellency importing- 59.5 which have taken 

the liberty to value on you at sight order of Messr. Perregaux & 

Co. which please to own. 

With the small Case of Books there was an Acquit 3. Caution de 

Librairie which beg you'll send for to the Customhouse or the 

Chambre Sindicalle and return it us. 

We are on all your and Friends Commands very respectfully 

Sir Your Excellency's most humble & very obedient Servants, 


RC (MHi). Recorded in SJL as re- ceived from Barclay "par la Rosalie 

ceived 14 Jan. 1787. Enclosure (MHi): Capne Fauqueux," totalling 59 livres 

Account of expenses of handling- two 5 sols. There is also in MHi a draft on 

cases received from London "par le TJ to the order of Perrepraux & Cie. 

sloop Anglais PAventure Capne John dated 12 Jan. 1787 for this amount. 
Damon," and also a case of books re- 

To Philippe-Denis Pierres 

Paris 12me. Janvier 1787. 

M. Jefferson prie Monsieur Pierre de vouloir bien lui envoyer les 
feuilles qu'il a eu la bont de faire imprimer pour lui. II a Phonneur 
de lui demander s'il seroit possible de procurer pour la presse 
d'imprimerie que Monsieur Pierre a eu la complaisance de se 


14 JANUARY 1787 

charger de f aire f aire pour M. Jefferson, les characteres charmantes 
de Didot, de deux grandeurs, c'est & dire, de la plus petite, et de la 
Moyenne? Si M. Jefferson demanderoit des Messrs. Foulis de 
Glasgow, des characteres Grecques, est il bien sur qu'on pourroit 
les accommoder a une presse quelconque? Dans ce cas M. Jefferson 
prieroit Monsr. Pierre de vouloir bien lui indiquer la nombre de 
chaque caractere qu'il doit faire venir de ces Messieurs. 

PrC (MHi); endorsed. 

From Mrs. Rider 

Hotel de la Chine 13 Janvier 1787 

Mrs. Rider is infinitely obliged to Mr. Jefferson for his very 
kind attention. She has not as yet met with apartmens that would 
suit Her. From the description Mr. J n gives of those He has 
seen they appear to be just what She wants. She proposes going 
tomorrow morning to see them. 

RC (MHi). Not recorded in SJL. 

To Ferdinand Grand 

SIR Paris Jan. 14. 

A person called here to-day, while I was out, and left the in- 
closed note for me, on the subject of Colo. Wuibert's moaey. He 
left word at the same time that he would call at your office tomor- 
row for an answer. I have written him the inclosed answer, but as 
he did not leave his name or address, I am unable to write an 
address on it. I will beg the favor of you to let it lye in your office 
till he comes, and have it delivered to him, -with such explanations 
as to the mode in which Wuibert's money was remitted as you are 
able to give him. 

I have the honour to be with much respect & esteem Sir, your 
most obedt. humble servt., TH: JEFFERSON 

PrC (DLC); without indication of the year. Not recorded in SJL. Enclosures: 
The note from Col. Wuibert's agent is missing, but see TPs reply of this date, 
which also was enclosed. 


To an Agent of Antoine-Felix Wuibert 

SIR Paris Jan. 14. 1787. 

I received Colo. Wuiberf s letter and power of attorney on the 
16th. of February 1786. I wrote immediately to Mr. Thevenard at 
POrient to obtain an order for his money. I was called to England 
in the month of March and returned here the last day of April 
I found Mr. Thevenard's answer here on my return. From that 
time till the 22d. of May was taken up in discussions with which 
you are acquainted. On the 22d. of May I wrote to Colo. Wuibert, 
inclosing Mr. Grand's letter authorizing him to receive his money 
at the Cape. Of this letter I inclose you a copy- It was directed to 
him, as he expressly instructed, chez M. le Marquis de Galiffet a 6. 
miles du Cap. Franais; I wrote a second letter to him June 3. in- 
closing papers from Monsr. Troyes. The whole were sent to 
L'Orient to be forwarded from thence to the Cape. The date of his 
letter Sep. 4. at Philadelphia gives room to presume he had left the 
Cape before the receipt of mine. You will percieve by these dates, 
Sir, that his business has not been forgotten by me, and, by the 
copy of my letter, that I have avoided touching his money. If, with 
your answer to him, you will be so good as to send him this letter, 
he will perceive that I served him diligently. I have the honour to be 
Sir your very humble servt., TH: JEFFERSON 

PrC (DLC); without indication of addressee. Recorded in S.TI, as being a 
letter to "anonymous, viz. to one, unknown, on Wuibert's affair." Enclosure: TJ 
to Wuibert, 22 May 1786. Enclosed in TJ to Grand, this date. TJ's letter to Wui- 
bert of 3 June and Wuibert's to TJ of 4 Sep. 1786 have not been found. 

To Harcourt 

SIR Paris Jan. 14. 1787. 

In the conversation with which you were pleased to honor me 
a few days ago, 1 on the enfranchisement of the port of Honfleur, 
I took the liberty of observing that I was not instructed by my 
constituents to make any proposition on that subject. That it would 
be agreeable to them however I must suppose, because it will offer 
the following advantages. 

1. It is a convenient entrepot for furnishing us with the manu- 
factures of the Northern parts of France and particularly of Paris, 
and for recieving and distributing the productions of our country 
in exchange. 

2. Cowes, on the opposite side of the channel, has heretofore 


14 JANUARY 1787 

copy of it may have been intended for "Je ne suis pus sur que nos tabacs y 

distribution among: the merchants who aient et deposes. Je crois qu'ils etoient 

were interested in the enfranchisement conduits a Londres arm d'y Itre 

of Honfleur, or for some other purpose. (fretrs} assort is pour les different 

But this still does not explain the ab~ marches. 1 * The word "freteV (copied 

sence of a date and the incomplete com- from "frekts" in Crvecoeur's transla- 

plimentary close in both copies or the tion) was struck oxxt by TJ, who inter- 

correction in Short's. lined the word "asaortis." 

^ Complimentary close in Crevecoeur's 

1 The phrase "a few days ago" does translation reads: ". . , des Sentiments 
not appear in translation in either of de respect & destime avec lesquels Jay 
the French texts. This may suggest Thoneur detre." Short's copy ends: 
that Crevecoeur made the translation u . . . des sentimens de . . ." Short's 
some time after 14 Jan. spelling- and punctuation were more cor- 

2 Short's copy and its prototype read: rect in general than Cr^vecoeur's. 

To Louis Guillaume Otto 

SIR Paris Jan. 14. 1787. 

I have been honoured with your letter of Oct. 15. and thank 
you for the intelligence it contained. I am able to make you but an 
unequal return for it, your friends here being so much more in 
condition to communicate to you interesting intelligence. With 
respect to the affairs of Holland they do not promise arrangement. 
The interest which the King of Prussia takes in the affairs of the 
Stadholder seem to threaten an interruption of his cordiality with 
this country. The misunderstanding between the kings of Spain 
and Naples, and a projected visit of the latter to Vienna, with the 
known influence of his queen over him are matter for some 

As to domestic news, the assembly des Notables occupies all 
conversation. What will be the subjects of their deliberation is 
not yet declared. The establishment of provincial assemblies, toler- 
ating the protestant religion, removing the internal barriers to the 
frontiers, equalizing the Gabels, sale of the kings domains, and in 
short every other possible reformation, are conjectured by different 
persons. I send you a pamphlet on the last assembly of Notables, 
from which ideas are formed as to what this will be. Possibly you 
may receive the same from some of your friends. I send you also 
what it is less likely you should get from them, because it is next 
to impossible to get it at all. That is a late memoire by Linguet 
which has produced his perpetual exile from this country. To 
these I add a report written by M. Bailly on the subject of the 
Hotel-dieu of Paris which has met a very general approbation. 
These are things for the day only. I recollect no work of any 
dignity which has been lately published. We shall very soon Te- 
l: 42 } 

1 5 JANUARY 1787 

ceive another volume of mineralogy from M. de Buffon; and a 3d. 
vol. of the Cultivateur Americain is in the Press. So is a history 
of the American war by a Monsr. Souls, the two first volumes of 
which, coming down to the capture of Burgoyne I have seen, and 
think better than any other I have seen. Mazzei will print soon 2. 
or 3. vols. 8vo. of Recherches historiques et politiques sur les etats 
unis d'Amerique, which are sensible. 

We are flattered with the hope that the packet boats will here- 
after sail monthly from Havre, the first being to sail on the 10th. 
of the next month. This is very desireable indeed: as it will 
furnish more frequent opportunities of correspondence between the 
two countries. If I can be made useful to you in any line whatever 
here, it will make me very happy; being with sincere esteem & 
respect, Sir, your most obedient & most humble servt., 


PrC (DLC). Enclosures: (1) Copy des sciences* du 22 No-vembre 1786. 

of Simon Nicolas Henri Lingnet's Rapport des commissaires charges par 

Memoire au Roi par M. Linguet, con- PAcadSntie de Fexamen du projet d*un 

cernant ses reclamations actuellement nou-oel Hdtel-Dieu, Paris, 1786. (3) 

pendants au Parlement de Paris, Lon- The "pamphlet on the last assembly 

don, 1786. (2) Jean-Sylvain Bailly, Ex- of Notables" has not been identified. 
trait des registres de V Academic royale 

To St. John de Crevecoeur 

DEAR SIR Paris Jan. 15. 1787. 

I see by the Journal of this morning that they are robbing us of 
another of our inventions to give it to the English. The writer 
indeed only admits them to have revived what he thinks was known 
to the Greeks, that is the making the circumference of a wheel of 
one single peice. The farmers in New Jersey were the first who 
practised it, and they practised it commonly. Dr. Franklin, in one 
of his trips to London, mentioned this practice to the man, now in 
London, who has the patent for making those wheels (I forget his 
name.) The idea struck him. The Doctor promised to go to his 
shop and assist him in trying to make the wheel of one peice. The 
Jersey farmers did it by cutting a young sapling, and bending it, 
while green and juicy, into a circle; and leaving it so till it became 
perfectly seasoned. But in London there are no saplings. The dif- 
ficulty was then to give to old wood the pliancy of young. The 
Doctor and the workman laboured together some weeks, and suc- 
ceeded, and the man obtained a patent for it which has made his 
fortune. I was in his shop in London, he told me the whole story 


15 JANUARY 1787 

himself, and acknowleged, not only the origin of the Idea, but how 
much the assistance of Dr. Franklin had contributed to perform 
the operation on dry wood. He spoke of him with love and gratitude. 
I think I have had a similar account from Dr. Franklin, but can- 
not be certain quite. I know that being in Philadelphia when the 
first set of patent wheels arrived from London, and were spoken 
of by the gentleman (an Englishman) who brought them as a 
wonderful discovery. The idea of it's being a new discovery was 
laughed at by the Philadelphia^, who in their Sunday parties 
across the Delaware had seen every farmer's cart mounted on such 
wheels. The writer in the paper supposes the English workman 
got his idea from Homer. But it is more likely that the Jersey 
farmer got the idea from thence, because ours are the only farmers 
who can read Homer: because too the Jersey practice is precisely 
that stated by Homer; the English practice very different. Homer's 
words are (comparing a young hero killed by Ajax to a poplar 
felled by a workman) 

o B' cu KovtysL., -^CL^CLI 7r<$ci>y atyctpos ox?,, 
*H pa r*ei> aa/Aevfl cA.eos /xeyaXoto 7r<f>vK 
ara/o TC 6t oot err* oLKporarrj 7r<>ia*t 
fjiev 0ap/za,TO7n?yo<j avrjp at$<oi>i <$t$rjp<p 

o<ppa LTVV Ka^vj Trcpt/caAAec 8i<f>pto, 
*H juev r'a^o^ev^ /cetrat 7roTa/.no Trap o^^as? 4*. II. 4*8 2. 

literally thus 'he fell on the ground, like a poplar, which has grown, 
smooth, in the wet part of a great meadow; with it's branches 
shooting from it's summit. But the Chariot-maker with his sharp 
axe, has felled it, that he may bend a wheel for a beautiful chariot. 
It lies drying on the banks of the river.' Observe the circumstances 
which coincide with the Jersey practice. 1. It is a tree growing 
in a moist place, full of juices, and easily bent. 2. It is cut while 
green. 3. It is bent into the circumference of a wheel. 4. It is 
left to dry in that form. You, who write French well and readily, 
should write a line for the Journal to reclaim the honour of our 
farmers. Adieu. Your's affectionately, TH: JEFFERSON 

H.C (Saint-John de CrSvecoeur, Mon- making a wheel of a single piece of 

tesquieu-sur-Losse, La Plagne, France, wood was known to the Greeks; but the 

1947). PrC (DLC). writer had gone on to say: "L'on en a 

pourtant fait honneur, n'ag-ueres, a un 

TJ mi^ht not have ohjected to the Anglois, comme d'une invention nou- 

article in THE JOURNAL OF THIS MORN- velle." This was sufficient to arouse TJ's 

ING (Journal de Paris, 15 Jan. 1787) patriotic feelingrs, and the present MS 

if its author had confined himself to resulted. As TJ had requested, Creve- 

the interpretation of a passage in The coeur made a translation of this let- 

lliad as meaning that the process of ter, with some interesting variations 


1 5 JANUARY 1787 

and interpolations; the most famous sont ceux qui couvrent une grande 

passage, as rewritten by Crevecoeur, partie de notre continent." This joint 

reads: "L'Auteur de ce paragraphe sup- production by TJ and Crevecoeur was 

pose mSme que le Charron Anglois published in the Journal de Paris , 31 

avoit tire* cette idee d'Homere. II est Jan. 1787, and was signed "Un Am6ri- 

bien plus vraisemblable que ces Cul- cain." I WAS IN HIS SHOP IN LONDON: 

tivateurs I'ont puisSe dans cette source; TJ visited the shop with John Adams 

cette classe d'hommes etant dans ce during Apr. 1786 after their return 

moment la seule au sein de laquelle on from a tour of the English gardens, 

puisse trouver des homines qui entendent "Since my return," wrote Adams, **I 

et lisent cet ancien Auteur. La m6thode have been over Blackfriar's Bridge to 

Angloise est d'ailleurs bien differente, see Viny's manufacture of patent wheels 

puisqu'on ne se sert & Londres que de made of bent timber" (Adams, Works , 

bois sec, an lieu qu'Homere ne parle ed. C. F. Adams, in, 394-6; see also 

que d'arbres jeunes et verds, tels que TJ to Thomson, 22 Apr. 1786, note). 

From Philippe-Denis Pierres 

MONSIEUR Paris, le 15 Janvier 1787. 

JPai 1'honneur de vous adresser les cartons dont vous avez 
desire* Timpression. Je souhaitte que vous en soyez satisfait. 

Quant aux Caracteres que vous demandez pour accompagner la 
petite Presse, je ne crois pas qu'il soit ncessaire de choisir ceux des 
Didot et des Foulis: J'en ai qui ont e*t6 grav6s par Garamond^ et 
dont la beaut6 ne cede en rien & ceux-la. Si cependant, Monsieur, 
vous tenez a cette idee, ayez la bonte* de me la faire savoir, et 
alors vous voudriez bien vous adresser eux mmes; mais je n'en 
vois point la ncessit6. II seroit d'ailleurs difficile de determiner le 
nombre qu'il faudroit de chaque caractere, attendu qu'il faut que 
les cases soient f aites avant cela. 

Agr6ez, Monsieur, Les assurances du respect infini avec lequel 
je suis, Monsieur, Votre Trds-humble et trs-ob6issant serviteur, 


RC (MHi); endorsed. Not recorded in SJL. 

To Abigail Adams Smith 

Paris Jan. 15. 1787. 

Mr. Jefferson has the honour to present his compliments to Mrs. 
Smith and to send her the two pair of Corsets she desired. He 
wishes they may be suitable, as Mrs. Smith omitted to send her 
measure. Times are altered since Mademoiselle de Sanson had the 
honour of knowing her. Should they be too small however, she 
will be so good as to lay them by a -while. There are ebbs as well 


15 JANUARY 1787 

as flows in this world. When the mountain refused to come to 
Mahomet, he went to the mountain. Mr. Jefferson wishes Mrs, 
Smith a happy new year, and abundance of happier ones still to 
follow it. He begs leave to assure her of his esteem and respect, 
and that he shall always be happy to be rendered useful to her by 
being charged with her commands. 

PrC (MHi). See Mrs. Smith to TJ, 2 Dec. 1786. 

To William Stephens Smith 

DEAR SIR Paris Jan. 15. 1787. 

Colo. Franks's delay here, occasioned by that of his baggage, 
gives me an opportunity of acknowleging the receipt of the map. 
I am now occupied in correcting it. I have got thro about two 
thirds of the map and have a list of 172 errors, so that we may 
expect in the whole about 250, and I reckon only those which are 
material. Small and immaterial changes of orthography I do not 
correct. Except as to the errors, the work is fairly and neatly 
done. I shall try to have the corrections made by a French work- 
man. If he cannot do it, I must send it again to Mr. Neele to be 
done. I think it is long since you were so kind as to give me notice 
that the second copying press was sent off. But I have never heard 
a tittle of it. I will be obliged to you if you will be so good as to 
let me know how, by whom, and to what place it was directed, that 
I may give orders to search for it, before my departure to the 
waters of Aix, which will be within a fortnight or three weeks. I 
will thank you at the same time for what an Architect here describes 
to me in the following words Hin ruban, contenft dans du cuivre, 
sur lequel est marqu le pied Anglois.' It is a portable measure, 
made for travellers to carry in their pockets in order to measure 
bridges, arches, buildings &c. He sais I should have two, one of 
about 20. feet, the other 50 feet. I suppose they are to be found 
in the Mathematical shops. I must trouble you to send me two by 
the Diligence, and in time for my journey. I must beg the favor of 
you to get me also from Lee's at Hammersmith the following 
plants: 12. of the Acer rubrum. 12. of the Quercus Phellos, and 
5. Liriodendron tulipiferum. I do not mean that this should cost 
you any other trouble than to send the inclosed note to Lee, let him 
know you will pay his bill, and press his instantaneous execution 
of it 

You will have heard that the king has called an assembly of 


1 6 JANUARY 1787 

Notables, which has not been done for 160. years. The objects are 
not known: the following are conjectured. To establish provincial 
assemblies: tolerate the Protestant religion; remove all the internal 
douanes to the frontiers; equalise the Gabels; and sell the crown 
lands. I send you an account of the last assembled des Notables, 
which will give you an idea of the present one. The king names the 
members ad libitum, our friend de la Fayette is one, and is the 
youngest man but one in it, and that one is named on account of a 
charge he has. The Dutch affairs promise no arrangement: and it 
has been feared that the K. of Prussia might be shifted into the 
Austrian scale. 

I take the liberty of putting under your cover some letters which 
I will only trouble you to send to the post office. I am with very 
sincere esteem, dear Sir, Your friend & servant, 


ES. The letter which is sealed and without a superscription, is for 
a Mr. Vaughan whose Christian name I have forgot. It is he who 
-went with us to the king^s museum. He is married. "We dined at his 
house, at least Mr. Adams and myself did, and I dined in company 
with him at the M. of Lansdowne's. From these descriptions perhaps 
you will be able to put the superscription on the letter. 

RC (PHC); endorsed in part: "ansr. Jany. 29." PrC (DLC). TJ's "inclosed 
note to Lee 5 * is missing; of the other enclosures, only his letter "to Mr. Vaughan" 
(q,v. tinder 29 Dec. 1786, TJ to Benjamin Vaughan) has been identified. 

From John Bondfield 

[Bordeaux^ 16 Jan. 1787. Recorded in SJL as received 21 Jan. 1787. 
Not found; but see St. Victour & Bettinger to TJ, 23 Jan. 1787.] 

From Carburi 

a Paris ce 16 Janv. 1787. 

Ms. de Carburi presente ses respects a Mr. Jefferson, il lui 
envoye les 4 demiboutteilles qu'il demande, et 4 autres demibout- 
teilles d'autres vins de la Grece a fin qu'il choisisse ceux qui lui 
plairont d'avantage. 

Tous ces vins reviennent a 6 francs la Boutteille de Pinte. 

RC (MHi); endorsed: *'Carburi Comte de." Not recorded in SJL. 

To Edward Carrington 

DEAR SIR pari Ja ^- *6. 1787. 

Incertain whether you might be at New York at the moment 
of Colo. Franks's arrival, I have inclosed my private letters for 
Virginia under cover to our delegation in general, which other- 
wise I would have taken the liberty to inclose particularly to you, 
as best acquainted with the situation of the persons to whom they 
are addressed. Should this find you at New York, I will still ask 
your attention to them. The two large packages addressed to Colo. 
N. Lewis contain seeds, not valuable enough to pay postage, but 
which I would wish to be sent by the stage, or any similar quick 
conveyance. The letters to Colo. Lewis and Mr. Eppes (who take 
care of my affairs) are particularly interesting to me. The package 
for Colo. Richd. Gary our judge of Admiralty near Hampton, con- 
tains seeds and roots, not to be sent by post. Whether they had 
better go by the stage, or by water, you will be the best judge. I 
beg your pardon for giving you this trouble. But my situation and 
your goodness will I hope excuse it. 

In my letter to Mr. Jay I have mentioned the meeting of the 
Notables appointed for the 29th. inst. It is now put off to the 7th. 
or 8th. of next month. This event, which will hardly excite any 
attention in America, is deemed here the most important one which 
has taken place in their civil line during the present century. Some 
promise their country great things from it, some nothing. Our 
friend de la fayette was placed on the list originally. Afterwards 
his name disappeared: but finally was reinstated. This shews that 
his character here is not considered as an indifferent one; and that 
it excites agitation. His education in our school has drawn on him 
a very jealous eye from a court whose principles are the most 
absolute despotism. But I hope he has nearly passed his crisis. The 
king, who is a good man, is favorably disposed towards him: and 
he is supported by powerful family connections, and by the public 
good will. He is the youngest man of the Notables, except one whose 
office placed him on the list. 

The Count de Vergennes has within these ten days had a very 
severe attack of what is deemed an unfixed gout. He has been well 
enough however to do business to-day. But anxieties for him are 
not yet quieted. He is a great and good minister, and an accident 
to him might endanger the peace of Europe. 

The tumults in America, I expected would have produced in 
Europe an unfavorable opinion of our political state. But it has 


1 6 JANUARY 1787 

not. On the contrary, the small effect of those tumults seems to 
have given more confidence in the firmness of our governments. 
The interposition of the people themselves on the side of govern- 
ment has had a great effect on the opinion here. I am persuaded 
myself that the good sense of the people will always be found to 
be the best army. They may be led astray for a moment, but will 
soon correct themselves. The people are the only censors of their 
governors: and even their errors will tend to keep these to the true 
principles of their institution. To punish these errors too severely 
would be to suppress the only safeguard of the public liberty. The 
way to prevent these irregular interpositions of the people is to give 
them full information of their affairs thro' the channel of the public 
papers, and to contrive that those papers should penetrate the whole 
mass of the people. The basis of our governments being the opinion 
of the people, the very first object should be to keep that right; and 
were it left to me to decide whether we should have a government 
without newspapers, or newspapers without a government, I should 
not hesitate a moment to prefer the latter. But I should mean that 
every man should receive those papers and be capable of reading 
them. I am convinced that those societies (as the Indians) which 
live without government enjoy in their general mass an infinitely 
greater degree of happiness than those who live under European 
governments. Among the former, public opinion is in the place of 
law, and restrains morals as powerfully as laws ever did any where. 
Among the latter, under pretence of governing they have divided 
their nations into two classes, wolves and sheep. I do not exaggerate. 
This is a true picture of Europe. Cherish therefore the spirit of our 
people, and keep alive their attention. Do not be too severe upon 
their errors, but reclaim them by enlightening them. If once they 
become inattentive to the public affairs, you and I, and Congress, 
and Assemblies, judges and governors shall all become wolves. It 
seems to be the law of our general nature, in spite of individual 
exceptions; and experience declares that man is the only animal 
which devours his own kind, for I can apply no milder term to the 
governments of Europe, and to the general prey of the rich on the 
poor. The want of news has led me into disquisition instead of 
narration, forgetting you have every day enough of that. I shall 
be happy to hear from you some times, only observing that what- 
ever passes thro' the post is read, and that when you write what 
should be read by myself only, you must be so good as to confide 
your letter to some passenger or officer of the packet. I will ask 
your permission to write to you sometimes, and to assure you of 


1 7 JANUARY 1787 

the esteem & respect with which I have the honour to be Dear Sir 
your most obedient & most humble servt., 


PrC (DLC). 

It may not have been altogether a 
want of news that led TJ into DISQUISI- 
quoted opinions that he inserted in a 
letter to one whose character he under- 
stood very well from, the days of his 
governorsliip may have been as cal- 
culated as was TJ's selection of a cor- 
respondent in Congress to supply, in 
part at least, the place formerly occu- 
pied by Madison and Monroe. William 
Short seems to have been the inter- 
mediary on this occasion. "Some time 
ago Sir," he wrote Carrinjrton on 3 
Nov. 1786, "I took the liberty of ad- 
vising 1 Mr. Jefferson to write to you 
in order to the commencement of a 
correspondence, as he wished to have 
an intimate one with some of his friends 
in Congress" (DLC: Short Papers). 
This may have been TJ's manner of 
inquiring; indirectly whether such a 
correspondence would be agreeable. 
Even before the correspondence was 
opened, Short gave Carrington an opin- 
ion on American foreign relations that 
might have been only TJ's echo: "What 
will be the principal deliberations of 
Congress during this winter? What 
have the states done respecting the 
investiture of Congress with powers for 
regulating the commerce? What are 
the probabilities of the fcederal finances 

being well arrang-ecl? These my dear 
Sir are subjects which inquiet much 
some of our friends on this side of 
the Atlantic. They frequently talk to 
me on them, and I confess I some times 
find it very difficult to satisfy all their 
doubts and difliculties. I wish you "would 
put it in my power to do this for their 
sakes as well as my own. We want in 
America Sir, but open arrangements 
taken for the establishment of federal 
credit, to become the most envied na- 
tion on earth. This is what is agreed 
on all hands here, but what would sur- 
prize you is, to see how few there are 
who suppose the continental union can 
subsist. The British news-papers which 
have an universal circulation in Europe, 
have found means to make it generally 
believed that there is nothing 1 but dis- 
tress, disorder and discontent in Amer- 
ica. Their lies have been so often told, 
that they are believed now by them- 
selves, and there is no question that 
some of the most able men in England, 
are fully persuaded that America 
would be tflad at this moment to throw 
herself back into the arms of Britain. 
Were the foreigrn debts once paid public 
credit would be re-established immedi- 
ately on a footing to give the lye to all 
these suppositions, for where there is 
public credit, it is difficult to be per- 
suaded that there is public discontent, 
disorder and distress" (same). 

From Champagni 

Paris, Wednesday 117? Jan. 1787]. He is a French citizen who 
wishes to buy some land in the United States; asks for information 
about procedure and for advice concerning the location of lands; realizes 
that the value of land varies according to its location and that land in 
the Philadelphia vicinity is the most expensive; however, that is the 
neighborhood he prefers but does not know whether an investment of 
100,000 francs in land and an additional amount for Negroes would 
yield a reasonable profit. If the cost of land in Pennsylvania is too high, 
would like advice about another situation in a good climate. The latitude 
of Virginia would be acceptable but he does not know whether land 
there is expensive or whether the residents are "trouble par les sauvages 
qui, selon ce que disent nos gazStes, inquiStent terriblement les colons 
de vos frontieres." Would also like to know in what form he should 
carry his money; whether French, Spanish or English money is most 


1 7 JANUARY 1787 

advantageous; -whether commercial intercourse is well enough estab- 
lished with some French firm to enable him to carry a letter of credit; 
whether trade is easy in the United States; what products are the most 
lucrative; whether it would be cheaper to transport a dozen Negroes 
from French Guiana, where he has property, than to purchase them in 
America. Asks pardon for asking so many questions; has <e une envie 
6xtr6me dliabiter le pai's de la liberte", pai's ou Fhome conserve sa 
nature! digniteV* If it is too much trouble to reply by letter, asks for 
an appointment. 

RC (DLC); p. 4.; in French; endorsed. Undated except for the day of the 
\veek and not recorded in SJL; assigned to this date from internal evidence and 
TJ's reply of 19 Jan. 1787. 

To S. & J. H. Delap 

GENTLEMEN Paris Jan. 17. 1787. 

I am honoured this day by the receipt of your letter of the 6th. 
instant. Having nothing to do with the matters of account of the 
United states in Europe, it is out of my power to say any thing to 
you as to the paiment of the balance due to you. Yet I think it 
would be proper for you to write to the 'Commissioners of the 
treasury' at New York on the subject. They are the persons "who are 
to pay it, and as their board has been created since the debt was 
contracted, they may possibly need information on the subject. 

As to your loan office certificates, you would do well to commit 
them to some correspondent in America. They will be settled by 
the table of depreciation at their true worth in gold or silver at the 
time the paper dollars were lent. On that true value the interest has 
been paid, and continues to be paid to the creditors annually in 
America. That the principal will also be paid, is as sure as any 
future fact can be. The epoch is not fixed. It is expected that the 
state of New York will shortly accede to the impost which has been 
proposed. When that shall be done, that impost will suffice to pay 
the interest and sink the principal in a very few years. I have the 
honour to be with much respect, Gentlemen, your most obedt. 
humble servt., TH: JEFFERSON 

PrC (DLC); at foot of text: "Messrs. S. & J. H. Delap merchts. Bordeaux.*' 

To Duler 

SIR Paris Jan. 17. 1787. 

I have the honour of now returning to you the certificate of the 
Chevalier Danmours, in your favour. The testimony of that gentle- 


1 7 JANUARY 1787 

man, with whose worth I am well acquainted, would have satisfied 
me of yours, had any testimony been wanting. It adds another to 
the list of many worthy persons whom I am unable to assist; for I 
declare to you that I know no way on earth in which I can be useful 
to you. To give you false hopes, would be to injure and not to 
serve you. I beg you to be assured of my wishes for your success, 
and of the respect with which I have the honor to be Sir your most 
obedt. & most humble servt., TH: JEFFERSON 

PrC (DLC); at foot of text: "M. Duler. ches M. Rochet Negt. fi. Rouen." On 
the enclosed "certificate," see Duler to TJ, 8 Jan. 1787. 

To Jean Durival 

SIR Paris Jan. 17. 1787. 

You were pleased, in behalf of a friend, to ask information of me 
on the subject of the money of the United states of America, and 
I had the honour of informing you, by letter of Nov. 7. that no 
regulations of their coin had then been made by Congress, as far 
as I knew. They had however entered into resolutions on that 
subject which have since come to hand, A translation of these will 
be found in the Leyden gazette of some few weeks ago. But it will 
be necessary to make the following corrections on the gazette. 

The gazette dates the resolutions Oct. 10. but they were of 
Aug. 8. 

It gives only 365.64 grains of pure silver to the dollar. It should 
be 375.64. It states the pound of silver with it's alloy to be worth 
9.99 dollars only: whereas it is fixed at 13.777 dollars. And the 
pound of gold with it's alloy being worth 209.77 dollars gives the 
proportion of silver to gold as 1. to 15.225. These corrections being 
made, the resolutions as stated in the Leyden gazette may be con- 
fided in. 

I have the honour to be with much respect Sir your most obedt. 
& most humble servt., TH: JEFFERSON 

PrC (DLC). 

From Miguel de Lardizabel y Uribe 

MONSR. 17 Janvr. 87 

J'ai et hier chez vous sans me rapeller que vous seriez k Ver- 
sailles. Je partirai lundi, c'est pour quoi je vous prie d'avoir pret la 

r 521 

1 7 JANUARY 1787 

boite des machines a pouvoir me Penvoyer samedi porchain. Demain 
au soir j'irai prendre vos ordres, et a mme terns m'essayer dans 
votre grande machine a imprimer une page. Je suis avec tout le 
respect et avec tout 1'attachemt. possible Mr. Votre trSs humb. et 
tre"s obeisst. servr., MICHEL DE LARDIZABEL 

RC (MHi)j endorsed: "Lardizabal, 
Don Miguel de"; addressed to TJ "a 
la Grille de Chaillot." Not recorded in 


dizabel wished TJ to have ready against 
his departure on Monday contained one 
of the portable copying 1 presses that 
TJ had asked him to convey as a gift to 
Carmichael (TJ to Carmichael, 26 Dec. 
1786; possibly another press was in- 
cluded in the box). Lardizabel's re- 

mark that he would attempt DANS 

"UNE PAGE simply meant that TJ would 
give him a lesson in the technique of 
operating the large copying press. 
Lardizabel was the brother of Manuel 
de Lardizabel y Uribe, Spanish author 
whose work on penology was in TJ's 
library: Discurso sobre las penas contra- 
hido a las leyes criminates de Espana, 
para facilitar su re forma (Madrid, 
1782); Sowerby, No. 2422. 

From Segond 

Beausset-en-Provence, 17 Jan. 1787. A friend, charged with collect- 
ing for him the interest due on his account with the United States, 
informs him that Mr. Grand has received no funds for that purpose; 
the payment is now two years in arrears; asks how long this will con- 
tinue. "Apres avoir expos6 nos jours a la [service] de vos etats, avoir 
coopere* & la grande ceuvre de votre independence, n'est il pour naturel 
de compter sur un revenu Si justement acquis? Quand pendant une 
geurre tres longue nous nous some prive" de toute jouissance, que nous 
n'avons mme procur6 1'absolu necessaire qu'a nos depens, n'est il 
pas horrible que les etats mettent tant de lenteur liquide"s une creance 
qu'ils ont si authentiquement reconue bien acquise; qu'ils n'en payent 
pas m6me 1'interets? S'ils [avaient] quelque ide de justice, trois anne*es 
de paix ne les [. . . .]" Not expecting such a lack of good faith, he 
borrowed 1,800 francs for his trip to Paris; is being pressed for the 
payment of the loan and, as always, eager to satisfy his obligations, 
asks TJ to draw an order on Mr. Grand for payment or, if TJ prefers, 
he will accept a personal note. Justice demands that he be saved from 
the embarrassing position in which the default of the United States 
has thrown him. 

Tr (DNA: PCC, No. 107, i); 2 p. 
Recorded in SJL as received 25 Jan. 
1787; enclosed in TJ to John Jay, 1 
Feb. 1787. An English translation is 
printed in Dipl. Corr., 1783-89, n, 30-1, 
but with omissions. 

The Chevalier de Segond (1758- 
1832) was a native of Beausset in 
Provence who volunteered in the Amer- 
ican army in 1777. He was made a 

captain in the Pulaski Legion in 1778 
and fought at Brandywine, German- 
town, Whitemarsh, and in the Southern 
campaign, being captured at Charleston 
in 1780. He served in Holland from 
1785 to 1788; in Russia from 1788 to 
the end of 1790; and after a short 
period with the French armies, 1791 to 
1793, he deserted to Austria (Lasseray 4 
Les Frartfais sous les treize toiles> p. 


To John Adams 

g IR Paris Jan. 19. 1787. 

Colo. Franks having occasion for fifty pounds sterling to enable 
him to pursue his journey to London and New York, Mr. Grand 
has furnished him with that sum, for the reimbursement whereof 
I have drawn on you in his favor, and have to pray you to honour 
that draught and to charge it against the fund appropriated to the 
negociations with Marocco, as expended in that business. I have 
the honour to be with the most perfect esteem & respect, Sir, Your 
most obedient & most humble servt., Til: JEFFERSON 

RC OMHi: AMT); endorsed by Adams: "Letter of advice of a Bill of 50 in 
favor of Mr. Grand indorsed to Lane Son & Fraser. Bill accepted by me 30. Jan. 
for Franks's Expences." PrC (DLC). 

To Champagni 

[Paris, 19 Jan. 1787] 

Vous me faites Phonneur, Monsieur, de demander mes conseils 
sur le projet que vous avez congu, de vendre vos biens ici, et d'aller 
vous etablir en Arnerique. Je vous repeterai ce que j'ai eu Phonneur 
de conseiller a d'autres, qui en ont et dans la suite tres contents. 
C'est de ne vendre ici, qu'apres que vous vous auriez rendu en 
Amerique, que vous auriez bien parcouru les etats dont le climat 
est tempere, que vous auriez examine par vous meme le sol, le 
prix, la societe, et toutes les circonstances qui entreroient pour 
quelque chose dans votre decision. C'est selon votre gout que doit 
se faire cette decision, et il n'y a personne qui peut la faire aussi 
bien que vous meme. Si vous trouverez que vous pouvez y etre 
plus heureux qu'ici, vos amis vendront vos biens d'ici, deposeront 
Pargent chez un banquier connu, et en tirant sur ce banquier des 
billets d'exchange la bas, on vous donnera de Pargent contant, et 
vous y gagnerez meme quelque chose. Si pourtant vous preferez de 
vendre avant d'avoir vu ce pai's-la, vous ferez bien de deposer 
Pargent semblablement chez un banquier connu. Messrs, le Cou- 
teulx, Monsieur Grand, Monsieur Perigaux sont bien connus en 
Amerique. J'ai Phonneur d'etre, avec bien de respect, Monsieur 
votre tres humble et tres obeissant serviteur, 


PrC (MoSHi); endorsed; at foot of text: "M. le Chevr. de Champagni. hotel 
d'Auvergne. Quai des Augustins." The date has been supplied from an entry in 
SJL for a letter to Champagni of this date. 


From Chevallie Fils 

MONSIEUR L'Orient le 19 Janvier 1787. 

Arriv6 bier au Soir de Newyork, Je m'enpresse a remettre a 
Votre Excellence, deux lettres de Mr. James Madisson, et Saislr 
cette occasion de vous presenter mes trs humbles remerciments 
des renseignements dont vous honnorates mon Pere Ngociant 
Rochefort en Janvier 1785 et qui ont descid6 mon passage en 
amerique pour recouvrer les fonds qui luy etoient dus par 1'Etat de 
Virginie. L'assemble'e de cet Etat, Sans repondre entigrement a 
mes pretensions, a cependant traitg ma demande plus favorable- 
ment que celle d'aucun crgancier; aussi Si mon pere, peu satisfait 
de ce traitement, Veut mon retour aux Etats unis, je ne manquerai 
pas de prendre vos ordres et reclamer Fappuy de Votre protection. 
Je suis avec respect De Votre Excellence Le trds humble & tres 
ob^issant Serviteur, CHEVALLif FILS 

a Rochefort 

RC (DLC); endorsed. Recorded in RENSEIGNEMENTS DONT vous HON- 
SJL as received 24 Jan. 1787. Enclo- NORATES MON PEBE refers, no doubt, 
sures: James Madison to TJ, 25 Nov. to TJ's letters to Franklin of 25 Nov. 
and 4 Dec. 1786. and 1 Dec. 1784, which Chevallie" pSre 

replied to in his to TJ of 17 Mch. 1785. 

Chevallie's acknowledgement of the 

To R. Sc A. Garvey 

GENTLEMEN Paris Jan. 19. 1787. 

I am honoured with your letter of Jan. 8. on the subject of the 
duties paid by Mr. Boylston on his cargo of whale oil, but being 
about to take a journey which will absent me from Paris three 
months, it will be necessary for Mr. Boylston to desire his corre- 
spondent at this place to undertake the sollicitation of that reim- 

Your bill for 59 tt 5s has been presented to-day and paid. I sent to 
the Douane to ask your Acquit & caution. They said they thought 
they had sent it to you lately; but desired, if you had not received 
it, that you would be so good as to send me a description of it, by 
it's number &c. as usual, and they will immediately deliver me for 
you a proper discharge. I will thank you to send me this immedi- 
ately as I would wish to see it settled myself before my departure. 

I expect a box or two containing another copying press from 
London very shortly. Indeed I suspect it is already lodged either at 


1 9 JANUARY 1787 

Rouen or Havre. I shall thank you for your care of it, as I do for the 
past, and have the honour to be with much esteem Gentlemen your 
most obedt. humble servt,, TH: JEFFERSON 

PrC (DLC). 

To Francois Soulcs 

SIR Paris Jan. 19. 1787. 

I have the honour of inclosing to you the sheets on the subject of 
Wyoming. I have had a long conversation with M, Crevecoeur on 
them. He knows well that canton. He was in the neighborhood of 
the place when it was destroyed, saw great numbers of the fugitives, 
aided them with his waggons, and had the story from all their 
mouths. He committed notes to writing in the moment, which are 
now in Normandy at his father's. He has written for them, and they 
will be here in 5. or 6. days, when he promises to put them into my 
hands. He says there will be a great deal to alter in your narration, 
and that it must assume a different face, more favorable both to 
the British and Indians. His veracity may be relied on, and I told 
him I was sure your object was truth, and to render your work 
estimable by that character, that I thought you would wait, and 
readily make any changes upon evidence which should be satis- 
factory to you. The moment I receive his notes I will communicate 
them to you; I have the honour to be with much respect Sir Your 
most obedt. humble servt., TH: JEFFERSON 

PrC (DLC). Enclosure: Either MS the first sheet (sif?. A) and the first 

or proof sheets of SouleV Histoire paj?e of the second (sigr. B) and this 

des Troubles de VAmerique Anglaise; included a prood bit of matter about the 

Soules may have sent proof sheets of Connecticut-Pennsylvania disputes in 

the account of the Battle of Wyoming- the Wyoming- Valley and a description 

of 3 July 1778, for, as finally published, of the region that could only have 

the story occupied only p. 9-17 of been added after TJ sent Crevecoeur'a 

Volume m that is, the last half of notes (see TJ to Soules, 2 Feb. 1787). 

To the Abbe Morellet 

[Paris, 19 Jan. 1787. Entry in SJL reads: "Morellet TAbb." Not 
found; but see Morellet to TJ, 11? Jan. 1787.] 

To Elizabeth Blair Thompson 

DEAR MADAM Paris Jan. 19. 1787. 

I am this day honoured with your favour of the 10th. instant 
and have the happiness to inform you that Mr. Bannister has been 


1 9 JANUARY 1787 

here near two months, and appears to enjoy as perfect health as 
any person can. I am in hopes he will have no more relapses. I am 
much obliged by your kind expressions of concern at the accident 
which prevented me the honour of seeing you at Titchfeild. Cer- 
tainly if I had suspected your being in the house I should have 
pressed for a permission to see you. The accident of my daughter's 
being taken ill a little before we made land, occasioned my going 
ashore on your side of the channel to procure medical aid, and 
the gentleman who attended her, gave me the first information of 
your living in the neighborhood. A fair wind offering to cross the 
channel the day after I had been to Titchfeild, left me no longer 
at liberty to indulge my wish of making another effort to see you. 
I am sincerely pleased to hear you have been able to raise so many 
blessings for the autumn of life, for by this term I am sure your 
children will deserve to be named. Some years ago (I am afraid 
to say how many) we should have thought this but an awkward 
congratulation: but we have both lived to learn that there is no 
subject which affords more just ground for it. My history, since 
I had the pleasure of seeing you last, would have been as happy 
a one as I could have asked, could the objects of my affection have 
been immortal. But all the favors of fortune have been embittered 
by domestic losses. Of six children I have lost four, and finally their 
mother. This happened too in the moment when I had retired from 
all public business, determined to enjoy the remainder of life in 
the bosom of my family. I have been induced to enter again on a 
stage I had quitted, merely to absent myself from scenes where 
I had been happier than I ever can be again. I have one daughter 
14. years of age, now with me, and expect the other over in the 
spring. She is 10. years old. The time of my stay in Europe is 
unfixed; but I love my own country too much to stay from it long. 
I went to London the last summer under a commission, the object 
of which was to endeavor to heal the wounds of affection between 
the two countries. It proved unsuccesful. I wished an occasion of 
taking Titchfeild in my way back: but circumstances did not per- 
mit it: and I think it rather improbable I should ever cross the 
channel again. Perhaps the wish to see your friends may one day 
tempt you to revisit the country which possesses them. In that event 
I may hope to meet you there. Be assured that there is none who 
would meet you with more sincere affection. The friendships con- 
tracted earliest in life, are those which stand by us the longest. 
The happy hours and days I have passed in your company are 
recollected with infinite sensibility. To talk them over again, would 


20 JANUARY 1787 

be to renew them. But to complete this enjoyment it should be in 
the same circle: some chasms indeed are made in that; but the 
greater part are still living. I have no late news from our friends 
in Virginia. You know that indolence is one of the characteristics 
of that country. They write seldom and little. I shall be happy at 
all times to hear of your welfare, and of that of all who are dear 
to you. Be so good as to make my respects acceptable to Captain 
Thompson and to be assured of the sincerity of those sentiments 
of friendship & esteem with which I have the honour to be Dear 
Madam your affectionate humble servant, 


PrC (DLC). 

From Charles Burney 

SIR London, Jany. 20th. 1787. 

Few things have given me more concern than the not being able 
sooner to give you a satisfactory account of the Harpsichord and 
its Machinery, which I had the honour to bespeak for you, last 
Summer. I visited Kirkman from time to time whenever I came to 
town, and saw the Instrument in every stage of its construction. 
The wood was chosen with great care; the Lid is solid, as you 
desired, and no part has been veneered or inlaid that could possibly 
be avoided, or which could receive the least injury from vicis- 
si[tu]de of climate. I got the Instrument out of Kirkman's hands, 
very completely finished, as far as concerned his part of the busi- 
ness, in Autumn; and by a little management prevailed on him 
to send it to Walker, with tolerable good humour. Walker under- 
took to place his Machine for the Celestine Stop upon it, with great 
readiness, finding for whom the Instrument was made: as I dis- 
covered that he had had the honour of conversing with you about 
the difficulties and objections on the Subject of his Stop. I was glad 
of this, as it made him more alert and solicitous to execute his part 
well. He told me that he had little doubt but that he could put 
his machinery in motion by clock-work, with very little use of a 
Pedal. I let him alone to meditate and work at his leisure till the 
Month of November, when I began to be uneasy lest you should 
imagine the commission had been neglected on my Part. Walker 
was still in high spirits about the success of his new Machine, and 
only waited for the Clock-maker's part of the work. Last month the 
new Machine was applied; and though infinitely superior to the 

t 58} 

20 JANUARY 1787 

old, the motion given to it by a single stroke or pressure of the 
foot, was not so durable as I wished, or as Walker expected. He 
had difficulties in placing, and covering his machine, after it was 
made; as well as in regulating its operations. At length, after long 
delays, some occasioned by real difficulties, and others by having, 
like all his brethren, projectors, too many pursuits at a time, the 
machine has received all the perfection he can give it. He has 
promised to describe its powers, and the means of exhibiting them, 
in a paper which will accompany the Instrument. The Resin will, 
he says, be easily brushed off the strings, if adhesion from damp 
is not suffered to take place, by neglecting to clean the strings too 
long. As a Harpsichord I never heard a better instrument or felt 
a more even and pleasant touch. The Tone is full, sweet, and 
equally good through the whole scale. And as to Walkers stop, it 
is much more easily used than any I ever tried. It will not suit 
things 1 of execution, but is not confined to mere Psalmody, as was 
the Case at the first invention. The machine or species of Bow is 
sooner and more easily brought into contact, than formerly, and 
is not so subject to produce a Scream by over pressure of the keys. 
It is perfectly sweet, and at a little distance Organic: that is it 
reminds one of the best and most expressive part of an organ, the 
Swell. On the degree of pressure depends not only the durability 
of tone, but its force. It will require much exercise to find out, and 
display, all the beauties of this stop. You, Sir, are speculative 
Musician sufficient to know the truth of this assertion, and to avail 
yourself of it. As to the Question you ask concerning the 

superiority of organs made in England or France? I can only 
answer that as far as I have seen, heard, or examined, this mecha- 
nism of the English is infinitely superior, as well as the tone of the 
Solo-stops. Green, the organ builder here, is a very ingenious and 
experimental man; and not only makes dayly discoveries and im- 
provements himself, but readily adopts those that may be made 
or recommended to him by others. Pour la forme and ornaments 
the Fr. will doubtless beat us; mais, pour le fond, I think we always 
had^ and still have it all to Nothing against the rest of Europe. We 
are Notorious for want of invention yet give us but a principle 
to work on, and we are sure of leaving an invention better than we 
find it. I write now in too great a hurry to describe the contents 
of such a Chamber organ as you have in meditation. About 100 
would I think supply all that is wanting in such an Instrument. 
Fine stops, well-voiced, and chosen, will produce better Effects in 
a small space, than crowds of such course or unmeaning pipes as 


20 JANUARY 1787 

are usually crammed into Chamber organs of any Size. If I can be 
of the least further use in this or any other commission] in my 
Power, I beg you not to spare me, being with great respect & 
regard, Sir your obedient & most humble Servant, 


RC (BLC); addressed-, endorsed: "Burney Dr." Recorded in SJL as received 
2 Feb. 1787. 

i Thus in MS; Burney probably intended to write: "things difficult of execution." 

From Jean Durival 

Versailles, 20 Jan. 1787. Acknowledges receipt of information on 
the coinage of the U.S., which he will forward to "M. Des Rotours 
Premier Commis des Monnoyes Paris" for use in his book now in 
preparation. Des Rotours will be grateful for any further information 
TJ may procure on that subject; his address is: "rue Neuve de Luxem- 
bourg No. 29." 

RC (DLC); 2 p.; in French; endorsed. Recorded in SJt, as received 21 Jan, 

From Uriah Forrest 

Georgetown, Md.^ 20 Jan. 1787. Introducing the bearer, Joseph 
Fenwick, his "particular Friend, a Man of the best Character and Con- 
nexions." Forrest will spend remainder of winter and spring in New 
York and will communicate with TJ from there. 

RC (MHi); 2 p.; endorsed. Recorded in SJL, as received 25 May 1787 at 

From Madame de Tesse 

a Paris ce 21 Janvier 

Monsieur Jefferson est supplie cTaccepter a la fois les excuses et 
les Regrets <Tun hopital entier. Mr. de Tesse est condamne" par 
Pordre du medecin a garder sa chambre pour un gros Rhume. 
Me. de Tott, excessivement souffrante depuis plusieurs jours, a 
tellement fatigu par Tinquietude la fragile constitution de Me. de 
Tesse* quelle se trouve ce matin hors d'etat de sortir. Le chagrin 
quils eprouvent de rnanquer une occasion qui leur etolt si chere 
merite quelque pitie" et les engage a se flatter que Monsieur Jefferson 
voudra bien leur en accorder le dedommagement a son Retour des 

60 3 

22 JANUARY 1787 

eaux. L'espoir de trouver Mademoiselle Jefferson chs Monsieur 
son pere ajoute au malheur de toute la famille. 

Mr. Short verra ici pourquoi Me. de Tess a et6 privge deux 
fois du plaisir de le voir. Elle etoit retenue prs de Me. de Tott 
trop souffrante pour recevoir quelqu'un. 

RC (DLC); without indication of the year. The date has been established 
from Madame de Tesse's reference to TJ's imminent journey to the EAUX of 
southern France. Not recorded in SJL. 

From William Jones 

SR. London Jany. 22nd. 1787 

On account of the hurry of previous business, I have been pre- 
vented from finishing your Perspective Machine as soon as I 
wished, but herewith you receive it, and in a State which I presume 
will not be unacceptable. I have improved it, by adding the few 
requisites for a Drawing Board, which make it a complete Instru- 
ment. The use of the several parts of the Machine I presume will 
be obvious to you, viz. the T. and Bevil Square for drawing Parallel 
lines in all Directions. The box scale frame, for confining down 
the paper (which should be rather damp when first put down) on 
the board. The scale serving as a guide to the distance of the 
parallel lines. The Steel Pin at the corner of the Box is to be put 
in a hole in one of the joints to keep the brass frame upright when 
necessary. There is a groove in the brass frame, to contain a Pane 
of Glass mentioned by Ferguson. I made the frame square for an 
obvious reason viz. to admit the whole of the board, as the drawing 
of a Machine &c. when placed near the Instrument may require a 
larger space, than the Arches admit of. A Friend has informed me 
Sir that Monsr. Guyot, has lately published a very pleasant Work, 
entitled R6crations Physiques et Mathematiques, in 3 Vos. Octavo, 
containing a selection of many very curious and entertaining ex- 
periments [in] Electricity, Magnetism &c. I expect very shortly 
some copies of his book from him having ordered them 3 Months 
ago. If you think it worth while to call on him, as he is [a] curious 
man I have written underneath the Direction of his Address. 
I am Sr. Your Obliged Humble Servt., WM. JONES 

Monsr. Guyot, directeur des Postes, rue francois Pres la rue 
mauconseil No. 12. 

RC (DLC); addressed; endorsed: "Jones Win. (Mathematic)." Recorded in 

22 JANUARY 1787 

SJL as received 26 Mch. 1787 at Aix. For the misfortunes which happened 
to this letter and the accompanying apparatus, ee Smith to TJ, 29 Jan. 1787 
and TJ to Smith, 19 Feb. 1787, 

From Tarbc 

^ 22 Jan. 1787. Recorded in SJL as received 24 Jan. 1787. 
Not found; but it must have enclosed an undated statement (MoSHi; 
endorsed "Tarbe") to the amount of 34.19,6 for tlu* cost of handling 
a barrel of wine sent from Bordeaux by Le Veillard to TJ; see TJ to 
Tarbe*, 11 Feb. 1787.] 

From St. Victour & Bettinger 

Paris, 23 Jan. 1787. Enclosing copy of certificate dated 2 Nov. 1786 
of the artillery officer* Dubois d'E.scordal, at tin* manufactory of arms 
at Tulle for 27 boxes containing 820 rifles at 27 tt 10s. or a total of 
22,550 ti: ; also a copy of a letter from Bondfield at Bordeaux to Bettinger, 
16 Jan. 1787, acknowledging receipt of the shipment. They request 
payment by TJ and will provide the person in charge of the cases 
with their receipt, the original of the certificate, and Bondfield's letter. 

RC <Vi); 2 p.; in French. Recorded in SJL as received 24 Jan. 1787. En- 
closures: (1) Certificate as described (missing). (2) Bondfield to Bettinger, 
16 Jan. 1787 (Vi). 

From Q W. F. Dumas 

MONSIEUR LaHaie 23e. Janv. 1787 

De retour <T Amsterdam, je me hate de repondre & la question 
confidentielle que m 7 a fait votre Excellence dans sa Lettre du 25 
Decembre dernier. 

S^il y auroit moyen de negocier en Hollands de P Argent pour 
les Etats-Unis, afin de rembourser les 24 millions tournois qdon 
doit d la France? 

J'ai consulte la des amis intimes, dont je suis sftr, non settlement 
quant a la Discretion, qui sera scrupuleusement observee, mais 
aussi quant ^ la capacity honnetete et suffisance parfaite pour 
Tex^cution meme d'une telle entreprise: Et voici le Resultat de nos 
entretiens, couche par crit a Amsterdam le 20 et le 21, quoique 
je le transcrive et date comme ci-dessus. 

Pour ce qui est du Credit du Congrs, il est certain que peu & 
peu il s'etablit sur un pied solide: Ce qui y contribue gran clement, 

{62 ] 

23 JANUARY 1787 

c'est 1'acquit regulier des Interts dans le temps pr6cis de leur 
6ch6ance, et sp6cialement aussi celui des Primes de la N6gociation 
de deux Millions de florins en argent, que le Congres avoit le choix 
de faire en obligations nouvelles. On pense mme que ce Credit 
seroit parvenu ds-&-prsent au point, que Ton etit pu en toute as- 
surance donner des encouragemens a des Ngociations ult6rieures, 
et des promesses touchant leur reussite, si les Papiers Anglois ne 
continuoient de debiter sur Fetat des affaires en Am&rique des 
Avis trfes-propres a donner la fievre aux Rentiers, et certains Ga- 
zettiers de ce pays de les adopter avidement dans leurs papiers. 
Ces derniers appartiennent a la Faction de ceux qui, traversant 
tant qu'ils peuvent les efforts qu'on fait pour rStablir la Libert6 
civile en ce pays, s'imaginent que la reproduction continuelle 
d'images qui reprgsentent les meutes et commotions populaires 
(lesquelles selon eux ont lieu en Am6rique), doit d6goftter les 
esprits ici de la pens6e de s'en tenir a une Constitution ou le Peuple 
ait quelque influence dans le Gouvernement. Quoique Ton ne 
craigne guere que ces m6chants atteignent leur but en ceci, il n'en 
est pas moins facheux que leur artifice fasse assez d'impression 
sur nombre de personnes peu instruites, pour leur faire soupgonner 
que, vu de pareils troubles, une pareille confusion, une telle 
foiblesse du Gouvernement en Am6rique, il ne soit pas prudent 
de lui accorder un grand Credit. II est possible de ramener les 
plus senses a des ides plus saines; mais le grand nombre des 
Rentiers Pest peu, et se laisse aller au prejug plutdt qu 9 & la raison. 

II est done impossible d'assurer positivement que Ton feroit avec 
succds une nouvelle Ngociation, ni d'en determiner la somme et 
les conditions, Ce qui ajoute 3. Fincertitude, et fait craindre qu'en 
tout cas ces conditions ne fussent trs-on6reuses, c'est que Ton 
n'ignore pas ici que la Dette interne du Congres en Ainerique peut 
^tre achet^e d un prix 1 tel que les Acheteurs y trouvent incom- 
parablement plus de profit qu'on ne leur en accorderoit ici; tandis 
que la solidite de cette Dette interne est tout aussi bonne que celle 
de la Dette externe. 

Ce qu'il y auroit done, selon mes amis, de mieux a faire, seroit 
de se charger ici de la prtention de la France aux conditions qu'on 
pourroit stipuler, accompagnges d'un petit sacrifice de la part de 
ce Royaume, avec la Liberte de n6gocier ici Tar gent pour un 
nombre limite d'annes sur le Credit du Congres et sous la 
Garantie de la France. Cette derniere condition, oil Ton ne voit 
rien que d'honorable pour le CongrSs, influeroit beaucoup sur 
t, que Ton obtiendroit moindre en ce cas qu'autrement on ne 


23 JANUARY 1787 

pourroit le faire dans les circonstances prfisentes pur les raisons * 
apportes ci-dessus: et cle cette maniere on pourroit en meme temps 
reculer de quclques annces les termes du rcmboitrsement quivont 
bientot echeoir; ce qui, ce semble, conviendroit fort au Congrfe, 
On croit aussl que le sacrifice que la France feroit pour cela ne 
sauroit y mettre obstacle: car cette operation ne laisseroit pas que 
de verser une somme considerable duns son Tresor, qu'elle ne seroit 
point obligee de restituer, et qui par consequent ne tourneroit point 
la charge du Royaume. Aussi ne s'attend-on pas de la part de la 
France la moindre difficult^ pour accorder cette Garantie; attendu 
que cette Cour-la est tr&s exactement au fait de Petat des affaires 
Amricaines ) et qu'elle a interet de les maintenir. 

Si Ton avoit quelque inclination pour ce Plan, mes Amis entreront 
volontiers en pourparler !&-dessus, et exaniineront alors le degrS 
de possibility H trouver toute la Somme dans un temps limits ce 
qui est un point dont on ne peut s'occuper, pour le determiner, 
qu'en s'ouvrant et traitant l&-des$us avec d'autres gens. Us pensent 
que pour peu que les conditions soient tablies d'une maniere ac- 
ceptable, on trouveroit d^abord promptentent 3 SL 4 Millions de 
Florins d'Hollande (6 & 8 Millions de Livres tournois, ou 12 & 16 
cent mille Dollars ) . 

ES. Nous nous sonimes ult6rieurenient et sous le sceau du secret, 
entretenus sur la question ci-dessus avec un des hommes les plus 
experts dans la matiere. II a confirme absolument notre avis; en 
ajoutant seulement que si Ton se dfiterminoit promptement I 
quelque chose, le sacrifice en question seroit trs-petit, et mSme, 
qu'il pourroit 6tre bonijic par une diminution sur TlnterSt La 
raison de cela est Tabondance 2 actuelle d'argent. Mais comme cela 
peut changer en peu de temps, il faudroit se determiner le plut6t 

En reflechissant & tout cela pendant mon retour, il m'a semb!6 
que Votre Excellence et Mr. le Ms. De la Fayette pourroient, 
puisqu'il ne s'agiroit que d'acheter la Dette due la France, rendre 
un grand service et a la France et aux Etats-Unis, en secondant et 
favorisant cette vente, de maniere & reserver au Congres YOption 
de reculer de quelques annees le Remboursement, sans qu'il soit 
n^cessaire de perdre un temps prcieux, peut-Stre irrevocable, ^ 
consulter d'avance le Congres: Car de cette maniere, la France 
tant libre de vendre ou endosser la Dette pour remplir son trsor, 
et le Congres de profiter de TOption, il ne seroit fait tort quelconque 
!l personne, on profiter oit de la bonne occasion, et chacun seroit 


25 JANUARY 1787 

aidg, puisque YOption 6quivaudroit a VEmprunt en question, et 
seroit mSme plus avantageuse. Si Votre Excellence goftte mon 
opinion, et veut me donner ses ordres aprSs avoir con6rg et agre6, 
si ce n'est MinistSriellement, au moins personnellement, avec les 
Ministres en France, j'irai les excuter sur le champ a Amsterdam, 
et ferai connoitre a Votre Excellence la Maison consultee, contre 
laquelle je sais d'avance que ni les dits Ministres, ni Votre Excel- 
lence ne feront aucune objection. 

Je suis avec le plus respectueux devouement, De Votre Excellence 
Le trds-humble et trs-obissant serviteur, 


RC (DL.C); endorsed. FC (Rijksar- peut Pavoir a Amsterdam a 9 p% de 

chief, The Hague, Dumas Papers; photo- profit net par an." 

stats in DLC). Tr (DNA: PCC, No. 2 In both RC and FC the following 

1O7, i); with several copyist's errors. is written in the margin: "Provenant 

Translation printed in Dipt. Corr. 9 de la rentrSe ordinaire des Inter&ts ici, 

1 783-89, n, 31-3. et pour le coup encore extraordinaire- 

ment des Remboursemens que fait la 

i In both RC and FC the following Russie et de ce que ni les Anglois ni 

is written in the margin: "On m'a as- les Francois n'ont pas encore ouvert 

sure* et promis de me faire voir, qu'on quelque nouvel Emprunt." 

From Madame de Tesse 

a Paris ce 23 Janvier. 

Mr. de Tesse est presqu'entierement gueri de son Rhume. Me. 
de Tott souffre beaucoup moins, mais elle souffre encore trop pour 
que Me. de Tess6 puisse se Retablir. Elles seront fort heureuses la 
premiere fois que Monsieur Jefferson voudra bien leur donner Toc- 
casion de lui Renouveller Fassurance de Tattaclieinent bien sincere 
et bien profond qu'elles lui ont consacrg. 

RC (DLC); without indication of the year (see Madame de Tesse' to TJ, 21 
Jan. [1787]). Not recorded in SJL. 

From John Adams 

DEAR SIR Grosvenor Square Jan. 25. 1787 

I have received your Letters of December 20. and Jan. 11. by 
Coll. Franks. The whole of the Business shall be dispatched, and 
Coll. Franks sent to Congress as you propose, as soon as possible. 
I have prepared a Draught of a joint Letter to Mr. Barclay and 
signed it, concerning Mr. Lamb, and shall inclose it to you with 
this. As to the Treaty with Portugal, the Chevalier De Pinto's 


25 JANUARY 1787 

Courier whom he sent off when you were here, is still in Lisbon, 
He is a confidential Domestick of De Pinto and calls every day, 
at the Ministers office in Lisbon but can get no answer. De Pinto 
is very uneasy, makes apologies when he sees me, but can do no 
more. He says Mr. De Melo has been sick and the Queen in the 
Country, and that Falkner could obtain no audience for these 
Causes till December. I suppose the Treaty of Commerce be- 
tween France and England has astonished Portugal, and divided 
the Court into Parties, so that neither administration can be 
settled, nor a system adopted relative to Spain France, England or 
America. Congress are always informed of Facts as soon as they 
happen, and it is not to be expected that we should write Letters 
every Day to tell them, that Events have not happened. As to the 
Reasons why the Treaty is not signed, they know at New York 
as well as you and I know, or even as De Pinto knows them. 

The charitable, the humane, the Christian Mathurins deserve 
our kindest Thanks, and we should be highly obliged to them if 
they could discover at what Price, our Countrymen may be re- 
deemed: but I dont think we have Authority to advance the Money 
without the further orders of Congress. There is no Court, or 
Government, that redeems its Citizens unless by a Treaty of Peace, 
This is left to private Connections and benevolent Societies. If 
Congress redeem these, it will be a Precedent for all others, and 
although I might 1 in Congress vote for Setting the Precedent, and 
making it a Rule, Yet I dont think that as Subordinate Ministers 
We have a Right to do it. The Money remaining, must in February 
be applied to the Payment of Interest, and We must absolutely 
come to a full Stop in all Expences relating to Barbary Matters 
untill further orders of Congress. Lamb has drawn on me for Three 
thousand two hundred and twelve Pounds, twelve shillings. 2 Mr. 
Barclay has drawn a great sum, 4020. .0..0 according to the 
Minutes inclosed. 

If Congress thought the original appointment of Lamb censura- 
ble they had reason. But you and I were not censurable. We found 
him ready appointed to our hands. I never saw him nor heard of 
him. He ever was and still is as indifferent to me, as a Mohawk 
Indian. But as he came from Congress with their Dispatches of 
such importance, I supposed it was expected We should appoint 
him. There is no harm done. If Congress had sent the ablest 
Member of their own Body, at such a Time and under such 
pecuniary Limitations he would have done no better. With great 


26 JANUARY 1787 

and sincere Esteem I have the honour to be, dear Sir, your most 
obedient and most humble Servant, JOHN ADAMS 

RC (DLC); endorsed. FC (Mffi: both dated 18 Feb. 1787; Carmichael 

AMT); in W. S. Smith's hand. Re- to TJ, 25 Mch. 1787). (2) The account 

corded in SJL, as received 2 Feb. 1787. current of Barclay, listing- twenty-one 

Enclosures: (1) Adams' "Draught o drafts accepted by Adams between 7 

a joint Letter to Mr. Barclay" has not Oct. 1785 and 21 Dec. 1786, to the 

been found, and in fact may never have amount of 4020, to which was added 

been sent to Barclay by TJ, who mis- the total of all drafts drawn by Lamb, 

takenly thought David Franks had in- making in all 7232-12-0 (DLC). 
eluded it with the other papers on the 

Morocco negotiations that the latter 1 Adams first wrote "would," then 

carried to Le Havre; TJ's letters to deleted it and interlined ''might." 
Barclay and Carmichael give no indica- 2 Adams first wrote "Two thousand 

tion that he had found it, as Franks Nine hundred Pounds" and then altered 

suggested, in his own study { see TJ's this to read as above, possibly to accom- 

two letters to Franks, 11 Feb. 1787; modate a new draft by Lamb. 
TJ to Barclay and TJ to Carmichael, 

From R. 8c A. Garvey 

SIR Rouen 25 January 1787 

The acquit for your Excellencys things has not been returned; 
they would not Give a duplicate of it; the original one is No. 1477 
and is dated the 21 October 1786: we shall be much obliged to 
you to Give the necessary orders about it before your departure, for 
if it is not returned discharged, or some other document to serve 
in its stead, it will be attended with very disagreable Consequences, 
which its proper to avoid. 

Great Care shall be taken of the Boxes you Expect, and your 
orders for their ultimate expedition duly attended to. We remain 
with respect Sir Your Excellencys most humble & most obedient 
Servants, ROBT. & ANT. GARVEY 

RC (MHi)j endorsed. Not recorded in SJL. 

From Le Veillard 

[Before 26 Jan. 1787] 

Monsieur de Jefferson a du recevoir ces jours cy de Mr. Tarbe 
negotiant a Rouen que Le vin de Cahuzac est en route et doit 
arriver ces jours cy. Mr. Tarbe aura vraisemblablement joint a son 
avis le mSmoire des droits et frais depuis Bordeaux jusqua Rouen 
pour les quels il aura tir un mandat payable & vue et qu'on 
presentera a monsieur Jefferson. Outre cela il y aura a payer la 
Voiture depuis Rouen et les droits dentr6e a paris dont le Voiturier 


26 JANUARY 1787 

lui presentera le memoire pour en estre remboursfi. II ne restera 
plus que le prix du vin et de sa route jusqu'& Bordeaux qui est 
de 98 ifc et que iru leVelllard se chargcra de faire tenir au vendeur, 
La barrique est de 250 bouteilles, par consequent ce vin qui est 
excellent n'ira peut estre qu^ 15 ou 16s. la pinte. 

M. LeVeillard assure de son respect monsieur Jefferson. Q 
auroit eu Phoneur de le voir, si sa sante qui a etc miserable depuis 
3 mois le luy eut permis. II le prie de luy faire savoir s'il na pas 
eu des nouvelles d'am6rique et s*II auroit une occasion pour y 
envoyer un paquet de quelques livres. M. L. V. a eu hier des 
lettres du 13 Xbre. Mr. Frank., bien portan[t]. 

RC (MoSHi)j without signature or 35/." and "i>d. Le Veillard for the same 

date; in Le Veillard's hand; memoran- \vim 9B/. Note the barrel contains 250 

dum of costs on verso in TJ's hand. bottles, and this was for the wine de- 

The date has been assigned from TJ's Hvered at Bourdeaux" (see also the 

entries in his Account Book under 26 entry for Ttirbe to TJ, 22 Jan,, and TJ 

Jan. 1787, which read: "pd. Tarbe's to Tarbe, 11 Feb. 1787). 
draught for portage of wine de Cahusac 

From John Sullivan 

SIR Portsmouth Jany. 26th. 1787 

Perhaps you may think it strange that I have not forwarded 
the Articles I promised, but want of opportunity prevented till 
I found it in my power to forward to your Excellency the whole 
Skeleton of a Moose which is now on Connecticut River and I expect 
it in a sleigh as soon as the Roads are broken through the snow 
which is now very Deep and no time shall be Lost in forwarding 
the same to your Excellency. 

I have the honor to be with great respect your Excellencys most 
obedt. & very humble Servt., JNO. SULLIVAN 

RC (DLC); endorsed: "Sullivan Genl." Recorded in SJL as received 16 June 

From John Sullivan 

Portsmouth New Hampshire 
SIR Jany. 26th. 1787 

I have the honor to inclose your Excellency a petition from Mr. 
Darby to his most Christian majesty respecting a vessell con- 
demned at port au prince with Copies of Depositions to Support 
the facts therein alledged. Your Excellencey will at once Discover 


26 JANUARY 1787 

how Injuriously Mr. Darbey has been treated and how by the Art 
and Design of the Two French Merchants mentioned he has suf- 
fered a Loss which must almost ruin him: may I entreat your 
Excellency to Interest your self in his favour at the Court of 
France, where the original Petition and Depositions are forwarded. 
I have the honor to be with the most Lively Sentiments of Esteem 
Your Excellenceys most obedt. and very Humble Servt., 


RC (DLC). Recorded in SJL as 
received 16 June 1787. Enclosures 
(DLC): (1) Petition of Elias Hasket 
Derby to the king of France, dated at 
Salem, Mass., 24 Jan. 1787, stating 
that in April of 1786 he had dispatched 
the brig Afancz/, Ichabod Nichols, master, 
to the French West Indies with a "very 
valuable Cargo" in order to carry on 
* 6 a Trade there Agreably to the estab- 
lished Laws"; that at Port au Prince 
Nichols met with one of Derby's snows 
laden with lumber; that te Messrs. 
Barrere & La Maire, Merchants of that 
place agreed for the purchase of both 
Cargoes at a price certain," agreeing 
to pay in sugars at a stipulated price; 
that Nichols fulfilled his part of the 
contract only to find **to his extreme 
mortification and Disappointment . . . 
they had no intention to perform their 
engagement, which they now alledged 
to be impossible"; that hi his dilemma 
Nichols had been persuaded to accept 
the merchants' proposal "that his Snow 
should be conveyed to one of them, and 
made a French Bottom, and that they 
would lade on board a Cargo to the 
amount of the Debt and clear out the 
Vessel! for Nantes"; that the transfer 
was made, the vessel loaded with 410,* 
000 pounds of sugar, 4,000 pounds of 
coffee, 7,400 pounds of cotton, &c. so 
that the value of vessel and cargo 
amounted to a total of 230,473 livres, 
and clearance papers obtained for a 
voyage to Nantes; that, soon after, the 
vessel was seized "under a pretext of 
her being bound to the Continent of 
America," and, after "Mr. La Maire 

appeared as Owner" and made what 
seemed to be a feeble opposition as 
claimant, the snow was condemned by 
the admiralty court; that an appeal was 
made but lie verdict confirmed, "al- 
though some of the Judges, and the 
most learned Lawyers were clearly of 
opinion that the Vessell being still in 
port, there was not any transgression 
of the Law"; that it appears the mer- 
chants were interested in the condem- 
nation, since their captain was the 
informer, caused the seizure, "and im- 
mediately Fled apparently to avoid the 
Public Odium and Indignation"; and 
that the petitioner now has "no re- 
source but in that Royall power and 
Goodness ... to relieve the distressed 
and Injured." (2) Notarized deposition 
of Ichabod Nichols, dated at Ports- 
mouth, N.H., 4 Dec. 1786, testifying 
to the same facts. ( 3 ) Notarized deposi- 
tion of Richard Tibbets, mariner, of 
Portsmouth, N.H., dated 16 Nov. 1786, 
testifying that he was at Port au Prince 
in the summer of 1786 and '^present at 
a conversation between Captain Ichabod 
Nichols and Messrs. Barrifere and Le- 
maire" when the latter offered to pur- 
chase the cargoes of the Nancy and the 
snow, of which he, Tibbetts, was 
master; and that he also heard the 
merchants tell Nichols "it would be 
more for their Interest and his to make 
a French Bottom of his Vessell," to 
which, "after a good deal of persuasion 
on their part he consented." Sullivan's 
covering letter and its enclosures were 
sent to TJ by Derby with his letter of 
1 Mch. 1787, q.v. 

From Benjamin Vaughan, with Enclosure 

DEAR SIR Jeffries Square London Jany. 26. 1787. 

I was honoured with your letter of the 29th. of December only 
last night, and take the first moment of answering it, presuming 


2 G JANUARY 1787 

to offer a few remarks on the objects you have in view, by way of ' 

It appears that many mistakes respecting the animal and vegeta- 
ble productions of America have arisen from the precipitancy of 
European philosophers in deciding upon slight evidence; as well 
as from the propensity of mankind to extend partial into general 
conclusions. Your notes respecting Virginia furnish ample proofs 
of this. 

Those Europeans however who have disparaged the New World 
have not only been imperfectly acquainted with their subject; but 
seem to have overlooked the original destitute state of Europe 
which is said to have borrowed many of its valuable animals and 
vegetables from other countries. We hear of a Ceres, a Bacchus, 
and a Minerva deified for the introduction of corn, of wine, and of 
oil into our quarter of the globe; and we can very easily credit 
these traditions from the accounts given of the gradual spread of 
the two latter productions in the Southern parts of Europe. We 
are not able (it is said) in this island of Great Britain to boast of 
a single fruit as indigenous among the number that now appear 
at our tables, and it is clear frotn authentic accounts, that we have 
as little claim to the original of most of our esculent vegetables, 
which are now so common. I must add that the species both of our 
fruits and common esculent vegetables are still very few in num- 
ber, though we have taken some pains to traverse the globe to 
collect or add to them, and have likewise called in experienced art 
to our assistance. It is observable also that several of our present 
English fruits have had their reputed origin from the neighbour- 
hood of the Black Sea, whose climate bears a very particular re- 
semblance to those parts of Eastern North America which lie in 
correspondent latitudes. I may add that from various authentic 
relations, Eastern North America appears to exhibit (notwith- 
standing the opinions that have been entertained respecting it) 
a fair Model in general of the climate of all the inland and Eastern 
quarters of our Northern Hemisphere. 

I have sometimes thought that if Eastern North America had 
been peopled by old and civilized nations, some ages before the 
birth of Christ, and had at that time accumulated in it (wherever 
the climates were analagous) not only the productions (vegetable 
and animal) of the Western and Southern parts of its double 
continent, but those from China and Japan, in addition to all 
those productions which accident, as well as diligence and art 


26 JANUARY 1787 

might have enabled it to discover and propagate within itself: I 
have thought that if a people, so circumstanced in those parts, had 
at that period discovered Western Europe, similar remarks would 
probably have occurred (after a time) among their speculative 
philosophers, on the rude and ill provided condition of the New 
World (as our part of it would then have been called) . A civilized 
Chinese, given to speculation and theory, might in similar terms 
now speak of Western North America; though Western North 
America, there is good reason to think, is the exact counterpart, 
as to climate, of Europe and part of Africa. Indeed it is to be hoped 
that in future ages it -will become alike civilized and alike abound- 
ing in the good things of this life with Western Europe, and 
when that period arrives, the voyages of Cook will be read with 
the same degree of curiosity by Western Americans with which 
Western Europeans now peruse the accounts of Germany, Gaul and 
England given by Tacitus and Caesar. Certain it is, that Europeans 
in general do not at present think worse of America than some of 
the Greeks and Romans formerly thought of those parts of Europe, 
which now make the most brilliant figure of any countries upon 
the globe. 

I do not mean to suggest by any of these remarks, that there 
are not certain considerable and characteristic distinctions between 
the climate of this quarter of the world and that of your own. But 
every circumstance of this sort, were it to be entered into, would 
come under a separate head of discussion. All that I mean to 
affirm is, that there is nothing peculiar and ill-fated in your own 
climate and soil, compared with that of the globe at large; and 
that nature, after she has had proper time to make a full display 
of herself, will be found as provident to you, as to the Northern 
Hemisphere in general. Indeed it has never appeared her intention 
to accumulate all her favours upon any one situation: her gifts are 
dispersed; and men are to be made acquainted and united among 
each other, by their attempts to assemble and exchange them. 

I am truly happy to see that in your work, you have with so 
much success combated the opinions of certain European philoso- 
phers on some of these subjects respecting Eastern America. I 
think the Recherches sur Les Americains contain nearly three 
volumes of errors, believed in Europe because boldly asserted, and 
till lately never controverted. Monsr. De Buffon and the abbe 
Raynal in particular among the French, and Dr. Robertson and 
others with us, have largely imbibed these errors; but the time 


26 JANUARY 1787 

has arrived when science, industry and art on your side of the 
water, will soon furnish materials to overthrow the whole of 
them, and even to efface their memory. 

As to the supposed humidity of the atmosphere of Eastern North 
America, compared with that of Kuropc, (your desire of enquiring 
into which gave occasion to the letter you have done me the honour 
to write) European philosophers seem to have formed their con- 
clusion respecting this subject principally from three sources. First, 
from the excessive vehemence of the rains which fall at times in 
the colonized parts of Eastern America, especially to the South- 
ward. Next from the cultivated parts of the West Indies (a sup- 
posed appendage of the part of America in question) being divided 
into small islands exposed to the sea air. And lastly from the in- 
habitants of all our colonies having generally chosen for the seat 
of their plantations and settlements the banks of the sea or of 
rivers; or else low lands, swamps and mill ponds; either for the 
sake of cheap carriage and easy cultivation, or of the advantages 
for machinery afforded by such situations; preferring the speedy 
acquisition of wealth, to health and happiness, and the other 
slower, though more permanent and substantial modes of attaining 
riches. I do not defend the necessity of the last of these causes; I 
think it an opprobrium to my American friends, and that it much 
more deserves legislative attention in each particular state, than 
matters of trade, or other matters of a more delicate nature which 
legislators seldom treat with any success. But after allowing for 
all these causes in their fullest extent, I cannot but incline to the 
opinion which yourself and Dr. Franklin have assumed on the 
subject alluded to, as far as respects the Eastern and probably 
the internal parts of North America. 

Trusting to your kind forgiveness of a few observations made in 
favour of a country from which I am in part descended, I shall 
now have the pleasure of attending more immediately to the par- 
ticulars respecting which you did me the honour to apply to me. 

I have been some time acquainted with Dr. Franklins observa- 
tions on Hygrometers, since published in the second volume of 
the Philadelphian Philosophical Transactions. He showed me the 
manuscript when in an unfinished state, in which it had long lain by 
neglected, and which occasioned me to express considerable regret, 
and I had the pleasure to find that the paper was soon after com- 
pleted and forwarded to Mr. Nairne. I think it in his usual manner, 
novel, sagacious, and simple; and it appears the more useful, as 


2 6 JANUARY 1787 

extreme diversity of opinion, if not difficulty has long prevailed 
respecting hygrometers constructed upon other principles. 

Mr. Nairne made an instrument pursuant to Dr. Franklins hint, 
of which he some time ago favoured me with a drawing and de- 
scription, a copy of which I have annexed. My objection to the 
plan of this instrument, though otherwise ingenious, is, that the 
motion of the pin produces greater changes in the position of the 
smaller arm and consequently of the index, when the smaller arm 
is at right angles to the line of motion of the pin, than when 
oblique.* The remedy of this difficulty must either lie in certain 
complex machinery annexed to the arm, or in a complex division 
of the scale to which the index points: but as the result sought 
after, is made to depend upon the comparison of two instruments, 
the less complex the plan is, the better. 

I have therefore been led to employ Dr. Franklin's principles in 
a manner more simple. As the case of the shutter of the magnet- 
box seemed to prove that a small plate of wood, cut thin, might 
exhibit considerable variations of dimension across the grain, I at 
first directed a number of such plates to be cut square, two of the 
sides of which should run parallel to the grain or fibre of the wood; 
and the other two to be at right angles; designing to make the 
invariable serve as measures to the variable sides. But as a small 
scale might leave room for doubts, and if the squares were much 
enlarged, other inconveniences might arise, I directed a thin and 
narrow stripe, or fillet of wood, to be cut across the grain of the 
widest plank of Mahogony that could be found; and that from 
the same wood a staff should be cut, in which the fibres should run 
longitudinally; the staff being both solid and long enough to allow 
of a groove in it for the purpose of receiving the fillet. (The fillet 
having the cross grain, would thus lie freely in the groove of the 

* That is, if from /. be drawn lines intersecting equal portions of 
the line a 

those center lines which decline most from a right angle with a, will 
form the smallest angles respectively at / with the contiguous radii. But 
it is upon the equality of the angles at /, and not of the portions of 
motion along the line a, that the equal motions of the index "will depend. 

73 3 

> 6 J A N U A R Y 1 7 H 7 

staff which is oppositely grained, nearly as a pocket comb lies in 
its tortoise shell case.) The staff bring nuitle a little longer than 
the fillet, when the two were brought to coincide at one of their 
extremities, it would be easy to mark upon the staff the standard 
point, to which the other end of the fillet reached in the standard 
country; and afterwards, to mark the point to \vhich the fillet 
should stretch or shrink in other countries., accordingly as they 
were moister or drier. 

An instrument of this kind, which, by being composed of two 
parts, carries along with it its own standard and allows its changes 
to be reduced into well known and ordinary measures, I had the 
pleasure about a fortnight ago to sent! to Mr. White, who is 
appointed principal surgeon to attend the proposed expedition with 
our convicts to Botany Bay in the South Seas. It is one of its ad- 
vantages, that any carpenter can easily construct the like out of any 
kind of wood. 

I was sorry not to have been able to inspect the instrument sent 
to Mr. White. But Messrs. Nairne & Blunt, who made it, having 
undertaken to make a second for me, I have the honour to request 
your acceptance of it, Coll. Smith offering* the means of conveying 
it to you. 

I have had no trial of this little contrivance, but I foresee several 
precautions necessary to be observed. The first is, that of placing 
the instrument in corresponding situations in the countries of trial; 
since considerable differences may arise from the neighbourhood 
of the sea and other waters, or from swampy or mountainous 
situations; and other differences again from the apartments in which 
the instruments are preserved, either as to their being with or with- 
out fires, their aspect, elevation from the ground, and other cir- 
cumstances. A second precaution is, that of noting the state of the 
weather, or the season at the period of observation; for it is well 
known, for instance, that the doors and windows of houses will 
shut more or less closely, according to the state of the air as to 
humidity, at different periods in the same country. A third pre- 
caution is, that of using for the construction of the instrument none 
but seasoned wood. It is partly owing to a neglect of this that the 
floor of the room where I now write, has large openings between 
each of its boards; though neither the boards, nor the rafters that 
run across the boards, appear to have altered in their dimensions 
longitudinally; and in like manner that the door of a deal box (in 
which, when lined with baize, fire arms may long be kept dry and 
free from rust) and which is fastened to the wainscot of my bed- 
room, has shrunk considerably cross ways, though two wooden 

2 6 JANUARY 1787 

bars, that stretch across this door at right angles, appear to retain 
their original dimensions: (These effects being also partly owing 
to the removal of the wood from an open timber yard, or carpenters 
shed, into a warm inhabited house). The warping of the parts of 
the instrument may call for a fourth precaution; and to remedy 
this defect, when it takes place in the filleting, the filleting may be 
measured when laid under the pressure of a moderate weight; 
while the shape of the staff may be best preserved by giving it 
such a degree of solidity as shall produce compensations to the 
action of any one part of its substance against any other part of 
it. The filleting may be two inches wide and ^ inch thick, as 
recommended by Dr. Franklin, and a section across the staff may 
form a square of 2. or 3 inches. 

Should the supposition, that certain woods do not vary in their 
longitudinal dimensions prove untrue, it will not affect the credit 
to be given to the instrument in question, provided the variation 
is different in its degree from that occurring cross wise. 

I am pleased with the ingenuity of Mr. Rittenhouse's idea, which 
was perfectly new to me; but I fear the variations of no two 
hygrometers, on his plan of construction can be depended upon as 
at all corresponding, which is certainly one objection to it; and I 
think, a second objection to it is, that the degrees of variation in 
the same instrument, must be far from being equable in their meas- 
urement, compared with the degrees of change taking place in 
the atmosphere. 

I have ordered a box of magnets from Messrs. Nairne & Blunt, 
similar to that which was in the possession of Dr. Franklin, which 
will accompany the hygrometer, its case being formed out of the 
same piece of wood above described. 

During the last summer I made use of a thermometer with a fine 
tube, in which I found it difficult in some situations readily to mark 
the station of the quicksilver. I placed white paper behind the 
tube with some advantage, till it occurred to me to put a stripe of 
thick black paint upon the back of the tube, the breadth of which 
was about % only of the tube's circumference. The optical effect 
of this was curious enough; for though the place of the black paint 
could scarcely be seen when the thermometer was viewed side- 
ways; yet in front the whole of the glass appeared as dark as ink. 
The result was that the quicksilver losing no rays of light, and 
the tube within having much less luminous reflection than before, 
I could in many situations of the light and of the thermometer, 
discover the thread of quicksilver to much greater advantage than 
usual. I take the liberty to add to my packet through Coll. Smith, 


26 JANUARY 1787 

a thermometer on which this operation has been performed. I find 
that another device practiced upon thermometers with the same 
view, has been to flatten the bore in which the thread of the 
quicksilver lies, in order to increase the breadth of the thread to 
the eye; the advantage of which operation I have never had an 
opportunity of ascertaining; but I know that some who have used 
it, have since laid it aside. The most advantageous view that can 
be had of the thread of the thermometer, is certainly by bringing 
in light upon the tube from the back of its scale, or using a scale 
that is transparent, or by marking the degrees upon the tube it- 
self; but as it is not always practicable thus to bring in the light 
from behind, I think that to some persons and in some cases the 
contrivance of the paint abovementioned may be of use. Indeed 
I am not sure whether it may not in some measure be combined with 
the use of the slit in the scale, so as to allow of both advantages 
in the instrument at different moments. I have sometimes thought 
also, that if the polish were removed from some parts of the glass 
tube, it might produce some good effect. But my time does not 
allow me to try many experiments. 

If I suspend the execution of what respects the hygrometer you 
have desired to be sent to you, till you repeat your directions on 
the subject, I hope you will not be put to any disappointment by 
the liberty I take in this particular. 

With very great respect & esteem, I have the honour to be your 
Excellency's most obedient and most humble servant, 



Fig. I. (being one side of the instrument) 
A A piece of about 12 inches long and 2 broad cut crosswise to the 

27 JANUARY 1787 

grain of the wood, which slides freely between the pieces of wood BB 
forming grooves for it. 

C Is a screw for adjusting the piece of wood A to the frame of the in- 
strument, so that the index may point to the proper division when 
first made. 

Fig. II. (being the other side of the instrument.) 

a Is a slit to admit the pin e to move freely, which pin by being fast in 
the piece of wood A moves with it, as it shortens or lengthens, and 
by pressing against the short end of the index D 9 causes it to move 
up or down according as the weather is moist or dry. The result is 
shewn on the divided arch at the other end of the index. 

RC (DLC). Enclosure (DLC). This letter was enclosed in Vaughan's to TJ 
of 5 Apr. 1788; see also Vaughan to TJ, 16 Feb. 1787 and TJ to Vaughan, 2 
July 1787. 

The American Commissioners to John Jay 

SIR London Jany. 27th. 1787. 1 

We had the honour of transmitting to Congress, Copies of the 
Commission and Instructions, which in pursuance of the Authority 
delegated to us, were given to Mr. Barclay, to conduct a negotiation 
with Morocco. 2 

Mr. Barclay has conducted that Business to a happy Conclusion, 
and has brought with him Testimonials of his prudent Conduct, 
from the Emperor of Morocco and his Minister, so clear and full, 
that we flatter ourselves Mr. Barclay will receive, the Approbation 
of Congress. Mr. Barclay has received somewhat more than four 
Thousand Pounds sterling, for the Expences of Presents and all 
other Things. Colonel Franks, who accompanied Mr. Barclay in 


27 JANUARY 1787 

his tedious Journeys, and difficult Negotiations, in the Character 
of Secretary, will be dispatched to Congress, and will have the 
honour of delivering this Letter, together with the Treaty, the 
Emperors Letter to Congress, and a variety of other Papers, rela- 
tive to this Mission, a Schedule of which is annexed. 

The Resolution of Congress, vacating Mr. Lambs Commission 
and Instructions, has been forwarded to him, and we have re- 
peatedly advised him to return to New York. That Gentleman has 
received somewhat more than three thousand Pounds Sterling of 
the public Money for which he is accountable to Congress. 

We beg Leave to recommend Mr. Barclay and Colonel Franks, 
to the favourable Consideration of Congress. 

It is no Small Mortification not to be able to communicate any 
Intelligence concerning the Treaty with Portugal. The Chevalier 
De Pinto is equally uninformed. His own confidential Domestick 
dispatched to Lisbon last Spring has been constantly waiting on the 
Minister for an Answer, but has obtained none, and is not yet re- 
turned to London. The Treaty between France and England, has 
probably excited Parties and Surprize in Portugal, and the System 
of Men and Measures is not yet Settled. The Apologies are the 
Queens Absence in the Country and the Prime Ministers Indis- 

The Article of Money is become so scarce and prescious that 
we shall be obliged to suspend all further Proceedings in the 
Barbary Business, even for the Redemption of Prisoners untill we 
shall be honoured with fresh Instructions from Congress. 

With great Respect we have the Honour to be, Sir, your most 
obedient and most humble Servants, 
London Jan. 27. 1787. JOHN ADAMS 

RC (DNA: PCC, No. 84); in John instance of the Commissioners* letter to 

Adams' hand, with one alteration by Taher Fennish, following can only be 

TJ; sigrned and dated by Adams only; attributed to his haste in assembling the 

endorsed by Charles Thomson: "Letter dispatches which David Franks was to 

24 Jany. 1787 Mr. J. Adams." Tr carry to America (see T,T's two letters 

(DNA: PCC, No. 104). Enclosures: to Franks, 8 Feb. 1787). Though the 

Barclay to American Commissioners, 2 date is uncertain, TJ very likely re- 

Oct. 1786 (and its enclosures), 7 Nov., viewed the letter on or immediately 

and 15 Nov. 1786. after 2 Feb. 1787, the date on which 

This letter is printed in Dipl. Corr.^ Franks returned from London with 

1783-89, H, 693-4, as addressed by Adams' letter of 25 Jan. 1787, in which 

Adams only, while C. F. Adams in the present letter was enclosed. 
Works of John Adams , vin, 525, desig- 
nates it as from the Commissioners. 1 This date was added by the clerk 

From TJ's singrle correction in the text in the office of foreign affairs who tran- 

it is evident that the letter was re- scribed the Tr in PCC, No. 1O4. 
viewed by him; his failure to siprn it 2 TJ substituted this word for Adams' 

an omission that happened also in the incorrect "Algiers." 


The American Commissioners 
to Taher Fennish 

To His Excellency, SIdi Hadq Taher Ben Abdelhack Fennish, 
in the Service of His Majesty the Emperor of Morocco 

We have recieved with high satisfaction the letter, which your 
Excellency by the command of His Majesty the Emperor of Moroc- 
co, did us the honor to write us, on the first day of the blessed 
month Ramadan twelve hundred and transmitted to us, by the 
Honorable Thomas Barclay Esqr., who was sent to your court, 
in order to negociate an amicable treaty of peace and commerce, 
between His Majesty the Emperor of Morocco and all his dominions, 
and those of the United States of America. We are happy to learn 
that this matter has been fortunately concluded to the satisfaction 
of all parties. The contents of the treaty we have learned from the 
said envoy, the honorable Thomas Barclay Esqr. to whom His 
Imperial Majesty delivered it together with a letter to the United 

It is with the most respectful satisfaction that we learn from 
your Excellency, that the conduct of our said Envoy, the Honorable 
Thomas Barclay Esqr. has the entire approbation of His Imperial 
Majesty, and that he has behaved with integrity and honor since 
his arrival in His Imperial Majesty's Dominions and above all that 
His Imperial Majesty has been graciously pleased to give him two 
honorable favourable and unparalleled audiences, signifying His 
Majesty's perfect satisfaction at his conduct. 

We pray your Excellency, if you think proper, to express to His 
Imperial Majesty the high sense we entertain of His Majesty's 
friendship to the United States of America and of his goodness to 
the said Honorable Thomas Barclay. 

And we request of your Excellency to accept of our sincere thanks 
for the kind assistance you have given to the said envoy in the 
course of these negociations. With much pleasure we learn that 
your Excellency is charged with the affairs of our country, by His 
Imperial Majesty, at his Court and doubt not that your Excellency 
will do all that lies in your power to promote the friendly inter- 
course that is so happily begun. 

We shall transmit, without delay, to the Honourable the Con- 
gress of the United States an account of all these proceedings and 
entertain the fullest assurance that they will recieve in due time 
the approbation of that August Assembly. 

May the Providence of the one Almighty God, whose Kingdom 


2 7 JANUARY 1787 

is the only existing one protect your Excellency. With great Respect 
we have the Honour to be Your Excellency's most obedient & most 
humble servants, 
London. Jan. 27. 1787. JOHN ADAMS 

Tr (DLC); in William Short's hand, to read as it does above in the final 
with only Adams' dating 1 and signature paraprraph. These corrections were so 
recorded. FC (MHi: AMT); undated; numerous that TJ caused Short to 
in Adams' hand, with several variations make a fair copy which, however, he 
in phraseology not noted here. The neglected to sign (see note to Coin- 
differences between the text prepared missioners to Jay, preceding 1 , and Car- 
by Adams and that copied by Short michael to TJ, 25 Mch. 1787). 
resulted from TJ's effort to make the This letter was included by mistake 
latter conform to expressions used by among the American despatches carried 
Taher Fennish in his communication of by Franks to Le Havre on 8 Feb., but 
28 June 1786; for example, where TJ discovered the error in time (see 
Adams had written "May the Provi- TJ to Banister, 7 Feb. 1787; TJ's two 
dence of God Almighty, protect your letters to Franks, 8 Feb. 1787; and 
Excellency," TJ altered the expression Franks to TJ, 10 and 11 Feb. 1787). 

To Milliard d'Auberteuil 

SIR Paris Jan. 27. 1787. 

I duly received the letter you did me the honour to write, and 
the verses therein inclosed on the subject of the M. de la Fayette. 
I have taken measures to present the public with this acceptable 
present; but the newspapers here are slow in complying with the 
applications addressed to them. It is not for a stranger to decide 
on the merit of poetry in a language foreign to him. Were I to 
presume to do it in this instance, I should certainly assign to this 
composition a high degree of approbation. 

I wish it were in my power to furnish you with any materials 
for the history on which you are engaged. But I brought no papers 
of that kind with me from America. In a letter you did me the 
honour of writing me some time ago, you seemed to suppose it 
possible you might go to America in quest of materials. Should 
you execute this idea, I should with great pleasure give any assist- 
ance in my power to obtain access for you to the several deposits of 
materials which are in that country. I have the honour to be with 
great respect Sir your most obedient & most humble servant, 


CEPTABLE PRESENT, the evidence and result of his doing- so have not been found. 


To Gelhais 

MONSIEUR Paris 27me. Janvier 1787. 

Un quartier du loyer de la maison de M. le comte de Langeac 
etant echu ce mois ci, je lui ai prevenu des titres de la demande que 
vous avez eu la complaisance de m'adresser. Mais il m'a montr6 un 
arret de surseance par lequel les reclamations de ses creanciers 
centre lui sont suspendues. A cet arret, emandant de Pautorite 
supreme du pais, c'est de mon devoir de me conformer aussi. Je 
lui ai pay6 done le loyer comme & Pordinaire. J*ai Phonneur de vous 
renvoyer le titre que vous m'avez confie", et j'aurois etc* tres charme* 
si les circonstances m'auroient permis de me preter plus efficacement 
. vos justes demandes. J'ai Phonneur d'etre avec une consideration 
tre*s distinguee, Monsieur, votre tre*s humble et tr6s obeissant 
serviteur, TH: JEFFERSON 

PrC (DLC); endorsed. Enclosure not found. See TJ to De Lang-eac, 12 Oct. 
1786; TJ to Gelhais, 7 Dec. 1786. 

From De Langeac 

ce 27 Janvier 1787 

Le nomm6 savisse est venu me trouver, monsieur pour me 
prier d'interceder vos bont6s pour lui, qu'il est bien facile* davoir 
perdft; vous aves surement de bonnes Raisons pour vous en plaindre 
et le renvoyer, mais je serois bien flatte* et bien reconnoissant si 
ma consideration et sur la priere que je vous en f ais vous voulies 
bien lui pardonner. Si vous ne voules vous rendre absolument 
mes solicitations je vous demande en grace pour mon compte 
particulier de trouver bon quil continue & faire votre jardin. J'ai 
confiance en sa maniere de soigner Les arbres. C'etoit une de mes 
conditions en louant ma maison et votre homme d'affaires m'en 
donna dans le terns parole de votre part et je m'en rapportai tout 
ce quil me dit en votre nom sans croire quil fut nScessaire de le 
faire inserer dans le bail par devant notaire n'y dans le Sous seing 
prive particulier. C'est ainsi que j'en ai agis pour le cautionement 
et les autres precautions d'usage que mes gens d'affaires vouloient 
me faire prendre et dont jai crti, Monsieur, n'avoir pas besoin avec 
vous. Si vous n'aves pas des Raisons trop fortes pour ne pas 
pardonner au nomme savisse je vous demande avec instances de 
m'en faire le Sacrifice le connoissant depuis longtems pour un 
garon honnte fidel, laborieux et attach6. 


2 7 JANUARY 1787 

J'ai Ihonneur d'etre avec la plus parfaite consideration Monsieur 
Votre tre"s humble et tres obeissimt serviteur, 


RC (MHi); endorsed. Not recorded Account Books from the time of leasing 

in SJL. ***<* Hotel dc JLantveuc do nut give the 

SAVISSE: The name of the gardener mmie uf tin* pardoner, and evidently TJ 

is doubtful; it may be us given, or it did not yivAd to DC Langeac's appeal, 

may be "foresse," "favesse," "soresse," On TJ's r< turn in July the gardener's 

"savesse," or a variation of these with pltici* apju'ars to have been taken by 

the first "e" replaced by an "i." TJ's one Nomcme. 

From Schweighauser 8c Dobree 

[Nantes^ 27 Jan. 1787. Recorded in sjr, as received 31 Jan. 1787. 
Not found, but see TJ's reply, 12 Feb. 1787. Enclosure: Copy of the 
resolution of Congress of 16 Oct. 1786 directing TJ to adjust the claim 
of Daniel Schweighauser against the United States "in such manner as 
he shall judge most for the interest and honor of the said states; and 
that the property of the United States in the custody of the . . . claimant, 
be applied towards the discharge of the balance, if any, which shall be 
found due" (JGC, xxxt, 878-9).] 

To Segond 

Paris Jan. 27. 1787. 

I have duly received the letter with which you ha\e been pleased 
to honour me, complaining of the nonpaimcnt of interest on the 
sum due to you from the United States. I feel with great sensibility 
the weight of these complaints; but it is neither in my province, nor 
in my power, to remedy them. I am no ways authorised to inter- 
fere with the money matters of the U.S. in Europe. These rest al- 
together between the Commissioners of the treasury of the U.S. at 
New York, and their bankers in Europe. Being informed however 
from Mr. Grand that the funds appropriated to the paiment of 
the foreign officers were exhausted, I took the liberty of repre- 
senting strongly to the Commissioners the motives which should 
urge them to furnish new supplies. They assured me, in answer, 
that they would do it the first moment it should be in their power. 
I am perfectly persuaded they will: however I shall immediately 
forward to them the letter you have been pleased to address to me: 
and will observe to you that it is to them alone, or to Congress, to 
whom you can make any future applications with effect. 


2 8 JANUARY 1787 

I have the honour to be with much respect, Sir, your most 
obedient & most humble servant, TH: JEFFERSON 

PrC (DLC); at foot of text: "Le Chevalr. de Segond." 

From Edmund Randolph 

SIR Richmond January 28. 1787. 

When I came lately into office, I found two letters from your 
excellency to my predecessor unanswered. I cannot ascertain the 
dates, being at present unable to have recourse to them; but the 
subject of this address will point to the letters themselves. 

The executive are much indebted to you for your humane atten- 
tion to Mercier: and I am authorized to assure you, that your dis- 
bursements shall be repaid by this commonwealth. His family is 
unknown to us; but I have circulated in the place of his former 
residence such information of his distress, as will reach the ears 
of his relations, if he has any there. 

Altho' a special vote was not taken in council concerning the 
cancelling of the Marquis's signature to Mr. Littlepage's note, the 
propriety of the step seemed to be universally assented to. For 
myself, I should have been really mortified, had it remained attached 
to the obligation. It was presented to the treasurer and Mr. Benja- 
min Lewis; the former of whom said, that he had never received 
a shilling towards discharging it, and the latter, that he should not 
pay a shilling for that purpose. A formal protest is not sent; be- 
cause it is presumed, that Mr. Littlepage will acquiesce in my 
statement of the facts. Every effort in our power shall be made for 
the remittance of the funds, to be applied to the purchase of arms. 
We sincerely thank you for your exertions; and if it would not 
add too much to the trouble already given, we beg your excellency 
to direct an inquiry to be made for the bayonets, which by mistake, 
we suppose, were omitted, when the late importation of arms was 
sent off. I mention this omission from the report of Colo. Meri- 
wether, our military assistant, who possibly may not have minutely 
examined the Cases: and they are not now within my own reach. 

I beg you to put yourself to no inconvenience, if you should wish 
to take a credit for the money advanced for the directors of the 
public buildings. I have pressed the treasurer, however, to replace 
it in your hands by the first oppurtunity. I trust this -will be shortly 


28 JANUARY 1787 

I have the honor sir to be with the highest respect and esteem 
yr, excellency's mo. ob. & very hbl. serv., 


RC (DLC). Recorded in SJL as received 3 May 1787 at Aix-en-Provence. 

TJ's TWO LETTERS ... TO MY FR&HKCKSSOK were those to the ffovemor of Vir- 
ginia of 9 Aug. and 12 Aug. 1786, to the first of which TJ added a postscript 
dated 13 Augr. pertaining: to MEHCXEU. 

From Edmund Randolph 

DEAR SIR Richmond January 28. 1787 

The new arrangement, to which my aversion to the law has 
lately given birth, throws me into a new scene, which leaves me at 
leisure to testify my respect for you, by transmitting any intelli- 
gence, occurring here, worthy of your notice. 

At present, however, political action has ceased, and this state 
is in perfect tranquillity; the assembly having risen about a fort- 
night ago, and the public mind being at rest on the subject of 
paper-money. It has been defeated, indeed, on the first erection of 
its crest. But the year may possibly not pass away, before the 
number of its enemies will be found to be diminished. What if 
a certain popular leader should espouse it? And the same men, who 
refused to expedite the administration of justice, clogged as it 
now is, should return in the delegation? I suggest this as a suspicion 
only. It is to be developped by time alone, 

Our capitol rears its head, to the approbation of most people: 
but I tremble, lest we should have committed some blunder in 
proportion. The danger of this I mentioned in my letter to you of 
July last: but from the indolence of our superintendant he has 
never finished the draught, which I desired for your inspection. The 
outward walls are raised above the windows of the first story, and 
we have obtained a vote of 6000 on the contingent fund, towards 
this work. This sum may truly be called depreciated paper, war- 
rants on this fund being exchanged for cash at one half. From this 
circumstance we shall have our eyes fixed on the accommodation 
of the legislature in this building at their next cession having 
experienced their hardiness in supplying us, and foreseeing the 
probable effect of rousing their pride to finish a house, in which 
they themselves sit. 

Being engaged in preparing for an official visit to the naval 
offices below, I shall for the present only beg you, to inform Mr. 


2 8 JANUARY 1787 

Mazzei that I have remitted him money wrote to him in the 
summer am settling with Mr. Webb and shall give him a full 
detail very soon. 

You will oblige me too by offering my best respects to Mr. 
Short, and to be assured that I am dear sir with the greatest sin- 
cerity yr. friend and serv: EDM: RANDOLPH 

RC (MHi); endorsed. Recorded in SJL as received 3 May 1787 at Aix-en-Pro- 
vence. The CERTAIN POPULAR LEADER was Patrick Henry. 

To John Stockdale 

SIR Paris Jan. 28. 87. 

I will thank you to send me by the Diligence Sterne's works 
complete, 5. vols. 12mo. published by Cadell 1780. I name this 
edition because it brings all his works into the smallest compass 
of any one I have seen. If you know of any edition still smaller I 
would prefer it, elegantly bound. 

A friend here has desired me to procure there two peices of 
Pope, viz, 'Happy the man whose wish and care &c.' and 'Vital 
spark of heavenly flame &c.' set to musick for the harpsichord, if 
they have been ever set to music, as I think they have. "Will you 
be so good as to have enquiry made at some of the music shops, 
and forward them to me by the Diligence, or, if not too bulky, 
by the post. I shall set out on my journey the 15th. of February, 
within which time I shall hope to receive these articles. I have 
never heard whether you sent the books to Virginia which I desired 
long ago. I remember you had to get some of them from Scotland. 

I am Sir your very humble servt., TH: JEFFERSON 

PrC (DLC); endorsed. 

To Anthony Vieyra 

[28 Jan. 1787] 

Mr. Jefferson has the honour of presenting his compliments to 
Mr. Vieyra and is sorry to have been out of the way when he did 
him the honour to call on him yesterday. He returns him the copy 
of his book which he had been so kind as to leave with him, and 
which Mr. Jefferson has gone over with much satisfaction, and 
with a conviction of the great erudition of it's author. 


29 JANUARY 178 

PrC (MoSHi); not dated; at foot of text: 4 *M, Antoniuh Vioyra UL.B. & c ." The 
.te has been supplied from S.TL, and from internal evidence (see Vieyra to TJ, 


15 Aug. 1787). 

From Abigail Adams 

MY DEAR SIR London Junry. 29th. 1787 

I received by Col. Franks your obliging favour and am very 
sorry to find your wrist 1 still continues lame; I have known very 
salutary effects produced by the use of British oil upon a spraind 
joint. 2 I have sent a servant to see if I can procure some. You may 
rest assured that if it does no good: it will not do any injury. 

With regard to the Tumults in my Native state which you 
inquire about, I wish I could say that report had exagerated them. It 
is too true Sir that they have been carried to so allarming a Height 
as to stop the Courts of justice in several Counties. Ignorant, 
wrestless desperadoes, without conscience or principals, have led 
a deluded multitude to follow their standard, under pretence of 
grievences which have no existance but in their immaginations. 
Some of them were crying out for a paper currency, some for an 
equal distribution of property, some \\ere for annihilating all 
debts, others complaning that the Senate was a useless Branch of 
Government, that the Court of common pleas was unnecessary, 
and that the sitting of the General Court in Boston was a grievance. 
By this list you will see the materials which compose this rebellion, 
and the necessity there is of the wisest and most vigorus measures 
to quell and suppress it. Instead of that laudible spirit which you 
approve, which makes a people watchfull o\cr their Liberties and 
alert in the defence of them, these mobish insurgents are for sap- 
ping the foundation, and distroying the whole fabrick at once. 
But as these people make only a small part of the state, when 
compared to the more sensible and judicious, and altho they create 
a just allarm and give much trouble and uneasiness, I cannot help 
flattering myself that they will prove sallutary to the state at large, 
by leading to an investigation of the causes which have produced 
these commotions. Luxery and extravagance :j both in furniture and 
dress had pervaded all orders of our Countrymen and women, and 
was hastning fast to sap their independance by involving every 
class of citizens in distress, and accumulating debts upon them 
which they were unable to discharge. 4 Vanity was becoming a 
more powerfull principal than patriotism. The lower order of the 


29 JANUARY 1787 

community were prest for taxes, 6 and tho possest of landed property 
they were unable to answer the demand, whilst those who possest 
money were fearfull of lending, least the mad cry of the mob 6 
should force the Legislature upon a measure very different from 
the touch of Midas. 7 

By the papers I send you, you will see the beneficial effects al- 
ready produced. An act of the Legislature laying duties of 15 per 
cent upon many articles of British manufacture and totally pro- 
hibiting others a number of Vollunteers Lawyers physicians and 
Merchants from Boston made up a party of Light horse com- 
manded by CoL Hitchbourn, Leit. Col. Jackson and Higgenson, 
and went out in persuit of the insurgents and were fortunate enough 
to take 3 of their principal Leaders, Shattucks Parker and Page. 
Shattucks defended himself and was wounded in his knee with a 
broadsword. He is in Jail in Boston and will no doubt be made 
an example of. 8 

Your request my dear sir with respect to your Daughter shall 
be punctually attended to, and you may be assured of every at- 
tention in my power towards her. 

You will be so kind as to present my Love to Miss Jefferson, 
compliments to the Marquiss and his Lady. I am really conscience 
smitten that I have never written to that amiable Lady, whose 
politeness and attention to me deserved my acknowledgment. 9 

The little balance which you stated in a former Letter in my 
favour, when an opportunity offers I should like to have in Black 
Lace at about 8 or 9 Livres pr. Ell. Tho late in the Month, I hope 
it will not be thought out of season to offer my best wishes for the 
Health, Long Life and prosperity of yourself and family, or to 
assure you of the Sincere Esteem & Friendship with which I am 
Your's &c. &c., A. ADAMS 

RC (DLC); addressed in David S. not doubt but in the end the Commo- 

Franks* hand; endorsed. Recorded in tions will prove Salutary to the state 

SJL as received 2 Feb. 1787. Dft (MHi: at large by {controuling} Luxery and 

AMT); with many variations in phra- extravagance," &c. 

seology and some modifications in sub- * Preceding- eleven words not in Dft. 

stance. For comment on this letter, see Dft adds "and Debts." 

note to TJPs reply, 22 Feb. 1787. Dft reads: "the cry of the people.** 

f Dft has the following paragraph at 

1 Dft reads "arms." this point, omitted in RC: "The disturb- 

2 At this point, instead of the two ances which have taken place have 
following sentences, Dft reads: "which roused from their Lethargy the Supine 
I would recommend to your use. One and the Indolent animated the Brave 
thing you may be assured of which is and taught wisdom to our Rulers." 
that it will not do harm." s This paragraph in Dft reads as 

3 Instead of the passage beginning follows: "You will see by the papers I 
"I cannot help flattering myself" and send that [a party] of Vollunteers from 
ending at this point, Dft reads: "I do Boston commanded by Col. Hitchburn 


29 JANUARY 1787 

with Mr. Jackson whom you remember peace and Rood order restored." (i^e 

to have seen in France and Mr. Higrgren- omitted sentence m this passage repeats 

son formerly a Member of Congress with slxtfht variation in phraseology' 

Let Cols, went out in persuit of Shut- the statement about the Act of the 

tucks and his party whom -with two General Court laying- a duty of 15 per 

other leaders they took after some cent, on British Roods.) 
resistance in which Shattucks was Dft ends at this point with the 

wounded in his knee with a broad following 1 deletion and complimentary 

Sword. The other two submitted with- close: "(hut I have such a Number of 

out resistance. . , . It is not unlikely that Correspondents in America* all of whom 

some examples must be made before think} Believe me dear Sir with the 

the riots will be totally quelled and highest esteem Your &c &c A Adams." 

From William Cunningham 

Le Havre, 29 Jan. 1787. Is a native of New York, where his wife and 
parents reside; requests assistance in procuring passage on "the ship 
Les Deriux Freres which is to sail for New York on the 10th. of Next 
Month." Has applied to Ruellan to obtain passage, but "he says it is 
impossible even to go as a foremast hand without paying 160 Livres 
which is not in my power to Comply with." Was mate of the ship 
Marianne, James Martin, master, from Virginia laden with tobacco 
consigned to Ruellan. Ship has been seized for debts contracted by her 
former captain and all "Hands . . . discharged from the Ship on the 
20th. instant." Has been absent for fifteen months, and "having been 
Cast away and Lost the Vessell I then Commanded . . . has reduced my 
Circumstances*" Charles Thomson, secretary of Congress, is an intimate 
friend of his father. "When the Ship may arrive off the Port of N York 
and no pilot offers I am Capable of taking Charge of her to the City." 

RC (DLC); 1 p. Recorded in SJI. as received 1 Feb. 1787. 

To R. 8c A. Garvey 

GENTLEMEN Paris Jan. 29. 1787. 

I have now the honour to inclose you a paper from the Douane 
equivalent to the Acquit a caution which they have mislaid. They 
insist that the variation between the Acquit described in this 
paper, and that described in your letter proceeds from an error 
in the latter, and that no such Acquit a caution as you describe has 
been transmitted to them. I wish however the error may not be with 
them: tho 7 they took a good degree of pains in searching. If this 
paper does not suffice to discharge you, I must give you the trouble 
of writing to me again, as I shall still have time enough before 
my departure to have it rectified if it can be done. 

Will you be so good as to inform me whether any Diligence plies 
regularly between Rouen and Havre, at what days and hours it 


29 JANUARY 1787 

departs from and arrives at each post, and the price of a place. This 
information becomes necessary to me since the establishment of the 
packets at Havre, as I may have occasion to send couriers to Havre, 
and to receive them from there. I have the honour to be with much 
esteem & respect, Gentlemen, your most obedt. humble servt., 


PrC (DLC). The enclosed "paper schedule of the diligence, with blanks 

from the Douane" has not been identi- to be filled in; this copy, with the blanks 

fied. TJ also enclosed with liiis letter completed, was returned to TJ as an 

a memorandum (MHi), outlining the enclosure in Garvey's letter of 5 Feb. 

information he desired concerning the 1787. 

From Thomas Haddaway 

Le Havre, 29 Jan. 1787. With "these few illiterate Lines" he is com- 
pelled by necessity to ask TJ's assistance in getting to America. Was 
mate on the brig Sally, Shuball Coffin, master, from Nantucket. Is will- 
ing to work Ms passage across, but has been told "to procure an order 
from you." Is a native of Boston. Assures TJ that he will "ever while 
Life Be ready and Willing to Compensate . . . for your Goodness." He 
has little cash, and "Lodgings are High and Diet likewise." Wishes 
reply to be directed to Captain James Martin, care of Ruellan. 

RC (DLC); 1 p.; in the hand of "William Cunningham. Recorded in SJL as 
received 1 Feb. 1787. 

From Rochambeau 

Paris ce 29. Janvier 

Le Cte. de Rochambeau est au desespoir de ne pouvoir se rendre 
zl Pinvitation de Monsieur Jefferson pour le vendredi 2. de ce mois. 1 
II doit Stre ce jour la Versailles pour la ceremonie de Tordre du 
Saint Esprit. II a Phonneur de lui faire mille tendres complimens, 
et de lui faire part que sa belle fille vient d'accoucher heureusement 
d'un gargon. 

RC (PU); addressed in part: * e a la Weelen, Rochambeau Father and Son, 

Bassein de Chaillot, a Paris"; without New York, 1936, p. 182, 183). TJ's 

date, but obviously written in 1787 invitation to which this is a reply has 

since that was the only year in which not been found. 
Feb. 2 fell on a Friday during the 

period of TJ's stay in France. Also, it 1 Thus in MS, an error for "du mois 

was in 1787 that Rochambeau's only prochain." 
grandson was born (Jean-Edmond 


From Rosaubo 

29 Jan. [1787]. Declines TJ's dinner in\italion for the __ 
Friday, because of his prior engagement with the Marquis cle la Quiche! 

RC (MHi); 1 p.; x French; datfd only: *-ce luiuly 29 Janvier" (see note to 
Rochambeau to TJ, this duu*}; adtlr^ssrd. T.Ps imitation to which this is a reply 
has not been found. 

From William Stephens Smith 

London January 29th, 1787. 

No my dear Sir it Ls not me. It is impossible that my heart 
would ever permit me to pen a line to you, charged with the re- 
flection which that line single and alone seems formed to admit of. 
When in haste I said I had no more letters in my file unanswered 
and therefore should not trouble you farther, I intended to hold 
up this Idea, that I could only spare the time for the necessary 
business contained in your favours. When that was done, I hoped 
you would attribute my stoping short to want of time. I seriously 
feel for your misfortune, and have sent tip prayers for your re- 
covery. The harpsicord is finished and inclosed is Dr. Burney's 
Letter on the subject. It shall be dispatched by the first Vessel. 
Mr. Franks takes charge of the Instrument which Jones has made 
for you. You will find his Letter explanatory packed with it. Your 
other slipers and a pair of shoes for Mr. Short accompany it. I do 
not like the appearances in the eastern States, nor the construction 
you put on the raising of troops in them to fight the Shazuanese. 
I hope there will not be any necessity for spilling* of Blood, for 
there is no knowing where it will end. If there is an appearance of 
it, may we not shelter ourselves from the horror and inconvenience 
of internal Commotion by turning the tide on these Britons by a 
formal declaration of War. They are at the botom of it, and merit 
our highest indignation. But the subject distresses me beyond 
measure, and I still think the good sense of the people will render 
harshness and severity unnecessary. On the receipt of yours of 
the 20th. ulto. which I began to answer, I set out as a pilgrim 
doing pennance, and walked to Hammersmith, and sent the Acer 
rubrum and the Liriodcndron tulipefer but the Quercus Phellos 
is not to be had in Europe. After this walk I felt a little as if I had 
got rid of the crime which so strangely beset me, that nothing but 
an exertion to serve you could have shaken off. Forget and forgive 


29 JANUARY 1787 

my errors and accept of my thanks for the map. I will guard it 
with great attention, and give particular directions on the subject 
of its publication. It is very valuable and shall be done in the best 
manner possible. 

I am very sorry that there are so many errors in Neles map. If 
you think best to send it back, it shall be immediately attended to. 
The second copying press shall be strictly enquired after. Its 
direction must have been to Mr. Garvey at Rouen, but I will be 
more particular when I can get a sight of Mr. Woodmason. I have 
not yet been able to get the measure you ask for and Franks is in 
a terrible fret to be off, and Mr. A. has not been behind hand in 
furnishing me with employment, but I will not loose sight of it. 
The Letters which you sent are all put in the proper channels to 
reach their respective address. And now my dear sir having replyed 
fully ( to your two favours of the 20th. of 
Deer, and of the 15th. inst. I will only mention that I was happy in 
cultivating the acquaintance of Monsieur Tronchin who presented 
your Introductory Letter of May 17. 1786. I was much pleased 
with him and shall pursue your advise respecting him and now 
shall in confidence say a little of myself and if you can with good 
conscience grant it take the liberty of asking your protection and 
Countenance to my pursuits. Mr. Franks convey's to Congress Mr. 
Adam's request to be recalled from this Court, or their permission 
to return after the expiration of his present Commission, and at 
the same time recommends and solicits for your humble servant 
the appointment of Charge des affairs and as much higher as they 
think proper. Letters from you to your friends in and out of Con- 
gress would be very flattering to me, and have great weight in 
procuring the advance sought for. I need say no more, confident 
that you will do every thing to serve me, consist ant with the 
interest of our Country. Mr. Adams's intention had better not be 
spoke of in Europe, tho 1 it will be no secreet when the Letters ar- 
rive in america as he has wrote private and positive Letters to his 
friends of his determination of retiring. I am Dr. Sir with great 
respect & esteem Your obliged Humble Servt., 


RC (DLC); endorsed. Recorded in that of 22 Jan. 1787. For the signifi- 

SJL as received 2 Feb. 1787. Enclosure: cance of the expression "( 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 

Charles Burney to TJ, 20 Jan. 1787. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10)," see Smith to TJ, 21 

May 1786; Adams to TJ, 6 June 1786, 

For the significance of THAT LINE, note 2; and TJ to Madison, 30 Jan. 

see TJ to Smith, 2O Dec. 1787, and 1787. 


To Zachariah Loreilhe 

SIR Paris Jan. 30. 1787. 

A letter from a friend of mine in S. Carolina informs me that, 
with that letter, he sends some plants, addressed to the care of 
Monsr. Otto, Charge des affaires of France at New York, The letter 
is come to hand, but no plants. Fearing they may remain on board 
the Packet boat last arrived at L'Orient, or neglected in some ware- 
house, I take the liberty of asking your friendly enquiries after 
them, as I value them much. If by any means you can find them 
out, and forward them to me immediately it will confer a great 
obligation on Sir your most obedient & most humble servt., 


PrC (MHi); endorsed. See Ramsuy to TJ, 8 Nov. 1786. 

To James Madison 

DEAR SIR Paris Jan. SO. 1787. 

My last to you was of the 16th of Dec. since which I have 
received yours of Nov. 25. and Dec. 4. which afforded me, as your 
letters always do, a treat on matters public, individual and oeco- 
nomical. I am impatient to learn your sentiments on the late troubles 
in the Eastern states. So far as I have yet seen, they do not appear 
to threaten serious consequences. Those states have suffered by 
the stoppage of the channels of their commerce, which have not 
yet found other issues. This must render money scarce, and make 
the people uneasy. This uneasiness has produced acts absolutely 
unjustifiable: but I hope they will provoke no severities from their 
governments. A consciousness of those in power that their admin- 
istration of the public affairs has been honest, may perhaps produce 
too great a degree of indignation: and those characters wherein 
fear predominates over hope may apprehend too much from these 
instances of irregularity. They may conclude too hastily that nature 
has formed man insusceptible of any other government but that of 
force, a conclusion not founded in truth, nor experience. Societies 
exist under three forms sufficiently distinguishable. 1. Without 
government, as among our Indians. 2. Under governments where- 
in the will of every one has a just influence, as is the case in England 
in a slight degree, and in our states in a great one. 3. Under gov- 
ernments of force: as is the case in all other monarchies and in 


30 JANUARY 1787 

most of the other republics. To have an idea of the curse of existence 
under these last, they must be seen. It is a government of wolves 
over sheep. It is a problem, not clear in my mind, that the 1st. 
condition is not the best. But I believe it to be inconsistent with 
any great degree of population. The second state has a great deal 
of good in it. The mass of mankind under that enjoys a precious 
degree of liberty and happiness. It has it's evils too: the principal of 
which is the turbulence to which it is subject. But weigh this against 
the oppressions of monarchy, and it becomes nothing. Malo pericu- 
losam, libertatem quam quietam servitutem. Even this evil is pro- 
ductive of good. It prevents the degeneracy of government, and 
nourishes a general attention to the public affairs. I hold it that 
a little rebellion now and then is a good thing, and as necessary 
in the political world as storms in the physical. Unsuccesful re- 
bellions indeed generally establish the incroachments on the rights 
of the people which have produced them. An observation of this 
truth should render honest republican governors so mild in their 
punishment of rebellions, as not to discourage them too much. It 
is a medecine necessary for the sound health of government. If these 
transactions give me no uneasiness, I feel very differently at another 
peice of intelligence, to wit, the possibility that the navigation of 
the Missisipi may be abandoned to Spain. I never had any interest 
Westward of the Alleghaney; and I never will have any. But I have 
had great opportunities of knowing the character of the people who 
inhabit that country. And I will venture to say that the act which 
abandons the navigation of the Missisipi is an act of separation be- 
tween the Eastern and Western country. It is a relinquishment of 
five parts out of eight of the territory of the United States, an 
abandonment of the fairest subject for the paiment of our public 
debts, and the chaining those debts on our own necks in perpetuum. 
I have the utmost confidence in the honest intentions of those who 
concur in this measure; but I lament their want of acquaintance with 
the character and physical advantages of the people who, right or 
wrong, will suppose their interests sacrificed on this occasion to 
the contrary interests of that part of the confederacy in possession 
of present power. If they declare themselves a separate people, we 
are incapable of a single effort to retain them. Our citizens can 
never be induced, either as militia or as souldiers, to go there to 
cut the throats of their own brothers and sons, or rather 1 to be 
themselves the subjects instead of the perpetrators of the parricide. 
Nor would that country quit the cost of being retained against the 
will of it's inhabitants, could it be done. But it cannot be done. 


They are able already to rescue the navigation of the Missisipi 
out of the hands of Spain, and to add New Orleans to their own 
territory. They will be joined by the inhabitants of Louisiana. 
This will bring on a war between them and Spain; and that will 
produce the question with us whether it will not be worth our while 
to become parties with them in the war, in order to reunite them ; 
with us, and thus correct our error? And were I to permit my 
forebodings to go one step father, I should predict that the in- 
habitants of the U.S. would force their rulers to take the affirmative 
of that question. I wish I may be mistaken in all these opinions. 

We have for some time expected that the Chevalier de k Luzerne 
would obtain a promotion in the diplomatic line, by being appointed 
to some of the courts where this country keeps an Ambassador, 
But none of the vacancies taking* place which had been counted 
on, I think the present disposition is to require his return to his 
station in America. He told me himself lately, that he should return 
in the spring. I have never pressed this matter on the court, thtf 
I knew it to be desireable and desired on our part: because if the 
compulsion on him to return had been the work of Congress, he 
would have returned in such ill temper with them as to disappoint 
them in the good they expected from it. He would for ever have 
laid at their door his failure of promotion. I did not press it for 
another reason, which is that I have great reason to beleive that 
the character of the Count de Moutier, who would go were the 
Chevalier to be otherwise provided for, would give the most per- 
fect satisfaction in America. As you are now returned into Con- 
gress it will become of importance that you should form a just 
estimate of certain public characters; on which therefore I will 
give you such notes as my knowlege of them has furnished me 
with. You will compare them with the materials you are otherwise 
possessed of, and decide on a view of the whole. You know the 
opinion I formerly- entertained of my jricnd Mr. Adams. Your- 
self and the governor were the first who shook that opinion. I 
afterwards saw proofs which convicted him of a degree of vanity, 
and of a blindness to it, of which no germ had appeared in Congress. 
A 7-months' intimacy with him here and as many weeks in Lon- 
don have given me opportunities of studying him closely. He is 
vain, irritable and a bad calculator of the force and probable effect 
of the motives which govern men. This is all the ill which can 
possibly be said of him. He is as disinterested as the being which 
made him: he is profound in his views: and accurate in his judg- 
ment except -where knowledge of the zvorld is necessary to form a 

3 JANUARY 1787 

judgment. He is so amiable, that I pronounce you will love him 

if ever you become acquainted with him. He would be, as he was, a 

great man in Congress.* Mr. Carmichael is I think very little 

knorvn in America. I never saw him and while I was in Congress I 

formed rather a disadvantageous idea of him. His letters, received 

then, shewed him -vain and more attentive to ceremony and etiquette 

than we suppose men of sense should be. I have now a constant 

correspondence with him, and find him a little hypocondriac and 

discontented. He possesses very good understanding tho* not of the 

first order. I have had great opportunities of searching into his 

character and have availed myself of it. Many persons of different 

nations coming from Madrid to Paris all speak of him as in high 

esteem and / think it certain that he has more of the Count de 

Florid. B^s friendship than any diplomatic character at that court. 

As long as this minister is in office Carmichael can do more than 

any other person tvho could be sent there. You will see Franks 

and doubtless he will be asking some appointment. I wish there 

may be any one for -which he is fit. He is light, indiscreet, [actjivef 

honest, affectionate. Tho' Bingham is not in diplomatic office yet 

as he wishes to be so I will mention such circumstances of him as 

you might otherwise be deceived in. He will make you believe he 

was on the most intimate footing with the first characters in Europe 

and versed in the secrets of every cabinet. Not a word of this is 

true. He had a rage for being presented to great men and had no 

modesty in the methods by which he could effect it. If he obtained 

access afterwards, it was with such as who were susceptible of 

impression from the beauty of his -wife. I must except the Marquis 

de Bouilli* who had been an old acquaintance. The Marquis de 

Lafayette is a most valuable auxiliary to me. His zeal is unbounded, 

and his -weLight] 4 * with those in po-wer great. His education having 

been merely military, commerce was an unknown feild to him. 

But his good sense enabling him to comprehend perfectly whatever 

is explained to him, his agency has been very efficacious. He has a 

great deal of sound genius, is well remarked by the king and rising 

in popularity. He has nothing against him but the suspicion of 

republican principles. I think he will one day be of the ministry. 

His foible is a canine appetite for popularity and fame. But he will 

get above this. The Count de Vergennes is ill. The possibility of 

his recovery renders it dangerous for us to express a doubt but he is 

in danger. He is a great Minister in European affairs but has very 

imperfect ideas of ours [and] no confidence in them. His devotion 

to the principles of pure despotism render him unaffectionate to 


our governments but his jear of England makes him -value MS as a 
make weight. He is coo/, reserved in political conversation, free and 
familiar on other subjects, and a very attentive, aggreeable person 
to do business -with. It is impossible to have a clearer, better 
organised head but age has chilled his heart. Nothing should be 
spared on our part to attach this country to us. It is the only one 
on which we can rely for support under every event. It's inhabitants 
love us more I think than they do any other nation on earth. This 
is very much the effect of the good dispositions with which the 
French officers returned. In a former letter I mentioned to you the 
dislocation of my wrist. I can make not the least use of it, except 
for the single article of writing, tho* it is going on five months 
since the accident happened. I have great anxieties lest I should 
never recover any considerable use of it. I shall, by the advice of 
my Surgeons, set out in a fortnight for the waters of Aix in 
Provence. I chose these out of several they proposed to me, because 
if they fail to be effectual, my journey will not be useless altogether. 
It will give me an opportunity of examining the canal of Languedoc 
and of acquiring knowlege of that species of navigation which 
may be useful hereafter: but more immediately it will enable me 
to take the tour of the ports concerned in commerce with us, to 
examine on the spot the defects of the late regulations respecting 
our commerce, to learn the further improvements which may be 
made on it, and, on my return, to get this business finished. I shall 
be absent between two and three months, unless any thing hap- 
pens to recall me here sooner, which may always be effected in ten 
days, in whatever part of my route I may be. In speaking of char- 
acters I omitted those of Reyneval and Henin, the two eyes of 
M . de Vergennes. The former is the most important character be- 
cause possessing the most of the confidence of the Count, he is 
rather cunning than -wise. His views of things being neither great 
nor liberal he governs himself by principles which he has learnt 
by rote and is fit only for the details of execution. His heart is 
susceptible of little passions but not of good ones. He is brother in 
law to M. Gerard from whom he received disadvantageous im- 
pressions of us -which cannot be effaced. He has much duplicity. 
Henin is a philosopher sincere, friendly, liberal, learned, beloved 
by every body, the other by nobody. I think it a great misfortune 
that the United States are in the department of the former. As 
particulars of this kind may be useful to you in your present situa- 
tion, I may hereafter continue the chapter. I know it safely lodged 
in your discretion. 

30 JANUARY 1787 

Feb. 5. 

Since writing thus far Franks is returned from England. I learn 
that Mr. Adams desires to be recalled and that Smith should be 
appointed charge des affairs there. It is not for me to decide whether 
any diplomatic character should be kept at a court which keeps 
none with us. You can judge of Smith's abilities by his letters. They 
are not of the first order but they are good. For his honesty he is 
like our friend Monroe. Turn his soul wrong side outwards and 
there is not a speck on it. He has one joible, an excessive inflam- 
mability of temper^ but he feels it when it comes on, and has 
resolution enough to suppress it, and to remain silent till it passes 

1 send you by Colo. Franks your pocket telescope, walking stick, 
and chemical box. The two former could not be combined together. 
The latter could not be had in the form you referred to. Having 
a great desire to have a portable copying machine, and being satis- 
fied from some experiments that the principle of the large machine 
might be applied in a small one, I planned one when in England 
and had it made. It answers perfectly. I have since set a workman 
to making them here, and they are in such demand that he has 
his hands full. Being assured that you will be pleased to have one, 
when you shall have tried it's convenience, I send you one by 
Colo. Franks. The machine costs 96 livres, the appendages 24. 
livres, and I send you paper and ink for 12 livres, in all 132 livres. 
There is a printed paper of directions: but you must expect to 
make many essays before you succeed perfectly. A soft brush, like a 
shaving brush, is more convenient than the sponge. You can get 
as much ink and paper as you please from London. The paper costs 
a guinea a ream. 

RC (DLCs Madison Papers); un- 3 T J deleted the word "Congrress" 

signed; endorsed; partly in code. PrC at the bottom of a page and then wrote 

(DLC: TJ Papers); accompanied in the code symbol for the word at the 

TJ Papers, 28:4767 by a list giving top of the next. 

the coded passages en clair, from, which * TJ omitted the code symbol for the 

one or two minor errors of encoding; letters in square brackets (supplied), 

have been silently corrected. but these have been added from the 

list en clair. 

* At this point TJ deleted the clause 5 The name was first writtten out, 

**have their own throats cut by them" then heavily deleted; Ford, rv, 366, does 

and rephrased it as above. not indicate that the name was in code 

2 This and subsequent words hi italics and gives it as "the Marquis de Bon- 
are written in code and have been de- clearren"; the above reading is verified 
coded by the editors, employing- Code by the list en clair. 

No. 9. 


From Thomas Silbey 

Le Havre, 30 Jan. 1787. Was a carpenter on board the ship Man- 
anne, James Martin, master; "the Ship has been paid off by Reason of 
her being laid up"; has a wife and family in Virginia and desires TJ to 
procure for him a passage "in the Ship La Deriux Frear" sailing 10 Feb. 
for New York. 

RC (DLC); 2 p,; addressed; endorsed; postmarked "HAVRE." Recorded in SJL 
as received 3 Feb. 1787. Enclosure (DLC): Certificate by James Martin, dated SO 
Jan. 1787, of Silbey's service on the Marianne and of his having a family in Vir- 

From Andre Limozin 

Le Havre, 31 Jan. 1787. Has no doubt but that TJ has been informed 
packets are established in that port and that the first will sail 10 Feb. 
for New York. Offers to perform any commissions for him. Is <c really 
astonished that there is no Carolina rice vSent from America to our 
Market. There is at present a very great demand here and in all our 
Neighbourhood for that article and not a Single Barrell remains unsold." 

RC (MHi); 2 p.; endorsed. Recorded in SJL. as received 3 Feb. 1787. 

From Partout 

[Jan. 1787?] 

The Cook returned and told he would accept of my terms 
whatever they would be: I answerd he should consult nothing but 
his own convenience: I told him I thought M. Jefs. would be 
disposed to give him fifty guineas a year for teaching another the 
cookery. Aggreed. 

He observed a sufficient quantity of linnen and kitchen utensils 
should be furnished only for his use, and in greater quantity than 
in the English cookerey which does not require as many as ours. 
I aggreed. 

He desired a suply of bier or toddy or brandy for the days when 
he should have an extraordinary business. I lejft it to Mr. Jeff son. 

The man comes for an answer in half an hour. As a number 
of small affairs press on me I hope M. Jepherson will excuse the 
paper, Style and Writer. 

RC (MHi); undated, unaddressed, lished, but he may have been the "old 

and unsigned; in an unidentified hand; cook" of the Prince of Conde (see 

endorsed by TJ: "Partout, cook." The Mazzei to TJ, 17 Apr. 1787; TJ to 

identity of Partout has not been estab- Mazzei, 6 May 1787) or he may have 


1 FEBRUARY 1787 

been the person who engaged the apprenticeship with patissier" 72/.)- 

patissier to instruct James in the art The letter could not have been written 

of pastry-cooking early in Jan. 1787 by Petit, who evidently wrote only a 

(an entry in Account Book for 10 Jan. labored French. 
1787 reads: "[pd Petit] for James's 

From George Wythe 

G, W. TO MR. J. Williamsburgli, januar. 1787. 

"Would not the figures to which one must advert in studying 
geometry, formed of wood, metal, or ivory, be more instructive 
than those, which are delineated on paper? If you think so, and if 
such figures can be procured where you are, i wish to know the 
cost of them, that i may remit money to pay for them, when i will 
beg the favour of you to send them to me. 

RC (DLC); endorsed: <4 Wyth George." Recorded in SJL as received 31 May 
1787 at Nantes. 

To Cunningham and Haddaway 

GENTLEMEN Paris Feb. 1. 1787. 

I am sorry to be obliged to inform you that I am not able to 
procure an order for your being permitted to work your passage 
back to America, nor able otherwise to comply with your desires, 
being neither invested with the power, nor furnished with the 
means of doing it. I imagine you have come under particular con- 
tracts with your captains, which doubtless they will either perform, 
or make satisfaction for. Capt. Coffin is here, and returns in the 
packet. I will speak to him, and recommend you to his attention. 
Perhaps also if you apply to Mr. Limozin, who acts as our Consul 
at Havre, he may be able to advise you how to get back. I am 
Gentlemen your most obedient humble servt., 


PrC (DLC); at foot of text: "Messieurs Thomas Haddaway & William. Cuningr- 

To John Jay 

SIR Paris Feb. 1. 1787. 

My last letters were of the 31st. of Decemb. and 9th. of Janu- 
ary, since which last date I have been honoured with yours of 


1 FEBRUARY 1787 

December the 13th, and 14th* I shall pay immediate attention to 
your instructions relative to the S. Carolina frigate. I had the hon- 
our of informing you of an improvement in the art of coining made 
here by one Drost, and of sending you by Colo. Franks a specimen 
of his execution in gold and silver, I expected to have sent also a coin 
of copper. The inclosed note from Drost will explain the reason 
why this was not sent. It will let you see also that he may be 
employed; as I suppose he is not so certain us he was of being 
engaged here. Mr. Grand, who knows him, gives me reason to 
believe he may be engaged reasonably. Congress will decide 
whether It be worth their attention* 

In some of my former letters I suggested an opportunity of 
obliging this court by borrowing as much money in Holland as 
would pay the debt due here, if such a loan could be obtained; as 
to which I was altogether ignorant. To save time, I wrote to Mr, 
Dumas, to know whether he thought it probable a loan could be 
obtained, enjoining him the strictest secrecy, and informing him 
I was making the enquiry merely of my own motion and without 
instruction. I inclose you his answer. He thinks purchasers of 
the debt could be found, with a sacrifice of a small part of the 
capital, and a postponement be obtained of some of the first reim- 
bursements. The proposition for an immediate adoption of this 
measure by me, was probably urged on his mind by a desire to 
serve our country more than a strict attention to my duty and the 
magnitude of the object. I hope on the contrary that, if it should 
be thought worth a trial, it may be put into the hands of Mr. Adams 
who knows the ground, and is known there, and whose former 
succesful negociations in this line would give better 1 founded hopes 
of success on this occasion. 

I formerly mentioned to you the hopes of preferment entertained 
by the Chevalr. de la Lucerne. They have been baffled by events, 
none of the vacancies taking place which had been expected. Had I 
pressed his being ordered back, I have reason to believe the order 
would have been given. But he would have gone back in ill humour 
with Congress, he would have laid for ever at their door the failure 
of a promotion then viewed as certain, and this might have excited 
dispositions that would have disappointed us of the good we hoped 
from his return. The line I have observed with him has been to make 
him sensible that nothing was more desired by Congress than 
his return, but that they would not willingly press it so as to 
defeat him of a personal advantage. He sees his prospects fail, 
and will return in the approaching spring, unless something un- 


1 FEBRUARY 1787 

expected should turn up in his favor. In this case the Count de 
Moutier has the promise of succeeding to him, and, if I do not 
mistake his character, he would give great satisfaction. So that 
I think you may count on seeing the one or the other by midsummer. 

It had been suspected that France and England might adopt 
those concerted regulations of commerce for their West Indies, of 
which your letter expresses some apprehensions. But the expres- 
sions in the 4. 5. 7. 11. 18. and other articles of their treaty, which 
communicate to the English the privileges of the most favored 
European nation only, has lessened if not removed those fears. 
They have clearly reserved a right of favoring specially any nation 
not European, and there is no nation out of Europe who could so 
probably have been in their eye at that time as ours. They are 
wise. They must see it probable at least that any concert with 
England will be but of short duration: and they could hardly pro- 
pose to sacrifice for that a connection with us which may be 

SVe have been for some days in much inquietude for the Count 
de Vergennes. He is very seriously ill. Nature seems struggling 
to decide his disease into a gout. A swelled foot at present gives us 
a hope of this issue. His loss would at all times have been great: 
but it would be immense during the critical poise of European af- 
fairs, existing at this moment. I inclose you a letter from one of 
the foreign officers complaining of the nonpaiment of their interest. 
It is only one out of many I have received. This is accompanied 
by a second copy of the Moorish declaration sent me by Mr. Bar- 
clay. He went to Alicant to settle with Mr. Lamb: but, on his 
arrival there, found he was gone to Minorca. A copy of his letter 
will inform you of this circumstance, and of some others relative 
to Algiers, with his opinion on them. "Whatever the states may 
enable Congress to do for obtaining the peace of that country, it 
is a separate question whether they will redeem our captives, how, 
and at what price? If they decide to redeem them, I will beg leave 
to observe that it is of great importance that the first redemption 
be made at as low a price as possible, because it will form the 
future tariff. If these pyrates find that they can have a very great 
price for Americans, they will abandon proportionably their pur- 
suits against other nations to direct them towards ours. That the 
choice of Congress may be enlarged as to the instruments they 
may use for effecting the redemption, I think it my duty to inform 
them that there is here an order of priests called the Mathurins, 
the object of whose institution is to beg alms for the redemption of 


1 FEBRUARY 1787 

m be obtLed for the redemption of our prisoners at 
I obtained conferences with the General and with some 
s of the order. The General, with all the tenevo^nce and 
Srdiality possible, undertook to act for us if we should desire it 
He told me that their last considerable redemption was i of about 
300 prisoners, who cost them somewhat upwards of 1SOO livres 
apeice. But that they should not be able to redeem ours as cheap 
aTthey do their own; and that it must be absolutely unknown that 
the public concern themselves in the operation, or the price would 
be greatly enhanced. The difference of religion was not once 
mentioned, nor did it appear to me to be thought of. It was a silent 
reclamation and acknowlegement of fraternity between two re- 
ligions of the same family, which historical events of antient date 
had rendered more hostile to one another than to their common 
adversaries. I informed the general that I should communicate the 
good dispositions of his order to those who alone had the authority 
to decide whatever related to our captives. Mr. Carmichael 
informs me that monies have been advanced for the support of 
our prisoners at Algiers which ought to be replaced* I infer from 
the context of his letter, that these advances have been made by 
the court of Madrid. I submit the information to Congress. 

A treaty of commerce is certainly concluded between France and 
Russia. The particulars of it are yet secret. 

I inclose the gazettes of France and Leyden to this date, and have 
the honor of assuring you of those sentiments of perfect esteem & 
respect with which I am Sir your most obedient & most humble 
servant, TH: JEFFERSON 

PrC (DLC). Tr (DNA: PCC, No- pour fabriequier les plus belles monnoyes 

1O7, I). Enclosures: (1) J. P, Droz to qull ayt encore peutStre gxiste*, et aussi 

[Ferdinand Grand], 16 Jan. 1787, ad- avec beaucoup moins de fraix"; that he 

vising: that he is no longer permitted to thought it would sufEce In the report 

make "la pieces d'or que vous me de- to make an estimate of the cost of mak- 

mandez;" without running the risk of ing- the machine in France for shipment 

displeasing: government and requesting to America; that it was extremely diffi- 

him to inform TJ; that he has not had cult to determine a proper price for the 

time to work on the report promised coinage of specie and all he could do 

on his request concerning: **la fabrica- would be to give assurance that it could 

tSon des monnoyes"; that he is re- be done at a price below that prevailing 

solved more than ever to accept suitable in France; that he would be willing to 

offers of employment, even if this meant take charge of the machines, the coins, 

emigrating to a foreign land; that, there- and the engraving, but wished not to 

lore, if Congress wished to make a be connected with the melting and alloy 

reasonable proposal, he would set up of gold and silver since he would have 

tor tnem Routes les machines necessaire enough to do with setting up the ma- 


1 FEBRUARY 1787 

chines, laminating, cutting-, adjusting 
the blanks, and striking? and that he 
would soon have all o the information 
necessary to complete "le petit memoire" 
and he would bring 1 it and confer "with 
him immediately (Tr in DNA: PCC, 
No. 107, I, with the obviously erroneous 
caption: "Monsr. Droz to Mr. Jeffer- 
son"; the addressee was very probably 
Grand, since it was through him that 
TJ communicated with Droz in. 1787 
and later; see TJ to Grand, 23 Apr. 
1790). (2) Dumas to TJ, 23 Jan. 1787. 
(S) Fizeaux & Cie. to TJ, 1 Jan. 1787. 
(4) Segond to TJ, 17 Jan. 1787. (5) 
The "second copy of the Moorish decla- 
ration" was enclosed in Barclay to TJ, 
4 Dec. 1786 (see note there). (6) Bar- 
clay to Commissioners, 6 Jan. 1787. 

The gold and silver specimens of the 
experimental "ecu de Calonne" exe- 
cuted by Jean Pierre Droz in 1786 and 
conveyed to America BY COLO. FHANXS 
are not preserved among the Papers of 
the Continental Congress and evidently 
have not survived; see illustration of a 
specimen in silver in this volume. Droz, 
whose name TJ probably attempted to 
render phonetically by spelling 1 DROST 
or Drozt, was born at La Chaux-de- 
Fond, Canton of Neuchatel, Switzer- 
land, and died in Paris in 1823. He was 
an engraver of medals, coiner, and in- 
ventor of the machine for striking the 
two faces and edge of a coin at a single 
stroke (see TJ to Jay, 9 Jan. 1787, 
and, for TJ's subsequent efforts to 
bring Droz to America, TJ to Grand, 

23 Apr. 179O; Grand to TJ, 25 Aug. 
179O; TJ to Short, 25 Apr., 29 Aug., 

24 Nov. 1791; TJ to Pinckney, 14 June 
1792, 2O Apr. 1793; TJ to Washington, 
30 Dec. 1793). Grand, Matthew Boul- 
ton, and TJ were present at the Hotel 
des Monnaies when Droz gave a demon- 
stration of his machine. Sir John Sin- 
clair later claimed the credit for having 
brought Boulton and Droz together: 
"the improved machines for coining 
money, invented by Monsieur Droz, a 
native of Switzerland . . . were at that 
time unknown in England. I prevailed 
on M. Droz to explain his plans to Mr. 
Boulton of Birmingham, and was thus 
the means of introducing this superior 
mode of coinage into the British Mint" 
(Correspondence of ... Sir John Sin- 
clair, London, 1831, I, xxxii). Thus it 
is possible that Sinclair was with TJ, 
Grand, and Boulton at the time of the 
demonstration. James Watt, Boulton's 
partner who was with him in Paris late 
in 1786, was also among those present 

(H. W. Dickinson, Matthew Boulton, 
Cambridge, 1937, p. 124, 136, 206). 
An account of the Hotel des Monnaies 
in Sebastien Mercier's Tableau de Paris 
(Amsterdam, 1788), p. 145, contains 
the follow reference to Droz; "J'ai re- 
gret que 1'on n'ait point fait usage de 
Pinvention du sieur Droz de Neufchatel, 
graveur intelligent. Ill avoit perfectionnS 
une machine qui, d'un seul coup de 
balancier, marquoit la piece et la tranche 
en merne-temps. Elle avoit la double 
utility d'offrir une monnoie d'une beaute" 
parfaite, et de dejouer les faux-monno- 
yeurs, qui se seroient trouves dans 1'im- 
possibilitS de 1'imiter. Ce dernier 
avantage est bien supSrieur a Fautre; 
car il n'y a rien de plus rare et de plus 
heureux en politique, que de pouvoir 
preVenir et e"pargner le crime a des 
malheureux." When the French gov- 
ernment failed to employ Droz's method, 
Boulton, who was as enthusiastic about 
the invention as TJ, "engaged Mr. 
Droz at a very great expence to en- 
grave the original puncheons and ma- 
trices for the proposed" copper coinage 
of halfpenny pieces in England "and 
to superintend the execution of it" 
(Dickinson, Boulton, p. 137). Despite 
the fact that Boulton paid Droz a "high 
salary," he was nevertheless able to 
report to a committee of the privy 
council that he could execute the half- 
penny coinage at a cost not above half 
that incurred by the royal Mint in pro- 
ducing the coin then current and to 
endeavor to produce "more excellent 
coin than had ever been seen, and estab- 
lishing an effectual check upon those 
who counterfeit it" (same, p. 137). 
Boulton applied stearn power to the 
machines and introduced a number of 
improvements; Droz's split collar in six 
parts for forming the edge of a coin 
was found to be difficult to manage and 
faulty in execution; Droz himself was, 
according to "Watt, "of a troublesome 
disposition" though a "good die sinker," 
and he was dismissed (same, p, 2O6). 
Possibly Droz's chief influence on the 
development of better coinage was 
exerted through the stimulus that he 
gave to Boulton. "Much ingenuity, time 
and great expence were required to per- 
fect the application of the steam engine 
to coining, 1 ' wrote James Watt of his 
partner, "in all of which Mr. B[oulton] 
acted the principal part and gave life 
to the whole." (Same, p. 206.) 

i This word interlined in substitution 
for "well," deleted. 


From Louis Le Pelletier 

MONSIEUR ** le ler ' fevrier 1787 

JTai Thonneur de vous adresser une expedition des procSs verbaux 
des deux stances des 15 et 28 7bre: dernier de la reception et de 
Inauguration du buste de M. le Marquis de la fayette, a PhStel de 
ville de Paris, de Penregistrement fait de la lettre par^laquelle Mr. 
le Baron de Breteiiil a annoncg au Corps de Ville les intentions du 
Roi sur cet objet, de la lettre que vous avez Scrite, Monsieur, et 
enfin de la deliberation prise par les Etats de Virginie. 

J"ai 6t& bien touch6 de 1'indisposition qui vous a empSchg de 
nous transmettre vous mme ce gage intgressant de Fopinion et 
des sentimens de vos compatriotes- Soyez prSs d 7 eux PinterprSte de 
tous ceux qui nous animaient en ce moment, des voeux que nous 
formerons toujours pour que Pam^rique Septentrionale et les 
Etats de Virginie voient accroitre leurs forces en 6loignant de 
leurs mceurs et de leurs foyers ce qui a ports le germe de la 
destruction parmi les plus grands Etats. C'est en conservant cette 
simplicity cette puretg primitive qui sont les bases et les garants 
de la prosprite publique que vous atteindrez au d6gr6 de splendeur 
que vous promettent vos sages constitutions et dont votre alliance 
avec notre auguste Monarque est le gage. Assurez de Pattachement 
inimuable de cette Capitale tous ces hommes vertueux qui ont 
travaill si efficacement la gloire et au bonheur de leur patrie, 
et recevez, Monsieur, les m&tnes t6moignages qui vous sont dfts 
personnellement S. tant de titres. Soyez persuade que J'eprouve une 
satisfaction bien veritable en joignant Pexpression de tous mes 
sentimens ceux dont Je suis dans cette circonstance Torgane 
auprSs de vous. 

Pai Honneur d'etre avec un respectueux attachement Monsieur, 
de votre Excellence, Le tr&s humble et tres ob6issant serviteur, 


RC (Vi); in a clerk's hand, signed Randolph's letter of transmittal to the 

by I* Pelletier. Enclosure (Vi): MS Speaker of the House of Delegates, 15 

copy consisting of thirty pagres in a Oct. 1786. Le Pelletier's letter and its 

clerk's hand, signed by Veytard, greffier enclosure were evidently handed to TJ 

rn^/ bearing at its head the word by De Corny and were enclosed by TJ 

tPT of 7 


1 FEBRUARY 1787 

ing- already dispatched the "Duplicata" the stile in which the Marquis' bust was 

that Le Pelletier transmitted, and being in augur ate d" (see Le Pelletier to TJ, 

in the midst of preparations for his tour 15 Feb. 1787; TJ to De Corny, 18 Feb. 

of Southern France, TJ instructed Short 1787; TJ to the Prvot des Marchands, 

to send this parchment copy to Gov. Sec., 18 Feb. 1787; De Corny to TJ, 2O 

Randolph. Short did so by the March Feb. 1787; Short to Gov. of Virginia, 

packet, and Randolph received it in 21 Mctu 1787; Madison to TJ, 23 Apr. 

Philadelphia where he was attending 1787; JHD, Oct* 1787, 1828 edn., p. 3; 

the Federal Convention. He in turn for- CVSP, iv, 290; see also Vol. 10: 414- 

warded it to Lt. Gov. Beverly Randolph, 16). 
describing it as "only ... a repetition of 

From Puisaye 

MONSIEUR ler. De Fevrier 1787. 

II est des situations bien douloureuses dans la vie, il est aussi 
quelques consolations. Au milieu des maux qui m'accablent, j'en ai 
trouv6 dans la lecture des Lettres d'un Cultivateur americain. 
Ecras6 sous le poids du malheur, j'ai cru que Vos heureuses 
Contr6es pouroient devenir Pour moi un azile ou je finirois en 
paix le Reste d'une Carriere dont tous les instants Furent marqu6s 
par L'infortunne. 

Je suis n6 d'une des plus anciennes families nobles de ma 
province, j'ai embrassg comme mes ayeux le parti des armes. J*en 
ai parcouru Les devoirs avec honneur et je puis dire que je m'y 
suis distingu6. Fai eu le desir de faire usage de mes talends et de 
contribuer de mon Sang & La liberty de L'amerique; sans doutte, 
Par une suitte de ma mauvaise fortunne, je n'ai pu 6ffectuer Ce 
desir. Peut 6tre Serois-je heureux maintenant, jaurois du moins 
merite a quelque titre d'etre admis au rang de Vos Concytoyens. 
JPai men6 jusqu'ici une Conduitte 6xempte de tout Reproche. Mes 
peres m'avoient Laissg une fortunne SuflGisante pour mettre ma 
viellesse a Fabri du Besoin. Avec tout cela, Monsieur, je suis sur le 
point dTEprouver La misere et toutes les humiliations auxquelles 
La naissance, Dont je suis, gxpose celui que la fortunne persecute, 
dans un pays ou ce pr6jug6 est dans toute sa force. 

Le detail des circonstances qui me privent des Ressources que 
jetois en droit d'attendre pour prix de mes services seroit trop long 
pour trouver place ici. II r6sulte en partie de Raisons qui font hon- 
neur & mon caractere, d'un autre C6t j'appartiens &. la maison de 
Rohan et cela fait Beaucoup. 

La privation de ma fortunne Rgsulte d'un procSs intante sur 
la qualit^ de ma possession, elle m'avoit 6t6 transmise Comme 
Noble, je la Possedois Ce titre. Dans la Discussion elle t& 


1 FEBRUARY 1787 

Roturiere. Vous ignores ces distinctions; j'ai 6t6 condamn6 & 
la Restitutions des deux tiers envers mes coheritiers, en 14. annees 
de jouissances de ces deux tiers, ce qui, joint aux frais d'un proems 
qui dure depuis dix ans, rgduit Ce qui me restera a peu pres . 
rien. Voila, Monsieur, L'tat de mes affaires. Vo^ons maintenant 
si je suis Propre au nouveau genre d'existance que je me propose 

J'ai 41 an accomplis, je jouis d'une santg robuste, je suis fort, 
vigoureux et actif. J'entends L'oeconomie Ruralle de mon paYs, je 
suis sobre en toutes manieres, je vis & La campagne, Depuis cinq 
ans je me livre au travail le plus p6nible. Comme je ne Pai jamais 
fait par besom, je n'y ai jamais mis de suitte, mais il est ngces- 
saire & mon Bonheur, et je lui dois sans doutte la bonne santg dont 
je jouis, Je scai manier la Beche, la hache, La Verloppe, je forge 
et travaille le fer et L'acier. Grossierement, je peux construire un 
chariot de tout point, le conduire, le charger, d6charger, etc* Je 
scai ferrer un cheval, le saigner, le m^dicamenter au Besoin, j'en 
connois tous les D^ffauts et presque toutes les maladies. Je scai 
faire la plus grande partie des outils, du charpentier et du 
mar6chal, tous les ustencilles de la campagne, soit de Bois, de fer, 
ou d'acier. J*al une teinture de Geometrie pratique et de m6caniques. 
Voila tous mes talens. Je ne scai ny Labourer, ny faucher, et je 
n'entends rien au commerce. En fondant le Superflu des mes 6ffets, 
en vendant le peu de fonds qui me restera, ce sera Beaucoup si je 
parviens ^ Rassembler une somme de quatre & c^q mille livres 
tournois. Voila toute L'gtendue de mes f acult6s. 

Actuellement, Monsieur, je Reclame votre asistance et vos 
conseils. Dois-je adopter votre patrie? Suis-je Propre a devenir 
am6ricain? Quel sort puis-je me faire dans ce nouvel 6misphere? 
Quels sont Les obstacles que J'ai ^ surmonter. II s'en pr^sente 
naturellement deux, la langue, et Le nom frangais qui, dit-on, n'est 
pas accueilli ches vous aussi favor ablement que Les autres nations, 
mais je suis n allemand. 

Je^pourois mendier des secours dans ma patrie, j'aime k croire 
que j*en obtiendrois, mais je ne veux tre k charge personne. Je 
Rougirois de charger un autre que moi du soin de mon existance. 
Comme homme fai droit a la pitfc de mes semblables, ^ Leurs 
bons offices et a leurs conseils. Je ne veux rien de plus J'en- 
trevois un terme a mes malheurs, j'ai Besoin d'un guide pour 
me conduire dans la Route que je dois suivre pour y attein- 
dre. Cest a ^ vous, Monsieur, que je m'adresse, me refuser^s 
Vous, non. J'ai des titres, je suis malheureux. Vous pouves me 


1 FEBRUARY 1787 

parler franchement, je prfcvois une grande partie des difficult^, 
elles ne m'effrayent point, j'ai du courage, de la patience, de 
1'gnergie. Je me soumettrai & tout. Je laisserai derriere moi toute 
espece de pr6juge, depuis Longtemps j'en suis 6xempt. Je pr- 
sume, avec raison, que J'ai Besoin d*un noviciat, que je dois 
travailler pour autrui avant de travailler pour moi, cela me paroit 
indispensable, ne fut-ce que pour apprendre la langue. 

Au reste. Monsieur, il Vous importe de savoir que je ne pr6- 
senterai nulle part que ce soit sans des titres qui rgpondront de 
ma conduitte et qui apprendront que j'ai toujours cheri et pratiqug 
L'honneur et la vertu. 

Puissids vous, Monsieur, mettre quelque inter6t & me conduire 
dans votre patrie. Peut gtre un jour auriSs Vous la satisfaction de 
jouir de ma Reconnoissance et de mon Bonheur. 

J'attends de vos nouvelles avec la plus grande impatience. 

J'ai L'honneur d'etre avec Respect Monsieur Votre tres humble 
et tres obeissant serviteur, DE PUISAYE 

RC (MoSHi); at foot of text: (S Mon adresse est. A Mr. de Puisaye encien Cpne, 
de Cavallerie a Beaufossg proche le MSle sur Sarte en norm an die au Mele sur 
sarte"? endorsed. Recorded in SJL as received 7 Feb. 1787. 

To John Stockdale 

SIR Paris Feb. 1. 1787. 

You have two or three times proposed to me the printing my 
Notes on Virginia. I never did intend to have them made public, 
because they are little interesting to the rest of the world. But as a 
translation of them is coming out, I have concluded to let the 
original appear also. I have therefore corrected a copy, and made 
some additions. I have moreover had a map engraved, which is 
worth more than the book. If you chuse to print the work I will 
send you the corrected copy, and when it shall be nearly printed 
I will send the plate of the map. I would not chuse that it should 
be put under a patent, nor that there should be a tittle altered, 
added, nor omitted. It would be necessary to have a small half 
sheet map engraved of the country of Virginia as when first dis- 
covered. This map is only to be found in Smith's history of Virginia, 
a thin folio, now very rare. I was not able to find that work 

here, but surely it can be found in London. An exact copy of the 
map is all that would be wanting. I leave this place about the 1 1th. 
or 12th. Be so good as to let me know whether you chuse to print 


1 FEBRUARY 1787 

this work under the conditions before named. If I receive your 
answer in the affirmative before I set out, I will send you ^im- 
mediately the copy. It is an octavo of 391. pages. The American 
Atlas is come safe to hand, I am Sir your very humble servt., 


ES. It is not necessary to observe that as I have been at the expence 
of engraving the large map, I should expect to be paid for those 
you should have occasion for, a shilling a peice. 

PrC (DLC); endorsed. 

To the Commissioners of the Treasury 

GENTLEMEN Paris Feb. 1, 1787. 

Colo, Franks, who acted as Secretary to Mr. Barclay on his 
mission to Marocco, having occasion for money for his journey, I 
furnished him with fifty pounds sterling by draught on the fund 
appropriated to those purposes, for which I now inclose you his 
receipt. Mr. Barclay settled his account to the time of his being 
at Madrid on his return, of which, I presume, one or both those 
gentlemen will render you account. 

I have the honour to be with sentiments of the most perfect esteem 
& respect Gentlemen your most obedient & most humble servant, 


PrC (DLC). Enclosure not found. 

To Mary Barclay 

Paris Feb. 2. 1787, 

You could not have obliged me more, my dear Madam, than 
by the friendly application you have made. The thousand livres 
shall be delivered into the hands of any person you will be so good 
as to direct to call for them; or to any person you please in Paris 
at a moment's warning. My last letter from Mr. Barclay was dated 
Alicant Jan. 6. He was well, and was to set out in two days for 
Madrid, from whence he had some expectations of going to 
Corunna. I have the honour to be with very sincere esteem & 
respect Dr. Madam your most obedt. humble servt., 


The FRIENDLY APKucATiON, if in writing, has not been found. 


From G. W. F. Dumas 

The Hague , 2 Feb. 1787. Is "toujours en peine de 3 choses": the heal- 
ing of TJ's hand; the fate of a letter he sent some time ago through 
Du Muy for Lafayette; and the fate of two letters, especially the second, 
that he wrote to TJ and entrusted to Ambassador Brantzen. He writes 
at the H6tel de France, <c un moment avant que Mr* 1'Ambr. ferme son 
paquet et expSdie Son Courier." 

RC (DLC); 2 p.; in French; endorsed. at least one enclosure was Dumas' letter 

Recorded in SJL, as received 9 Feb. to Jay of 26 Jan. 1787 (brief extract 

1787. The postscript to TJ's letter of in Dumas Letter Book, Rijksarchief, 

9 Feb. in reply to this suggests that, The Hague; photostat in DLC). 
though not indicated in the text of the The letter for LAFAYETTE was one of 

present letter, Dumas had accompanied 8 Dec. 1786; the letter of 5 Jan. 1787 

this with certain papers for America; to TJ was entrusted to BRANTZEN; 

since TJ was Dumas' usual medium possibly the second letter referred to 

for dispatching his communications to was that of 23 Jan. 1787. 
Jay and Congress, it is probable that 

From Mademoiselle de Lausanne 

Paris , 2 Feb. 1787. As a token of appreciation of services "y ur lord- 
ship has rendered us," she sends TJ a letter from Eliza Livingston which 
she received in reply to the letter TJ forwarded for her; asks to have it 
returned. In executing a "work she has undertaken at the suggestion of 
her friends, she needs a "collection of journals and strange gazettes"; 
has no way to procure those from America; asks TJ to lend them to her 
as they come out, as well as other 'Svorks which it produces whatever 
they may be, but the mathematics and marine"; would send for them at 
the beginning of every month; anything entrusted to her would be re- 
turned and the "news should be retaken, the all with the greatest ex- 
actness." Hopes TJ will grant her request because this would give her 
renewed opportunities of expressing her esteem for him. 

RC (MHi); 4 p.; at foot of text: "Mile de Lauzanne rue Ste avoye No 12"; en- 
dorsed; TJ used the final blank page for making arithmetical calculations. Not 
recorded in SJL. The enclosed letter from Eliza Livingston to Mile, de Lausanne 
has not been identified. 

From Alexander McCaul 

[Glasgow, Z Feb. 1787. Recorded in SJL as received 14 Feb. 1787. 
Not found, but see TJ to McCaul, 4 Jan. and 19 Feb. 1787.] 


To Francois Soules 


I send you the papers M. de Crevecoeur sent to Normandy for. 
The account of the destruction of Wyoming begins page 40. You 
may rely certainly on the author's facts, and you will be easily able 
to separate from them his reflections. You can best judge whether 
an account of that interesting settlement, condensed into a few 
lines might not form an agreeable episode in your history, and 
prepare the mind more awfully for it's final catastrophe. I will 
thank you to return these papers as soon as you are done with 
them that I may restore them to the hands of M. de Crevecoeur 
before my departure which will now be in a few days. I have the 
honor to be Sir your most obedt. humble servt., 


PrC (DLC); without indication of 
the year, but date is established from 
an entry in SJL for 2 Feb, 1787. En- 
closure: St. John de CrSvecoeur's manu- 
script Suaquehanna.) a document of 48 

pages, of which THE ACCOUNT . . . OF 

SoulSs, 19 Jan. 1787; Howard C. Rice, 
Le Cultivateur Americain [Paris, 1933], 
p. 154, 230). 

From Andre Limozin 

Le Havre, 3 Feb. 1787* Has had no letter from TJ since his own of 
31 Jan.; encloses a letter from "Mr. Oster of Richmond by my ship Le 
Bailly de Suffren Captn. Cleret," which left Portmouth, Va., 4 Jan, 
1787 with cargo of 315 hogsheads of tobacco "for Mr. Robert Morris's 
account. She had a fine Passage. ... an exceeding good fine fast sailing 
Ship.^ Has received a letter from Barclay at Alicant asking his ideas 
^relating to what would be the most profitable to the American trade 
in France Knowing perfectly well that I have a great experience in busi- 
ness."" Will forward his ideas to Barclay under cover to TJ as soon as 
his health improves. 

RC (MHi); 4 p.j endorsed. Recorded 
in SJL as received 6 Feb. 1787. The 
enclosed letter from Martin Oster, 
French consul at Richmond, has not 
been found, but it was probably in 
reply to that from TJ to him of 19 Nov. 
1786. No such letter is recorded in SJL 
as having been received with Limozin's, 

the only other on that date being 
Wythe's letter of 22 Dec. 1786. Despite 
this omission in SJL, the present letter 
probably covered letters from both 
Oster and Wythe, for TJ*s acknowl- 
edgement on 8 Feb. 1787 refers to 
"your favor of the 3d. inst. and . . 
the letters it covered." 


To Christian Frederick Michaelis 
and Others 

SIR Feb. 4. 1787 

The American Philosophical Society having heretofore done 
themselves the honour of naming you one of their members, the 
President has been pleased to transmit to me the Diploma made 
out in the forms used by the society, and authenticated by their 
seal. I do myself the honour of forwarding it to you and at the 
same time of assuring you of the sentiments of esteem & respect 
with which I have the honour to be Sir Your most obedient & 
most humble servant, TH: JEFFERSON 

RC (MWA); without indication of 
addressee; in William Short's hand, 
signed by TJ. PrC (DLC) ; dated "Paris 
Feb.4.1787"; at foot of text Short copied 
off the following 1 list of names of per- 
sons to whom the letter was addressed, 
each with its appropriate certificate of 
membership in the American Philo- 
sophical Society: 

"MM. 1. Christian Frederick Michaelis. 
M.D. of Gottenberg- [17853 

2. Forbern Bergman. Prof. Math. 

Stockholm [1773] 

3. Lavoisier, of the Acad. of 

Sciences. Paris [1775] 

4. Abb6 [Felice] Fontana Direc- 

tor of the Great Duke's 
Cabinet of natural history 

5. Tim. Baron de Kleing^tedt. 

Councillor of State to the 
Empress of Russia [1773] 

6. Abbe [Jean F.] de Rosier of 

the Acad. of Sciences at 
Lyons [1775] 

7. Le Roux [1775] 

8. Christian Magee. L.L.D. of 


9. Gerbier. [Thibert Garbier] 

chez Messrs, lea Abbes 
Chalut et Arnaud [1786] 

10. Chevalier Grenchon [Gran- 

chain] of Paris [1786] 

11. Gastellier. [RenS G. Gastelier] 

M.D. at Montgaris [Mon- 
tar^is] [1786] 

12. Grival. [Guillauine Grivel] 

Paris [1786] 

13. Doctor Noel [Nicolas Noel] 

Paris [1786] 

14. Abbg [Jean L.] Soulavie. 

France [1786] 

15. Peter Berffius M.D. Prof. 

Nat. hist. Stockholm [before 

16. Christian Meyer, Astronomer 

to his Serene Highness the 
Elector Palatine [17771 

17. Signor Famitz of Naples [be- 

fore 1769] 

18. Major Frederick F.S. de 

Brahm, Triers [1784] 

19. Charles Magnus Wrangrel 

D.D. of Sweden [before 

20. Duke de la Rochefoucault 


21. Count de Buffon [before 1769] 

22. M. de Condorcet [1775] 

23. [Isaac] Jamineau, English 

Consul at Naples [before 

24. Dsmbenton [1775] 

25. Count Guichen. [1785]," 
Entry in SJL reads: "American Phil. 

Society, new members of, here, circu- 

TJ evidently received Vol. n of 
Transactions of the American Philo- 
sophical Society between 23 Dec. 1786 
and the date of the present circular 
(see TJ to Franklin, 23 Oct. 1786). 
Franklin's letter of transmittal of 8 Oct. 
1786 only mentions "several Diplomas 
for foreign g'entlemen" without speci- 
fying the number. Vol. H of the Trans- 
actions lists only the names of those 
given above under numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, 
5, 6, 7, 18, 24, and 25 (p. xxvii-xxviii) ; 
those whose names appear under num- 
bers 8, 15, 17, 19, 21, and 23 are listed 
among foreign members in Vol. I 
(1770) of Transactions (p. xxii). The 
name of CHRISTIAN MAGEE appears as 
given in same, but this must have been 
a confusion with CHRISTIAN MEYER; the 


5 FEBRUARY 1787 

not aooear in American Hulosophical Society is sup- 

^c^P^ Plied from the list in same, together 

*whicid$<Kte7vhe2& former rest- with full names when ^ven. For tiie 

dent ^d7or7J members are listed, confusion in respect to Ts own certtt- 

buf the name of the latter does (p. cate of membership, see .Vol. *: 544-6 

4<H>. The year in which each of the See Lavoisier to TJ, S McK 1787, and 

above was elected a member of the Daubenton to TJ, 15 Feb. 1787. 

From Henry Champion 

SrR L'Orient 5th. feby, 1787 

Mr. Loreilhe being now at Bordeaux, your Letter of the 30th. 
past came to my hand, respecting the Plants sent you from S. 
Carolina care of Mr. Otto. They must certainly be Ship'd on board 
the Courier de LTEurope Captain Seonville which was the last 
Packet arrived from New York, but as that Vessel arrived at the 
Island of Groix twelve miles from hence, the Captain had his 
orders to proceed with all possible dispatch to Havre de Grace 
from whence the Packet is now to depart. He only sent on shore 
the Passengers, and Letters, consequently the roots have been left 
on board. I have enquired of the Commissary who has charge of 
that department, but he has seen nothing directed to your Ex- 
cellency. I am convinced your Excellency will find them at Havre 
de Grace. I am Your Excellencys Most obt. & Most Huml. Serv., 


RC (MHO; endorsed: **Lore!lh." Recorded in SJL as received 11 Feb. from 
"Champion Henry , w 

From Degaseq, with Enclosure 

MONSIEUR rue des Prouvaires & Paris ce 5. fevrier 1787. 

Vous aves vu sans doute Dans le Mercure de france No. 34,, 
du 26 aout 1786 un extrait d'un ouvrage de Mr. Payne centre 
Ptablissment du papier monoie dans vos 6tats unis. Comme le 
redacteur du Mercure a prgtendu que chaque ligne de cette ouvrage 
portoit avec elle un caractere d<videuse qull n'gtait pas permis de 
contester, fay era devoir lui prouver le contraire. A raison de 
la publicity de cet extrait, et de la sensation qu'il a faite dans le 
public, j'ay demande vainement que ma reponse fut inseree dans 
ce m8me journal. Comme cette mature interesse directement les 
Etats utus, j'ay ITionneur de vous Tadresser, parceque si vous nV 
trouv^s pas d'inconvenient, personne n'a plus de quality que vous, 
pour exiger que cette piece soit rendue publique. 

5 FEBRUARY 1787 

J'ay Phonneur d'etre avec le plus profond respect, Monsieur, 
Votre trfcs humble et trSs Obeissant serviteur, 

ancien Cer. au pnt, De guienne 

RC (DLC). Not recorded in SJL. 


Dans ce moment interessant oil toutes les nations de Peurope s'occu- 
pent de Padministration de leurs finances, nous avons cru necessaire de 
repondre a Pextrait d'un ouvrage de Mr. Payne contre Petablissement du 
papier monoie dans les Stats unis, insert dans le Mercure de france No. 
34. du 26. aout 1786. 

U argent, dit M. Payne, d'apres un bon alleinand, est de Par -gent , et 
le papier du papier. Mais qu'elle idge attache-t-il cette expression? Si 
on considere Pargent et le papier conrme une matiere de convention 
il y a certainement une tres grande difference de Pune & Pautre. Si on 
les considere comme un signe reprsentatif , et empreints du mme sceau 
de Pautorite", ils auront une 6gale valeur, et produiront le mme effet 
dans la circulation et dans les moyens. 

II ne s'agit que de determiner le vrai point de vue sous lequel on doit 
envisager le papier monoie. Si son Emission devenoit un abus, attendu la 
facility de le fabriquer, Petat ressembleroit alors parf aitement zl Palchi- 
miste dont parle M. Payne, qui auroit trouv6 la pierre philosophale, 
puisque cette grande decouverte auroit les mmes inconvenients que 
Pabus du papier monoie, en raison de la profusion illimitee de Por qui en 
seroit le resultat. 

On ne pr^supposera pas qu'un etat, quelqu'il soit, 6tablisse sans cause 
une nouvelle propri6t6 factice telle que le papier monoie, oil tel autre 
engagement. II faut de necessity absolue que ce soit, oil pour se liberer 
d*une dette deja contracted, et dont la circulation des effets representatifs 
le generoit, oft pour supplier a la raretS des especes courantes, et f aciliter 
par cette creation d'un numeraire fictif les moyens d'echanges pour 
toutes especes de productions. 

Or, dans ces deux cas, on est bien Sloigne" de voir les suites funestes 
qu*a pretendu demontrer M. Payne dans la creation du papier. 

Le papier monoie est un engagement cFetat reprSsentant une somme 
plus ou mains considerable cTespeces couranteSj pour avoir cours comme 
elles, sans avoir besoin cTechanges en especes sonantes dans Pachat des 
productions^ si ce rfest pour le plus oft le mains de leur valeur au-dessus 
de celle dudit papier. 

L'etat qui fait la mise dehors d'un tel papier repond de sa valeur 
comme de tout autre engagement. II n'y a de difference du premier au 
dernier qu'en ce que Pun ne produit point d'interet dans Pechange oft 
dans Pagiotage, et que Pautre au contraire gprouve tous ces inconveni- 

Ce papier monoie est done comme tout autre papier, oft est crite une 
obligation d*une valeur quelconque de la part du gouvernernent qui Pa 
contracte^ et signg. 


5 FEBRUARY 1787 

Cest de plus une promesse de payement en especes, et il quivant 
dans tous les cas a une semblable promesse, puisqu'on acqmert avec 
ledit papier tout ce qu'on peut acqu6rir avec le numeraire quil reprS- 
sente. Certainement M. Payne Iui-m6me ne contesteroit pas qua le gou- 
vernement qui le donne n'est pas en etat de le paier, ou ne veut pas le 
paier; et alors il vaut done invinciblement la somme pour laqueUe il est 

donne". . ,_ . . , 

M. Payne auroit raison dans son sisteme de proscription du papier 
die's un gouvernement insolvable, mais peut-il et oseroit-il dire que le 
sien seroit dans cette hipothese? H n'y a de gouvernement insolvable que 
celui qui veut et qui peut I'atre impunement par sa constitution, tel qu'un 
tat despote. C'est la seulement qu'on peut dire avec vrite qu'il est une 
grande difference entre des papiers pris et donnSs comme engagements 
de particulars d particuliers^ et des paplers mis en circulation par cet 
$tat comme argent. 

Mais, ches un peuple ou toutes les volont^s sont libres, et concourent 
au m6me but, celui du bonheur public, il est impossible que Pengage- 
ment d'un particulier, quel qu'il soit, vaille celui de l'6tat, en quelque 
forme qu'il puisse 6tre concu. II est incroyable qu'on ait pu avancer une 
telle proposition. 

II est Evident que quand un 6tat est obere*, sa liberation doit necessaire- 
ment sortir du travail et de 1'industrie de son peuple. Le meilleur moyen 
pour y parvenir sera done celui qui augmentera ce travail et cette in- 


Or, ttne masse considerable de proprigtes factices telles que sont les 
engagements publics portant interet, devient necessairement une sur- 
charge sur le sol et sur Pindustrie. C'est par consequent une surcharge 
sur le produit anmiel de Pun et de Pautre. Cette masse est done infini- 
ment nuisible et la plus contraire au travail du peuple. 

Dimhmer cette propriety, changer les engagements d'tat qui la con- 
stitue, en creer d'autres qui sans f aire aucun tort, ni aucunes injustices, 
retranchent ou dgtruisent en entier cette masse de proprigte" factice, 
c'est evidement augmenter le travail du peuple et dans la culture et dans 
Pindustrie. C*est par consequent travailler doublement & liberer P6tat, 

Tels sont dans le premier cas les effets que produit le papier monoie, 
car supposons que cet 6tat doive trente milions pour lesquels ses engage- 
ments circulent dans le public, et necessitent une surcharge annuelle de 
taxe de quinze cent mille livres pour les interets. Supposons encore qu'on 
cree 30. milions de papier monoie pour solder lesdits effets, et que 
1 employ en soit exactement appliqug & la solde susdite. 

Nous disons qu'alors Pgtat se met gvidement au pair de sa depense, 
et qu il gagne de plus le 1,500,000* d'interets annuels qu'il avoit a paier. 
fl^^I^fl^L 81 ?f* ^ ?f assg l? a g e Pur continuer la mgme taxe 

t pour 

A t)/\ "T ' ' ~~" " IV - fcl * ^- v -IA^^J-VS VAC; JL a.nt;jLCliia,C dette 

de 30. milions et ce qui est plus avantageux encore, libgrg mgme du 
moyen avec lequel il 1'avoit acquitg 

Ce dernier point est inestimable. En ce qu^ fait de 1'emission du 
papier monoie un veritable emprunt -oiager de 1'gtat a 1'gtat lui-mme, 


5 FEBRUARY 1787 

sans aucun interet, sans aucune surcharge ni pour le peuple ni pour le 
gouvernement, et sans aucune crainte pour sa perpetuity puisque dans 
un 6tat sage et libre, on en verra 6videmment Pextinction annuelle et 
successive et que la volontg d'un despote ne la perpetuera pas a son gr6. 
Cette circonstance est impossible dans un tel gtablissement, parceque 
^extinction dudit papier une fois legalement etablie, comme son admis- 
siony il suffiroit du premier manquement & la loi pour lui ravir irrevo- 
cablement la confiance publique. 

On ne peut se dissimuler que quand une nation est parvenue a un 
certain periode d'accablement par la multiplicite de ses alienations en 
proprietes f actices il faut ou qu'on ait recours de moyens violents et 
douloureux, tels que la reduction des dites propriety's, ou si ces moyens 
qui n'affectent qu'une partie des individus de F6tat, sont injustes, il faut 
bien prendre celui de Paugmentation des taxes qui les affectent tous; oil 
enfin, si personne ne veut etre victime dans ces circonstances, il faut 
user forcement de resourses extraordinaires pour retablir le parfait 
equilibre et rendre a, la nation toute sa force, et t6ute sa vigueur. 

Dans le second cas oil le papier monoie seroit 6tabli seulement pour 
supplier a la rarete* des especes, il rempliroit egalement le but propose", 
parce qu'il tiendroit lieu du numeraire re"el pendant le temps de son ad- 
mission. Qu'est-ce qui pouroit empecher en effet Fengagement d'un 6tat 
comme celui d'un particulier d'avoir cours dans Fechange? Ce ne pouroit 
etre que Finsolvabilite relle du debiteur, ou la possibility pr6juge 
certaine de son insolvabilite". Or on demande si dans un 6tat sage et libre, 
et qui n'a point de dette, comme nous le supposons, il peut y avoir un 
doute quelconque sur sa solvability? Et si la certitude existe, qu'est-ce 
qui peut empecher le cours public de ce numeraire fictif? 

Ce rfest point de Por et de Vargent^ dira-t-on, ce n'est que du papier. Et 
la valeur d'un papier quelconque rCest pas en lux-mSme^ mais settlement 
dans Fobligation ou est la personne qui Fa contract^ de le paier* Mais 
F6tat qui Pa contract^ et signe, ne vaut-il pas un particulier? Oseroit-on 
repondre negativement? Est-ce parce que le dit papier ne se paie pas 
journellement en argent? Mais, s'il est pai en Equivalent, en objets rels 
dont Fargent n'est que la representation, qu'importe, puisque Feffet est 
absolument le m8me. Peut-on dire alors que le papier circulant de cette 
maniere rfarrive pas sans cesse et a la place et a, la personne ou et de 
laquelle Fargent doit tre tir> puisqu'6tant ainsi sagement constituS, il 
arrive const ament a sa representation. 

Nous scavons qu*un peuple dans F6tat des choses ne peut pas se passer 
d'or. C'est aujourdhuy ches les nations diverses un bien ou un mal 
necessaire pour la facility des ^changes. Mais nous soutenons affirmative- 
ment qu'il ne peut jamais etre qu'un objet de convention entre les 
hommes, que Fargent comme le papier monoie, ou tel autre signe repre 1 - 
sentatif des objets reels, ne sera jamais qu'une propri6t6 factice et non 
une propriete r6elle, qui n'existe que dans le sol, et dans les bras de ces 
mmes hommes. 

Nous avons evidement demontr que le papier monoie peut supl6er 
dans un 6tat ainsi constitu^ a la raretg des especes pendant un temps 
limite", et qu'il doit avoir cours comme elles, et avec une egale confiance. 
Nous ajoutons encore que F6mission d'un tel papier ou de tel autre 


5 FEBRUARY 1787 

numeraire fictif ne pent concourir en rien a repousser les metaux 
tat quelconque. . 

Que For solt oft ne soit pas une des productions du sol, il n en es 
moins vrai qu'une nation ne le conserve oft ne le fait venir ches ell< 
par Fabondance od la disette des autres productions du sol et de 
dustrie necessaires a Fexistence, qu'eUe se procure dans son sol IT 
et par les bras de ses individus. Quand une nation vend plus aux a 
nations qu'elle n'achete d'elles, alors, comme les metaux servent a ace 
la Balance des ^changes respectifs, il f aut necessairement, si cette 
ance lui est favorable qu'on lui apporte chs elle les metaux destii 
la reprsenter- 

De la il rSsulte Svldement que si les 6tats unis ou Tun d'eux vei 
auac autres plus qu'ils n'achStent, les m6taux viendront forcement 
eux, et que, quoiqu'on fasse il est impossible qu'ils en sortent. 

On conclut enfin que quoique le papier monoie ainsi 6tabli & 
doive avoir pendant sa dure"e une valeur egale au numeraire rel 
reprsente, il n*en est pas moins vrai qu'il a besoin de loix coac 
pour lui donner cours, et en empecher les abus. N'en a-t-il pas f allu 
For et Fargent dans leur introduction primitive, et n'en f aut-il pas en 
Ainsi done il ne s'ensuit pas de ce que le papier monoie tabli co 
nous Favons dit, ait et doive avoir rellement la mSme valeur qu 
metaux, qu'il n'ait aussi besoin de loix coactives pour avoir conrs 
tous les individus quelconques. Mais il s'ensuit trs demonstrative 
qu'il n'a nullement besoin de ces loix pour les hommes sages et 
patriotes. Et c'est 1st ce qui nous fait conclure en dernier analise 
remission du papier monoie pour supler k la raret6 des especes, 
ferme tous les avantages possibles sans inconvenients. 

D'apr^s tout ce que nous venons de dire, nous ne concevons pas 
ment le rdacteur du Mercure a pu trouver le caractere d'evidence 
chacune des lignes de Fouvrage de M. PayTae contre Fintroductio 
papier monoie dans les tats unis de Famerique. 

MS (BLC: TJ Papers, 24: 4O95-8); in Oegaseq's hand. 

From Anthony Garvey 

SlR Rotten 5 February _ . . 

I have Received the Honour of your Excellency's letter witt 
acquit which is in rule. 

There is a regular Dilly that Gos from hence to Havre (S< 
day Excepted) It returns likewise every day (Saturday Except 
The fare is 16* 4 for a Place. 

M. Boylstons Claim for return of the duty Paid on his oi 
the more = favourable, that with the neat proceeds of his said ca 
he bought Sugars at Havre which he sent to Boston Sie 
opperation of the Kind that ever was practised 

5 FEBRUARY 1787 

May I beg the favour of your Excellency to order the Inclosed 
to be forwarded to M. Barclay by first occasion, I have the honour 
to be Your Excellencys most humble & most obedient Servant, 


RC (MHi); endorsed: Garvey, the 
Diligence to Havre." Enclosures: (1) 
A completed f orm that had been set by 
TJ and probably enclosed in his to 
Garvey of 29 Jan. 1787, the hours of 
arrival and departure being in Garvey's 
hand and the remainder of the text in 
TJ*s, reading 1 as follows: "Le moment 

du depart de Paris a 11 heures preciser 
dn Matin. Le moment de Parrive'e a 
Rouen a 8 heures du Matin. Le moment 
du depart de Rouen 1O heures du Soar. 
L.e moment de l'arrive*e a Havre a Midy" 
(MHi). (2) The enclosure for Barclay 
has not been identified. 

From Madame de Tott 

[Early Feb. 1787?] 

II est tres vrai, Monsieur, que depuis que j'ai eu 1'honneur de 
vous voir, J'ai 6t6 plusieurs Jours Sans Souffrir. II y en a eu 
quelqu'uns ou J'ai eu des ressentiments assez Vif s de mes premieres 
scuff ranees , particuliSrement hier. Je n'en pouvois pas deviner la 
cause mais Je crois que L'expdition pour L'am6rique tn'est une 
suffisante. Vous 6tes trs occupe, Vos prieres sont nc6ssairement 
moins ferventes pendant quelques Jours. Voil& Pexplication de mes 
souffrances dTiier, qu'en dites Vous Monsieur? Cette Solution ne 
Vous parroit-elle pas probante? Quand a La question g^ographique 
J^espere y Repondre d'une maniere assez Satisfaisante quand 
J'aurai Le bonheur de Vous Voir. Permettez moi en attendant de 
Vous Remercier de Votre charmante petite Lettre, de Vous dire 
combien Je suis touch6e de L'inter8t que Vous Voulez bien prendre 
a ma sante et de Vous Supplier de Venir Recevoir Le plutot pos- 
sible L'assurance de tous Les Sentiments de Reconnoissance, d'at- 
tachement et d'admiration avec Lesquels Je serai toute ma Vie 
Votre trs humble et trs Obeissante Servante, 


RC (MHi)j endorsed by TJ: "de 
Tott. Mde. la Comtesse"; undated, but 
since Madame de Tott was ill in Janu- 
ary 1787 and since TJ was obliged to 
write a great many letters for America 
early in February (which may account 

for the allusion to ''L'expgdition pour 
L'amerique" that kept TJ very occu- 
pied), it is possible that this was written 
about that time (see Madame de Tesse 
to TJ, 21 and 23 Jan. 1787). 


To John Adams 

~ CTT , Paris Feb. 6, 1787. 


Your favors by Colo. Franks have come safely to hand. He will 
set out from hence the 8th. inst. the packet being to sail from 
Havre the 10th. I inclose you the copy of a letter lately received 
from Mr. Barclay, and of the paper it inclosed. In a letter from 
Mr. Carmichael is a postscript dated Dec. 25. in the following 
words 'since writing the preceding, the Portuguese Ambassador 
has pressed me to hint that the present moment is favorable to 
push our treaty with his court.' In the body of the letter he sais 
*the Ct* d'Expilly has promised me to continue his attention to our 
prisoners during his stay at Algiers, and I have also engaged the 
Consul of Spain who remains there on his return to take care of 
them. Advances have been made for their support which ought to 
be refunded.* I suppose that these advances have been made by order 
of Mr. Lamb, and that, his powers being at an end, it will be 
incumbent on us to take measures on that subject. The Count 

de Vergennes is extremely ill. His disease is gouty. "We have for 
some days had hopes it would fix itself decidedly in the foot. It 
shews itself there at times, as also in the shoulder, the stomach 
&c. Monsr. de Calonnes is likewise ill; but his complaints are of a 
rheumatic kind which he has often had before. The illness of these 
two ministers has occasioned the postponement of the Assembly 
of the Notables to the 14th. and probably will yet postpone it. 
Nothing is yet known of the objects of that meeting. I send you a 
pamphlet giving a summary account of all the meetings of a 
general nature which have taken place heretofore. The treaty be- 
tween Russia and this country is certainly concluded; but it's con- 
tents are not yet known. I shall set out for the waters of Aix on the 
15th. instant, so that I am unable to say when and whence I shall 
have the honour of addressing you again. But I take measures for 
the conveying to me on my road all letters, so that should any 
thing extraordinary require it, I can at all times be recalled to 
Paris in a fortnight. I shall hope to hear from you at times as if 
I were in Paris. I thank you much for the valuable present of your 
book. The subject of it is interesting and I am sure it is well 
treated. I shall take it on my journey that I may have time to 
study it. You told me once you had had thoughts of writing on the 
subject of hereditary aristocracy. I wish you would carry it into 
^ execution. It would make a proper sequel to the present work. I wish 


6 FEBRUARY 1787 

you all possible happiness and have the honour to be with senti- 
ments of sincere esteem & affection, Dear Sir, your most obedient 
& most humble servant, TH: JEFFERSON 

RC (MHi: AMT); endorsed. PrC Jan. 1787; and draft of Commissioners 

(DL.C), Enclosure: Barclay to Com- to Jay, 27 Jan, 1787. The first of 

missioners, 6 Jan. 1786. these was received on Feb. 1787, and 

Adams' FAVOBS BY COLO. FRANKS presumably the others arrived at the 

evidently included Adams to TJ, 25 same time. Franks also evidently 

Jan. 1787; draft of Commissioners to brought a copy of Adams* VALUABLE 

Barclay, 25 Jan. 1787 (missing); draft . . . BOOK, Defence of the Constitutions 

of Commissioners to Taher Fennish, 27 of the United States (London, 1787). 

From Mary Barclay 

SIR St, Germain-en-Laye 6 febry. 1787 

I am infinitely obliged and thankful! for your friendly and ready 
compliance with the request in my last, and as I have not a proper 
person to send for the money have taken the liberty to draw on 
you at sight, should there be any thing improper in this mode, 
I beg" you will attribute it to my ignorance in matters of this kind, 
and believe me to be with sincere respect and esteem Sir your most 
obedt. humble Servant, M BARCLAY 

RC (MHi); endorsed: "Barclay Mrs." Not recorded in SJL. Mrs. Barclay's letter 
containing the request has not been found, but see TJ to her, 2 Feb. 1787, 

To William Drayton 

SIR Paris Feb. 6. 1787. 

I had the honour of addressing you on the 6th. of May last by 
Mr. McQuin, and of sending you by the same gentleman some 
seed of the Sulla, or Spanish St. foin. I hope it has succeeded, as 
some seeds of the same parcel which I sowed in my garden have 
vegetated well and gave me an opportunity of seeing that it is a 
most luxuriant grass. It's success in the climate of Malta seems to 
ensure it with you. The present serves to inform you that I send with 
it, to the care of your delegates in Congress, some acorns of the 
Cork oak. I am told they must not be covered above two inches 
deep. Their being pierced by the worm will not affect their power 
of vegetating. I am just setting out on a journey to the South of 
France. Should any objects present themselves in the course of my 
journey which may promise to forward the views of the society, I 
shall with great pleasure avail you of them, and take every possible 


7 FEBRUARY 1787 

occasion of assuring you of the sentiments of esteem & respect 
with which I have the honour to be Sir Your most obedt. & most 
humble servt., TH: JEFFERSON 

TVT- mrm- at foot of text: **Wm- OF :MCAY LAST had been correctly sent 

He* XfrTO es? e* in x, to William Drayton (1752-179O) chief 

mrfeTthS date also shows that the justice of Sontt Carolina and double 

ktter was addressed to "Drayton W.H." first cousin of WUliam Henry Drayton, 

TJ erred in this: his letter of THE 6TH. who had died, in 17 7 y. 

To John Banister 

DEAR SIR Paris Feb - 7 - 1787 - 

A former letter which I wrote to announce the arrival of your 
son in Paris in good health has failed to go by the occasion which 
was expected. He will have the happiness therefore of announcing 
that good news in person. I congratulate you on his character which 
is substantially good. He has never I think done an imprudent 
thing since he left you, unless we call by that name, as I believe 
we must, his having for the first time yeilded to the allurements 
of Paris and spent during his stay here a great deal more than you 
had proposed. He has been sincerely afflicted by it, and it is that 
which has made him adopt the sudden resolution of leaving the 
place and going home. Yet were he my son, I should be glad of it. 
He has bought lessons of which he will profit thro 1 life, and be 
able to profit his children and friends. They have done him no 
injury but to his purse. I think it will contribute more to his 
future good than the same money in the form of property. His 
mind will be oppressed till you relieve him by an explanation, which 
I beseech you to do in the first moment. The post which a parent 
may take most advantageous for his child is that of his bosom 
friend. I know your way of thinking too well to doubt your con- 
currence in this. I too have transgressed your instructions; but it 
was to relieve him from embarrasment, not to lead him into it. He 
has no suspicion that I write to you on this subject; but my duty 
to both required it. Present my friendship to Mrs. Bannister and 
accept assurances of it yourself from Dr. Sir your mo. obed. humble 
servt *> TH: JEFFERSON 

PrC (DLC); at foot of text: "Colo. Bannister." 

For the loan that TJ advanced to young Banister to RELIEVE 


To John Banister, Jr., with Enclosure 

DEAR SIR Paris Feb. 7. 1787. 

I inclose you fifteen hundred livres being all the money I have in 
this moment. I must beg the favor of you to leave me your accounts 
to pay to the amount of your balance. My reason is this. Being to 
set out on my journey within a week, I shall then have occasion to 
draw money from my banker for the paiment of my own accounts, 
and would wish to make one draught of the whole. Nevertheless if 
it should make any odds with you, I will send to him for the balance 
of what you want, being desirous to accomodate you and to assure 
you of the esteem with which I am Dr. Sir Your sincere friend & 
servt., TH: JEFFERSON 

ES. I shall be at home till 8. o'clock to-night, and shall hope to 
see you either before that, or tomorrow morning. I do not think 
you can safely postpone your setting out longer than noon tomor- 
row. I do not say this with respect to yourself but to Colo. Franks 
whose failure in his passage would be too important to be risked. 


Annona. Papaw 

Andromeda arborea. Redbud 

Azalea nudiflora. Wild honey- 

Acer negundo. Ash leaved Maple 

Cornus florida. Dogwood 

Chionanthus virginica. Fringe 

Cupressus disticha. Cypress. 

Crataegus tomentosa* Haw. 

Diospyros virginiana. Persim- 

Fraxinus Americana. Ash 

Gleditsia triacanthos. Honey pod 

Juglans nigra. Black walnut 

White walnut 

Juniperus virginica. Red Cedar. 

Kalmia. Green ivy. 
*Liriodendron tulipifera. Poplar. 

Liquidambar styracifhia. Sweet 

Lauras Sassafras. Sassafras 

February 7. 1787. 
Magnolia glauca. Swamp laurel. 
Magnolia tripetala. Umbrella 


Primus virginiana. Wild cherry. 
Phytolacca decandra. Poke. 
*Quercus phellos. Willow leaved 


Quercus virginiana. Live oak 
Rhus. Sumach 

Robinia pseudo-acacia. Locust. 
*Bignonia sempervirens. Yellow 

*Pyrus coronaria. Wild crab 

A dozen plants (not seeds) of 

each kind, and of each of those 

marked* two dozen. 
Red birds ) 

Opossums male & female 
A pair of the largest bucks horns 

which can possibly be found. 

Two skins also, the one taken 

when the deer is red, the other 

7 FEBRUARY 1787 

when he is blue, with the jaws A pair of _the largest elk horns. 
& teeth & the feet left in the The skin would also be ac- 

ceptable if it could be got. 

Method of packing the plants. 

Take the plants up by the roots, leaving good roots. Trim off all the 
boughs, and cut the stems to the length of your box. Near the tip end 
of every plant cut a number of notches which will serve as a label, 
giving the same number to all the plants of the same species. Where 
the plant is too small to be notched, notch a separate stick and tye it to 
the plant. Make a list on paper of the plants by their names and number 
of notches. m 

Take fresh moss just gathered, lay a layer of it at the bottom of the 
box 2. inches thick. Then put in a layer of plants, putting those of the 
same kind together and laying them side by side. Then put on them a 
layer of moss 1. inch thick, then a layer of plants and again of moss 
alternately, finishing with a layer of moss 2. inches thick, or more i 
more be necessary to fill the box. Large roots must be separately wrapped 
in moss. 

These plants must come in some vessel bound to Havre or Honfleur 
and must be addressed to the care of Monsieur Limozin at Havre. It 
will be absolutely useless to send them to any other port. They should 
leave Virginia during the months of November and December. If they 
come sooner the heat of the season will destroy them: if later they will 
not arrive in time to be planted. 

PrC (DLC); at foot of text: "Mr. plants indicates that TJ intended it 

Bannister. 1 * Recorded in SJL as ad- for the son; also, it probably -was not 

dressed to "Bannister J, junr." En- an actual enclosure but may have been 

closure (PrC in DLC; at foot of first handed to young- Banister on the eve 

page: "Mr. Bannister" )j although cata- of his departure from Paris. In the PrC 

loaded in DLC as if an enclosure in the in DLC the list and the directions 

preceding: letter to Col. John Banister, occupy two separate pages, but the 

the reference to "Mr. Bannister" at the original may have been on a single leaf* 
foot of the first page of this list of 

To Anne Willing Bingham 

Paris Feb. 7. 1787. 

I know, Madam, that the twelvemonth is not yet expired; but 
it will be, nearly, before this will have the honour of being put into 
your hands. You are then engaged to tell me truly and honestly 
whether you do not find the tranquil pleasures of America prefera- 
ble to the empty bustle of Paris. For to what does that bustle tend? 
At eleven o'clock it is day chez Madame. The curtains are drawn 
Propped on bolsters and pillows, and her head scratched into a 
little order, the bulletins of the sick are read, and the billets of 
the well. She writes to some of her acquaintance and receives the 


7 FEBRUARY 1787 

visits of others. If the morning is not very thronged, she is able 
to get out and hobble round the cage of the Palais royal: but she 
must hobble quickly, for the Coeffeur's turn is come; and a tre- 
mendous turn it is! Happy, if he does not make her arrive when 
dinner is half over! The torpitude of digestion a little passed, she 
flutters half an hour thro' the streets by way of paying visits, and 
then to the Spectacles. These finished, another half hour is de- 
voted to dodging in and out of the doors of her very sincere friends, 
and away to supper. After supper cards; and after cards bed, to 
rise at noon the next day, and to tread, like a mill-horse, the same 
trodden circle over again. Thus the days of life are consumed, one 
by one, "without an object beyond the present moment: ever flying 
from the ennui of that, yet carrying it with us; eternally in pursuit 
of happiness -which keeps eternally before us. If death or a bank- 
ruptcy happen to trip us out of the circle, it is matter for the buz of 
the evening, and is completely forgotten by the next morning. 

In America, on the other hand, the society of your husband, the 
fond cares for the children, the arrangements of the house, the 
improvements of the grounds fill every moment with a healthy and 
an useful activity. Every exertion is encouraging, because to 
present amusement it joins the promise of some future good. The 
intervals of leisure are filled by the society of real friends, whose 
affections are not thinned to cob-web by being spread over a 
thousand objects. This is the picture in the light it is presented 
to my mind; now let me have it in yours. If we do not concur this 
year, we shall the next: or if not then, in a year or two more. You 
see I am determined not to suppose myself mistaken. To let you 
see that Paris is not changed in it's pursuits since it was honoured 
with your presence, I send you it's monthly history. But this relat- 
ing only to the embellishments of their persons I must add that 
those of the city go on well also. A new bridge, for example, is 
begun at the Place Louis Quinze; the old ones are clearing of the 
rubbish which encumbered them in the form of houses; new hos- 
pitals erecting; magnificent walls of inclosure and Custom houses at 
their entrance &c. &c. &c. I know of no interesting change among 
those whom you honoured with your acquaintance, unless Monsr. 
de Saint James was of that number. His bankruptcy and taking 
asylum in the Bastile have furnished matter of astonishment. His 
garden at the Pont de Neuilly, where, on seventeen acres of ground 
he had laid out fifty thousand Louis, will probably sell for some- 
what less money. The workmen of Paris are making rapid strides 
towards English perfection. Would you believe that in the course 


7 FEBRUARY 1787 

of the last two years they have learnt even to surpass their London 
rivals in some articles? Commission me to have you a Phaeton 
made, and if it is not as much handsomer than a London one, as 
that is than a Fiacre, send it back to me. Shall I fill the box with 
caps, bonnets &c? not of my own chusing, but I was going to say 
of Mademoiselle Bertin's, forgetting for the moment that she too 
is bankrupt. They shall be chosen then by whom you please; or, 
if you are altogether non plus-ed by her eclipse, we will call an 
assembled des Notables to help you out of the difficulty, as is now 
the fashion. In short, honour me with your commands of any kind, 
and they shall be faithfully executed. The packets, now established 
from Havre to New York, furnish good opportunities of sending 
whatever you -wish. 

I shall end where I began, like a Paris day, reminding you of 
your engagement to write me a letter of respectable length, an 
engagement the more precious to me as it has furnished me the 
occasion, after presenting my respects to Mr. Bingham, of assuring 
you of the sincerity of those sentiments of esteem & respect with 
which I have the honour to be, dear Madam, your most obedient & 
most humble servt., TH: JEFFERSON 

PrC (DLC). The enclosed "monthly history" has not been identified, but it was 
evidently a journal devoted to fashions (see Mrs. Bingham to TJ, 1 June 1787). 

For another and contrasting opinion by TJ of iCR. BINGHAIM: and His beautiful 
wife, see TJ to Madison, 30 Jan. 1787. 

To the Governor o Virginia 

Paris Feb. 7. 1787. 

I have the honour of inclosing to your Excellency a report of 
the proceedings on the inauguration of the bust of the Marquis de 
la Fayette in this city. This has been attended with a considerable, 
but a necessary delay. The principle that the King is the sole foun- 
tain of honour in this country, opposed a barrier to our desires 
which threatened to be insurmountable. No instance of a similar 
proposition from a foreign power had occurred in their history. The 
admitting it in this case is a singular proof of the king's friendly 
dispositions towards the States of America, and of his personal 
esteem for the character of the Marquis de la Fayette. 

I take this the earliest occasion of congratulating my country 
on your Excellency's appointment to the chair of government, and 
of assuring you with great sincerity of those sentiments of perfect 


8 FEBRUARY 1787 

esteem & respect with which I have the honour to be your Excel- 
lency's most obedient and most humble servant, 


RC (Vi); at foot of text: H.E. Governor Randolph." PrC (DLC). Enclosure! 
Louis Le Pelletier to TJ, 1 Feb. 1787, and its enclosure, both of which were en- 
closed unsealed in TJ to Madison, this date. See also Short to Randolph, 21 Mch. 

To James Madison 

DEAR SIR Paris Feb. 7. 1787. 

I leave the inclosed open for your perusal and that of your 
Collegues and others to whom you may chuse to shew it; only tak- 
ing care that neither copies nor extracts be taken. Be so good, when 
you are done with it, as to stick a wafer in it and forward it to 
the Governor. 

I am with sincere esteem Dr. Sir your friend & servt., 


ES. I do not know whether you are acquainted with young 
Bannister who goes by the packet. He is of good understanding 
and of infinite worth. I have letters and papers to the 15th. of 
Decemb. yet neither these nor those of any person I can meet with 
inform us who is President of Congress. 

RC (DLC: Madison Papers); without indication of addressee; endorsed. Not 
recorded in SJL. Enclosure: TJT to g-overnor of Virginia, 7 Feb. 1787, and its en- 
closures (see note there). 

To David S. Franks 

DEAR SIR Paris Feb. 8. 1787. 8 o'clock P.M. 

I discover that by mistake you have among the papers some 
that are not destined for America. I recollect 

1. a letter intended for a jo[int] one from Mr. Adams and myself 
to Mr. Barclay 

2. another intended to be joint to Fennish the Marocco minister 

3. one of the ratified treaties signed by Mr. Adams and myself. 
[One copy of the last?] should go to Congress, the [other copy is?] 
to be sent to Mr. Barclay. Perhaps there may be other papers 
but I do not recollect [them?]. I had put them between the red 
marocco cover [and the lid of the box, intending when I gave you 
the box to [take away these papers?]. Be so good as to search for 


8 FEBRUARY 1787 

them and return them to me by post with any others which on 
view you may be sensible should have been retained. I have written 
by the Diligence which goes off [at eight to]night and promised 
the driver 6. livres if he delivers the letter to you before the packet 
sails. Be so good as to ask the favor of Mr. Limozin to pay it, 
and I will replace it with him. This goes by post. Health, happiness, 
and a good passage to you both, and am Dr. Sir your friend & 


PrC (MHi); MS faded, some words marocco [cover] of the treaty box and 

being supplied by the editors with refer- the lid of the box. Pray search for 

ence to the first of the two letters writ- them and return them to me by the first 

ten to Franks on this date. post. Perhaps there may be in the same 

Franks's acknowledgment of a letter place some other papers not Intended 

of the 8th indicates that only one was for America: tho I recollect no others. 

received (Franks to TJ> 11 Feb. 1787), Health, happiness, Sc a fair passage to 

and only one is recorded in SJL. But you & am with esteem Dr. Sir your 

two variant texts exist, the other (PrC friend & servt, Th: Jefferson P.S. Be 

in DL.C) reading: as follows: * e l suspect so grood as to write me a line of your 

that among- the papers you took from safe arrival the moment you land in 

hence were two letters, the one in- America,** The text given above is 

tended for a joint one from Mr. Adams probably that which Franks received, 

and myself to Mr. Barclay, and the and the absence of a postscript to it 

other intended to be joint likewise to may be attributed to the fact that TJ 

the Marocco minister. I think you will was writing 1 in haste at the very moment 

find these stuffed in between the red the diligence was scheduled to depart. 

To John Jay 

SIR Paris Feb. 8. 1787. 

The packet being; to sail the day after tomorrow, I have awaited 
the last possible moment of writing by her, in hopes I might be 
able to announce some favorable change in the situation of the 
Count de Vergennes. But none has occurred, and in the mean time 
he has become weaker by the continuance of his illness. Tho* not 
desperately ill, he is dangerously so. The Comptroller General M. de 
Calonnes has been very ill also, but he is getting well. These 
circumstances have occasioned the postponement of the assemblee 
des notables to the 14th. inst. and will probably occasion a further 
postponement. As I shall set out this day sennight for the waters 
of Aix, you will probably hear the issue of the Ct. de Vergenne's 
illness thro' some other channel before I shall have the honour of 
addressing you again. I may observe the same as to the final 
decision for the effranchisement of Honfleur 1 which is in a fair 
way of being speedily concluded. The exertions of Monsr. de 
Crevecoeur, and particularly his influence with the Duke d'Har- 

9 FEBRUARY 1787 

court, the principal instrument in effecting it, have been of chief 
consequence in this matter. 

I have the honour to be with the most perfect esteem and respect, 
Sir, your most obedient & most humble servant, 


PrC (DLC). Tr (DNA: FCC, No. 1O7, n). 

i This word interlined in substitution for "Havre," deleted. 

To Andre Limozin 

SIR Paris Feb. 8. 1787 

I am honoured with your favor of the 3d. inst. and thank you 
for the letters it covered. This will be handed you by two American 
gentlemen Colo. Franks and Mr. Bannister, who propose to go 
passengers in the packet, and whom I beg leave to recommend to 
your notice. I shall set out this day sennight for the South of 

France and probably shall be absent from. Paris two or three 
months. Mr. Short, my secretary will remain here, will always 
know where I shall be, and will forward to me all dispatches, so 
that the functions of my office will 1 be attended to as if I were 
here; with only a little more delay. 

I have the honour to be with the highest esteem & respect Sir 
your most obedient & most humble servt., TH. JEFFERSON 

PrC (DLC). 

* This word interlined in substitution for "may," deleted. 

To C. W. F. Durnas 

SIR Paris Feb. 9. 1787. 

My last to you was dated Dec. 25. since which I have been 
honoured with your several favors of Dec. 29. Jan. 5. 9. and 23. 
I thought that your affairs could not be more interesting than they 
have been for a considerable time. Yet in the present moment they 
are become more so by the apparent withdrawing of so considerable 
a personage in the drama as the K. of P. To increase this in- 
terest another person, whose importance scarcely admits calcula- 
tion, is in a situation which fills us with alarm. Nature is struggling 
to relieve him by a decided gout; she has my sincere prayers to 
aid her, as I am persuaded she has yours. I have letters and 

papers from America as late as the 15th. of December. The govern- 


9 FEBRUARY 1787 

ment of Massachusets had imprisoned three of the leaders of their 
insurgents. The insurgents being collected to the number of three 
or four hundred, had sent in their petition to their government 
praying another act of pardon for their leaders and themselves and 
on this condition offering to go every man home and conduct him- 
self dutifully afterward. This is the latest intelligence. 

I thank you for your attention to the question I had taken the 
liberty of proposing to you. I think with you that it would be 
adviseable to have our debt transferred to individuals of your 
country, provided it can be done without any loss to this country. 
There could and would be no objection to the guarantee remaining 
as you propose, and a postponement of the first paiments of capital 
would surely be a convenience to us. For tho' the resources of 
the U.S. are great and growing, and their dispositions good, yet 
their machine is new, and they have not got it to go well. It is 
the object of their general wish at present, and they are all in 
movement to set it in a good train, but their movements are neces- 
sarily slow. They will surely effect it in the end because all have 
the same end in view, the difficulty being only to get all the 13. 
states to agree on the same means. Divesting myself of every 
partiality, and speaking from that thorough knolege which I have 
of the country, their resources, and their principles, I had rather 
trust money in their hands than in that of any government on 
earth: because tho* for a while the paiments of the interest might 
be less regular, yet the final reimbursement of the capital would be 
more sure. 

I set out next week for the South of France, to try whether 
some mineral waters in that quarter, much recommended, will re- 
store the use of my hand. I shall be absent from Paris two or three 
months; but I take arrangements for the regular receipt of your 
favors as if I were here. It will be better however for you to put 
your letters to Mr. Jay under cover to Mr. Short who remains here 
and will forward them. I have thought it my duty to submit to 
Congress the proposition about the French debt, and may expect 
their answer in four months. I have the honour to be with sincere 
esteem & respect Sir your most obedient & most humble servt., 


BS. After writing the preceding your favor of the 2d. of Febru- 
ary is put into my hand. It was 24. hours too late to go by the 
packet which sails from Havre tomorrow. The periods of the de- 
parture of the packets from Havre are every six weeks, to wit 


9 FEBRUARY 1787 

Feb. 10. Mar. 25. May 10. June 25. Aug. 10. Sep. 25. Nov. 10* 
Dec. 25. I shall always send a courier to Havre a few days before. 
You may perhaps find it convenient to accomodate your future 
dispatches to these periods. As to the 1st. inquiry you kindly make 
in your letter relative to my hand, it is a little better and very little. 
The 2d. relative to the letter sent to the M. de la f ayette his absence 
disables me from answering. The 3d. relative to your letters sent 
thro the channel of your Ambassador is answered by that part of 
the preceding letter which specifies the dates of those I have re- 
ceived. I beg leave to renew my assurances of esteem & respect. 

TH: J. 
PrC (DLC). 

From John Jay 

DR. SIR New York 9th. February 1787. 

Since my last to you of the 14th. December I have been honored 
with yours of the 26th. September last, which with the Papers that 
it enclosed have been laid before Congress, but neither on that 
nor any of your late Letters have any Orders as yet been made. 

The annual Election produces much Delay in Affairs. From 
that Time to this scarcely any Thing has been done. It was not 
until last Week that, seven States being represented, a President 
was elected the Choice fell on Major General St. Clair. They 
have much back Business to dispatch several Reports on im- 
portant Subjects from the different Departments, are to be con- 
sidered and decided upon. A Form of Government so constructed 
has Inconveniences, which I think 1 will continue to operate against 
the public or national Interest until some Cause not easy to be 
predicted shall produce such a Modification of it, as that the 
legislative, judicial and executive Business of Government, may be 
consigned to three proper and distinct Departments. 

The Struggles for and against the Impost remain but promise 
little. The States in general pay little Attention to Requisitions, and 
I fear that our Debts foreign and domestic will not soon be provided 
for in a Manner satisfactory to our Creditors. The Evils to be 
expected from such Delays are less difficult to be foreseen than 
obviated. Our Governments want Energy, and there is Reason to 
fear that too much has been expected from the Virtue and good 
Sense of the People. 

You will receive herewith enclosed a Letter from Congress to 

9 FEBRUARY 1787 

his most Christian Majesty, with a Copy of it for your Information. 
It is in Answer to one received from him, and should have been 
of Earlier Date had Congress sooner convened. Be pleased to 
explain this Circumstance to the Minister. 

The public Papers herewith sent contain all we at present know 
respecting the Troubles in Massachusetts. Whether they will soon 
be terminated, or what Events they may yet produce, is perfectly 
uncertain; and the more so as we are yet to ascertain, whether and 
how far they may be encouraged by our Neighbours. 

I enclose a Copy of a Letter from Mr. Otto, formally contradict- 
ing the Report of an Exchange between France and Spain for the 
Floridas. That Report had excited Attention, and given Pleasure 
to Ante-Gallicans. 

Our Apprehensions of an Indian War still continue, for we are 
at a Loss to determine, whether the present Continuance of Peace 
is to be ascribed to the Season, or their pacific Intentions. 

We have not yet received the Morocco Treaty. As soon as it 
arrives I am persuaded that Congress will take the earliest Op- 
portunity of making their Acknowledgments to the friendly Powers 
that promoted it. Mr. Lamb is still absent. He doubtless has re- 
ceived the Order of Congress directing his Return, either from 
you and Mr. Adams, or directly from me. 

Congress has not yet given any Orders respecting further 
Negociations with the Barbary States, nor can I venture to say what 
their Sentiments will be on that Head. I am equally at a Loss to 
judge what they will direct respecting Treaties of Commerce with 
the Emperor and other European Powers. For my part I think and 
have recommended, that Commissions and Instructions should be 
sent you and Mr. Adams for those Purposes. In my Opinion such 
Treaties for short Terms might be advantageous. The Time is 
not yet come for us to expect the best, The Distance of that Period 
will however depend much on ourselves. 

With very sincere Esteem and Regard, I am Dr. Sir your most 
obt. & hble servt, JOHN JAY 

,XT \>r N - 121) - Dft rrhe LETTISH rao* MR. OTTO that 

(NK-Iselm). Recorded in SJL as re- Jay forwarded to TJ was read in Con- 

caved 6 Apr. 1787 at Marseilles. En- gpress only on 2 Feb. 1787 after seven 

closures: (1) Congress' congratulatory states had assembled and made it possi- 

rflf T?1 1 U * m ^P 0118 * * hi ble for that body to function, but two 

of 9 July 1786 announcing the birth weeks earlier Jay had released it to the 

xxx^i P l 1 S I ? C TQ^ ( T eXt - P ^?^ d *" ??* E TeSS thcrcb y causing Otto acute em- 

fcS li *1W ) S?% G ^ a ? ri ? e 2* barrassment in much the same way 

to Jay, 21 Dec 1786 (printed in Bur- that Jay had distressed TJ by pub- 

neM ^Letter* of Members, vm, No. 576, lishing: the latter's dispatch of 27 

7> - May 1786. This action also provoked 


9 FEBRUARY 1787 

resentment in a Congress already em- 
bittered over his conduct of negotiations 
with Gardoqui. Otto had sent to Ver- 
gennes on 23 Apr. 1786 news of the 
report that Louisiana was to be ex- 
changed for a French possession in the 
West Indies, and on 25 Aug. 1786 
Vergennes replied that such an ex- 
change had never been in question and 
that, if the report should arise again, 
Otto would "be pleased to deny it for- 
mally" (DipL Corr., 1783-89, I, 241; 
Dft of Vergennes* instructions is in 
Arch. AS. Etr., Corr. Pol., E.-U., xxxn; 
transcripts in DLC, "where the passage 
quoted reads: "et si Ton vous en parle 
encore, vous dementirez f ormellement" ) . 
Otto's letter to Jay appeared in the 
New York Journal, 18 Jan. and the 
New York Packet, 19 Jan. 1787. Otto, 
greatly disturbed, -wrote at once to Ver- 
gennes explaining: the background of 
the episode. He said that the false news 
of the exchange of Louisiana for a 
French possession in the Antilles (pub- 
lished in Pa. Journ.i 6 Jan. 1787 on 
**the most indisputable authorities from 
France and Spain"; Burnett, Letters of 
Members, vm, No. 576, note 7) had 
scarcely appeared when two gazettes 
printed the same day a pretended treaty 
by which France was put in possession 
of the two Floridas on condition of 
closing* the Mississippi to the Ameri- 
cans and of keeping there a consider- 
able body of troops to prevent any 
invasion of Spanish territory (the Ne-uj 
York Packet of 16 Jan. 1787 described 
the article concerning 1 the Mississippi 
as being secret). Otto thought that it 
was easy to guess the authors and 
object of this fabrication, but reported 
that even the best informed Americans 
and those most attached to France were 
deceived by the apparently authentic 
form of the treaty; that he had vainly 
tried to assure members of Congress 
and principal citizens of New York 
that this 'treaty" was entirely forged 
in England, but they replied that the 
news had been repeated so often and 
accompanied with so many plausible 
circumstances they could not doubt its 
authenticity. He had followed Ver- 
gennes* instructions of the previous 
August, but even this had not quieted 
the fears. At that point, he stated, Jay 
had requested a written extract of these 
instructions relative to an exchange of 
Louisiana; he had complied and Jay 
"n'a eu rien de plus presse que de le 
faire imprirner," whereupon the clamors 
"ont cesse sur le champ," the "treaty" 

was regarded as false on every hand, 
and praise for the wisdom and good 
policy of France took the place of the 
intemperate criticism and suspicion that 
had prevailed such a short time before. 
(Otto gave no indication to Vergennes 
that his letter had been written almost 
a month before Jay "rushed" it into 
printj that the first publication of the 
false treaty had taken place only two 
days before Otto's letter appeared; and 
that, at the time of his reporting to Ver- 
gennes, scarcely twenty-four hours had 
elapsed between Jay's hasty action and 
the effective quieting of clamors!) Otto 
further stated that, while Jay's publica- 
tion of tb.e extract had produced the 
most prompt and salutary effect, he 
himself was so troubled with the liberty 
Jay had taken that he had frankly 
expressed his displeasure and had told 
Jay that, because of this episode, he 
would be obliged in future to maintain 
ts une reserve extreme a son egard." 
Jay justified himself by arguing that 
the popular ferment was so great as 
to require the weight of Vergennes 9 
name to discredit the "fausses nouvelles 
que des Emissaires Anglois ne cessoient 
de repandre en Amerique"; that there 
would always be found in America a 
very considerable party favorably dis- 
posed toward England and engaged in 
trying to detach the United States from 
France; and that in order to make 
France's cession of Louisiana still more 
odious, this party had spread the rumor 
that Louis XVI, disappointed in his 
hope of full reimbursement for Ameri- 
can loans, had decided to retake Louisi- 
ana, gain a foothold on the continent, 
and at his leisure take possession of 
Georgia and Carolina as compensation 
for his losses. Otto reported further that 
Congress very strongly disapproved of 
the precipitation of Jay, thinking that 
he had no right to publish any informa- 
tion addressed to him. "Mais," con- 
cluded Otto, **je n'en aurai pas moins 
desormais le plus grand soin de ne 
faire a ce Ministre que des communica- 
tions verb ales toutes les fois que Vous 
ne m'aures pas ordonne expressement 
de traiter avec lui par ecrit." Even so, 
Otto thought that Jay's grave apprehen- 
sions about the menace of English 
emissaries appeared well founded. He 
reported that he had noticed insinua- 
tions against France or prejudicial to 
the Franco-American alliance appearing- 
with frequency in the gazettes after 
the arrival of the English consul, Sir 
John Temple j that at first he disre- 


10 FEBRUARY 1787 

these publications, but as they Corr. Pol., E.-U., Vol. xxxn? transcripts 
more and more insidious he in DLC). WHen this troubled account 
decided to answer them moderately and with its unconvincing chronology ar- 
wtthout trusting anyone to translate his rived in Paris on 23 Mch. 1787, the 
paragraphs; that Temple had seized the astute minister to whom it was ad- 
moment of publication of the Angrlo- dressed was already dead. 
French treaty of commerce in order to By a strange coincidence Jay had 
play upon American fears of any rap- allowed about a month to elapse before 
prochement between those two nations, publishing either TJPs letter of 27 May 
deploring the fate of the United States 1786 or Otto's of 21 Dec. 1786 (see 
as the ultimate victim of this coalition; Vol. 9:588, note), and in both instances 
that these adroit lamentations came the delay and the fact of publication 
from Boston, Rhode Island, and Phila- are alike unexplained. It may not be 
delphia, but that he could always recogr- without significance that one instance 
nize "la plume ou du moms la polrtique brought acute embarrassment to the 
de M. Temple"; that Temple affected American minister in France and the 
in public and in the presence of mem- other an equally acute embarrassment 
bers of Congress to be most amicable to the French charge in America, a fact 
toward Otto, while speaking- of the that perhaps places in proper perspective 
important consequences of the treaty Jay's solicitous concern about the dan- 
and inferring: from it that the "systeme gers to be expected from the "Emls- 
de PEurope etoit tout-a-fait chang-e et saires Ang-lois." 
que les forces reunies des deux nations 

les plus puissantes feroient desormais * In Dft Jay first wrote, then deleted, 

la loi % 1'Univers entier" (Otto to Ver- "despair." 
g^nnes, 19 Jan. 1787; Arch. Aff. Etr., 

From John Banister, Jr. 

ILe Havre, 10 Feb. 1787. Recorded in SJL as received 14 Feb. 1787. 
Not found, but for its contents, see TJ to John Dunbar, 15 Dec. 1789.] 

Thomas Barclay to the 
American Commissioners 

GENTLEMEN Alicante 10th. February 1787, 

Since I wrote to you from hence the 6th. of last month I have 
been much aflicted with the Rheumatism in my loins which con- 
fin'd me to my bed with pains great beyond Discription. I am now 
free of them, and shall leave this place in a few Days. Upon 
further reflection, I thought it best not to abandon the Idea of 
meeting Mr. Lamb, and therefore I wrote to him at Port Mahon 
that I wou'd go to Valencia and from thence to Barcelona, if he 
won d embark for this last place and meet me there. I informd him 
that my orders from Congress were to make a settlement with all 
the people m^Europe who are employed or who have been employed 
m their Service, and that the Ministers at London and Paris wish 
that I may be able to comply with the Desire, which He com- 

C 132] 

10 FEBRUARY 1787 

municated to them of having his account settled here, and I de- 
sir'd him to answer me by one letter addressed for me at Valencia 
and another at Barcelona. If his business or health will not permit 
him to see me, I will probably go to Madrid from Valencia or 
perhaps to France from Barcelona, but my movements will in 
some measure be governed by the necessity I shall find myself 
under of going to Coruiia. The Gentlemen with whom my business 
lyes there have not by any means comply'd with my request. They 
acknowledge that there is some property belonging to the Prizes 
carried in by Captain Cunnyngham in their hands but they have 
applyed it towards the discharge of Expences incurred by the 
South Carolina Frigate commanded by Commodore Gillon, and 
with respect to the public Effects left by him, little can be known 
from what they write. 

I fear nothing will ever be recovered o any consequence from 
these effects or from this ballance. Yet having them pointed out 
as objects to be attended to, I am unwilling to leave anything undone 
on nay part. In the mean time I shall communicate to the Secretary 
of foreign AiFairs what I have collected on these subjects, and 
determine hereafter whether I shall pass to Coruna or not. I re- 
ceiv'd a letter from Mr. Jefferson Dated the 26th. 1 of December, 
in which he says he will write to Mr. Adams to join him in de- 
siring Mr. Lamb to settle his accounts, a Circumstance that proves 
very agreeable to me, However willing Mr. Lamb may be to do 
it without such a letter. I am Gentlemen with the greatest respect 
and Esteem, Your most obedt. Servant, THOS. BARCLAY 

The Count D'Espilly &c. saiFd from this Bay about ten Days 
ago for Algier. 

RC ( DLC ) ; in an unidentified hand, Barclay also -wrote a separate letter to 

signed by Barclay; endorsed. Tr (DLC); Adams on this date (MHi: AMT). 
in William Short's hand. Recorded in 

SJX, as received 25 Feb. 1787. Enclosed 1 Thus in RC and Tr; the correct 

in Barclay to TJ of this date, following; date is 27 Dec. 

From Thomas Barclay 

DEAR SIR Alicante, 10th. Febry. 1787. 

I had the pleasure of receiving your obliging Letter of the 27th* 
of December, and if my endeavours to serve our Country well have 
the flattering effects you suppose, I shall think my Journey to 
Morocco one of the happiest Incidents of my life. I am very glad 


10 FEBRUARY 1787 

to learn that you are recovering from the Injury which your wrist 
received, and hope it is possible we may meet on the road, but at 
present I am so little my own Master, and so much governed by 
circumstances that I have not even an Idea how I shall Breach 
Paris; and on the Subject of my movements I can add nothing to 
the annex'd copy of what I have written to you and Mr, Adams by 
this Day's post, but that I shall endeavour to embark for America 
in April or May. I will not now trouble you with any thing on 
the Subject of Messrs. Schweighauser's accounts but that the Sums 
which they charge were all certainly paid on the Alliance frigate 
at L'Orient, but at a time when the Court of France had taken the 
care of those advances on itself, and Mr. Schweighauser's Agent 
at L'Orient paid them not only in direct opposition to the orders 
of Dr. Franklin, but to those of Mr. Schweighauser himself and 
those orders were given before the Disbursements were paid. An 
Attachment was laid on the Effects of the United States at Nantes 
by which I believe a very heavy loss will fall on them, as I think 
a number of new Arms imported from Holland are perish'd through 
want of care. I consulted a Merchant at Nantes concerning the 
propriety of leaving the whole transactions to the determination 
of three or four disinterested men, and his answer was, *that if 
the dispute was between two Individuals there 'would be no doubt 
of its being determined against Mr. Schweighauser. But at present 
there is on one Side the Public of America, and on the other a 
private Individual whose fortune might be affected by the De- 
termination. And this Consideration will have great weight with 
any Arbitrator we cou'd find." The papers relative to this affair 
are put up together in my office at St. Germains, and if any accident 
shou'd prevent me from having the pleasure of seeing you, it will 
be very necessary for you to take and examine them previous to 
your making a Settlement. They contain the Correspondence be- 
tween Doctor Franklin and Mr. Schweighauser which was con- 
tinued by Mr. Dobre* after the Death of his Father in law. A List 
of the articles under attachment I left with you previous to my 
Departure. Why has not Mr. Dobre as the Representative of 
Mr. Schweighauser push'd the affair to a legal Tryal if he can do 
it. Are Goods under attachment to lye for ever on hand, or untill 
they perish. I suppose I have applied at the least five or six times 
personally to the Marechal de Castries for an order that these 
arms (which were attachd before the Peace was compleated) shoud 
be deliver^! up to me that they might be transported to America, 
and I once demanded them at Nantes by a Lawyer in order to lay 


1 O FEBRUARY 1787 

the foundation of a Suit for Damages. The lawyer went beyond 
his orders, and summoned Mr. Dobre to a tryal before the Consular 
Court. With the summons the matter ended, neither Mr. Dobr nor 
myself appeared at that Court, and Monsieur De Castries said 
that as I had taken the affair out of the hands of the Council at 
Versailles by calling Mr. Dobr to an account at Nantes, it woud 
not be proper in him to intermedle. 

The Whole affair was Stated by me to Doctor Franklin and by 
him I believe to M. De Castries, but nothing was since done in 
it. I am of opinion that Mr, Dobr shou'd long since have applied 
to the Court of France for the payment of these advances, and 
perhaps the letter which M. De Sartine wrote when the Alliance was 
lent by Dr. Franklin, might entitle him to recover his Demand. 
For M. De Sartine expressly promised, as Doctor Franklin in- 
form'd me, that the Alliance Disbursments shou'd be paid by the 
Court of France, and I suppose the only objection that wou'd be 
made, must be, that^ as the Court had an Agent of their own at 
L'Orient, Mr. Schweighauser had no business to Intermeddle in 
the Supplies, especially after he was forbid. I meant only to 
have touched slightly on this matter but I have been drawn on. 
And if I do not see you, it may be all necessary. I shall trespass no 
longer on your time than to assure you of the truth wherewith 
I am Dr. Sir Your obedt. & obliged h'ble Servant, 


My Right Thumb is Very painful to me. 

RC ( I3L.C ) ; in an unidentified hand, -with the signature and postscript in Bar- 
clay's hand. Recorded in SJL as received 25 Feb. 1787. Enclosure: Barclay to 
Commissioners, this date. 

From David S. Franks 

DEAR SIR Havre le 10th. Feb. 1787 

We came here late last night, the roads and a broken Cariage 
having retarded us on the way longer than we had any reason to 
expect. On looking over my Papers this morning I found that the 
ratification of the Treaty together with the Letter to Taher Fennish 
to be sent to Moracco were in the Box. I therefore take the offer 
of Mr. Limosin to send them to you by the first safe hand. Permit 
me my dear Sir at parting to assure you that my Heart feels every 
Sentiment of gratitude and attachment to you for the many marks 
of Friendship -which you have shewn me since my stay in France 


1 1 FEBRUARY 1787 

and that it will always be my endeavor to merit the good opinion 
I flatter myself you have of me. I pray you would be so kind as to 
present my best Respects to Mr. Short and believe me Dear Sir 
Your Excellys. most obt. obliged Sert., D: S. FRANKS 

I believe we shall sail in a few hours beg you woud forward the 
inclosed Letter. 

I do myself the pleasure of inclosing you a Note which may by an 
accident serve to acquit my pecuniary obligations to you. 

RC (DLC); endorsed. Recorded in SJL as received 14, Feb. Enclosures not 

To Madame de Doradour 

[Paris* 11 Feb. 1787. Recorded in SJL under this date. Not found.] 

From Duler 

Rouen 9 11 Feb. 1787- He is grateful to TJ, for "few of my Country 
men equal in rank and fortune to you, would have thought it worth their 
while even of answering my letter." Since mid-January he has been 
employed by a mercantile establishment, with a salary of 4,OOO livres 
a year. Asks if arrangement has been made for payment of interest on 
U*S. loan certificates; receipt of his share would benefit his family. 

RC (DLC); 2 p.; at foot of text is Duler's address i "at Messrs. Elie Lefebvre 
freres Rotiaa"; endorsed. Recorded in SJL as received 3 May 1787 at Aix-en-Fro- 

From David S. Franks 

DEAR SIR Havre de Grace llth. Feby. 1787 

Before I had received your Excellency's Letter of the 8th. I 
had made up the inclosed Packet and had given it to Mr. Limousin 
who had promised to send it by the first safe hand but as you 
desire the papers may be sent by Post I now forward them to you; 
I mean the Copy ratified of the Treaty with the letter to Taher 
Fennish. That intended for Mr. Barclay is not among my Papers. 
I have made the most exact search for it in Vain. I think it must 
be where the Box containing the Treaty used to stand, nigh the 
fire place in your Study. 


1 1 FEBRUARY 1787 

I do myself the Honor of sending you a rough draft of a Letter 
I had written to Mr, Jay; fortunately I have not now any occasion 
to send it, as by contrary winds the Packet is detained and we have 
got (with much difficulty) Permission to imbark. It appears that 
after the Ships Books are closed at 5 o'clock in the Evening of the 
9th. of every Month, that no person can be admitted on board even 
tho' the Vessel should be detained a day or two by any accident; 
dispatches from any foreign Minister coming under the same Cir- 
cumstances unless accompanied by an order from the Mar. de 
Castries would be rejected. The Letter I intended for Mr. Jay I 
should have been obliged to have smuggled into the Ship. 

This Regulation must be productive of many disappointments 
and must serve to disgust our Countrymen from embarking on 
French Packet Boats. Capt. Daborelle informs me that at L'Orient 
no such rule was followed, that before the ship left the Coast any 
Passenger or Packet might be put on board. I thought it my Duty 
to inform Your Excellency of this Circumstance as it might have 
occasioned you some disappointment. If the French Ministry means 
to encourage this Communication between the two Countries they 
should remove every natural impediment in their power, and avoid 
throwing any Bars in the way. Bad Ships and but indifferent Sea- 
men I reckon among the former and the regulation before mentioned 
and some others among the Latter. The Ship we are now going 
to imbark in is by no means a bad one in point of strength but as 
to sailing I suppose that no Ship in France can be much more dull. 
We have seen the Vessel built in America and which is to sail 
next month for the West Indies. It is hardly possible to form at 
a distance a proper Idea of the difference on Comparison. She is 
the most beautiful Vessel I ever saw. 

Another Circumstance I beg leave to mention to Your Excel- 
lency and which will not a little contribute to throw her Country- 
men further at a distance from sailing in French Packets. I mean 
the impertinence of the Director Mr. Ruellan, whose conduct to us 
under any other Circumstances would have procured him a proper 
Chastisement. I am informed that he has also on several Oc- 
casions treated the American Crews in a very arbitrary and un- 
becoming manner and that many of them thereby have deserted 
from their Ship. He seems to enjoy an universal bad character. 

We have repacked your Acorns as you directed and with great 
Care. I pray my best Compliments to Mr. Short and am Dear Sir 
with much Respect & Esteem Your Excellency's most obt. obliged 
Servant, DAVD. S. FRANKS 


1 1 FEBRUARY 1787 

In all probability we shall be detained some days more as the 
wind is contrary and very violent. Should be glad of a Line from 
Your Excellency. 

RC (DLC); endorsed. Recorded in possibly make use of urged them to 
SJL as received 14 Feb. 1787. Enclosure allow me to embark"; that Limozin 
(DLC)* Draft of Franks to Jay, dated at had used his considerable influence "to 
Le Havre "10th Feby* 1787 12 oClock," as little purpose"; that as the packet 
stating that he had arrived at that port would not leave until three in the after- 
"last night at 11 oClock in Consequence noon, Franks thought it his duty to 
of the advice and Permission of their Ex- inform Jay of the reason for his "not 
cellencies Mr. Adams and Mr. Jefferson embarking with the Treaty by this 
charged with the Treaty made by Mr. opportunity"; that he hoped Jay would 
Barclay with the Emperor of Morocco"j be assured he had done everything he 
that he had applied to the master of the could to board the vessel "and that no 
packet boat for passage and had been re- detention of the Pacquet Boat -was re- 
ferred to the director of the packet boats, quested or desired by me, being in 
who in turn referred him to the intend- every point at 6 oClock this morning 
ant of the marine, who sent him back to ready to embark"; and that he would 
the director where he was '^peremptorily write immediately to TJ and follow his 
refused**; that he then communicated orders. 

his credentials to both gentlemen and The beautiful VESSEL BUILT IN 

represented to them "the ill conse- AMERICA may have been Limozin's 

quences which might anise from the Bailli dc Suffren, a remarkably fast 

Treaty not going in this Paquet and ship that had just arrived from Virginia 

with all the arguments that I could (see Limozin to TJ, 3 Feb. 1787). 

To Andre Limozin 

Sm Paris Feb. 11. 1787 

A friend in S. Carolina sent a letter and a box of plants for me 
to Mr. Otto, charg6 des affaires of France at New York. The letter 
came by the packet the Courier de PEurope, and was sent to me 
from POrient. I presume Mr. Otto sent the box of plants by the 
same conveiance but as the packet received orders on her arrival 
at POrient to repair immediately to Havre, she landed only her 
passengers and letters, and proceeded to Havre, where I suppose 
she is now and that she has there the box of plants for me. I leave 
Paris the 16th. instant, and it is very interesting for me to receive 
that box before I go. You will oblige me extremely if you can have 
it sought out in the instant of receiving this, and forwarded by the 
first Diligence to me here. I beg your pardon for troubling you so 
much: but these plants are precious, and have already come from 
S. Carolina to N. York, from N. York to Lorient, and from Lorient 
to Havre. There is danger therefore of their losing their vegetative 
power by delay, and my departure renders that delay still more 
interesting. I am with very much esteem & respect Sir your most 
obedient & most humble servt. TH: JEFFERSON 

PrC (MHi); endorsed. 

t 138} 

To De Puisaye 

Paris Feb. 11. 1787. 

Les talents que vous possedez, Monsieur, doivent bien vous 
faire reussir en Amerique, comine partout ailleurs. Vous ne pouvez 
pas manquer d'y trouver quoi les occuper. Vous avez bien prevu 
que la manque de la langue du pals vous fera eprouver des dif- 
ficult6s. Je vous assure qu'ils ne seront pas mediocres, et je vous 
parle de ma propre experience. II faudra aussi vous preparer d'y 
rencontrer des usages bien differentes de celles de la France. Mais 
le nom Frangois, qu'on estime infiniment en Amerique, sera votre 
passeport, et vous assurera un bon accueil partout. II y a en tout 
terns des batimens particuliers qui partent de Bourdeaux, Nantes, 
Lorient et Havre pour les differents ports des etats unis et il y a 
aussi un paquetbote du roy qui partira toutes les six semaines de 
Havre pour la Nouvelle York. Les climats les plus resemblants & 
ceux auxquels vous etes accoutum sont ceux de la Nouvelle York, 
la Nouvelle Jersey, La Pensylvanie et Delaware. Je vous souhaite 
Monsieur le succes le plus complet, et je vous assure des sentiments 
de respect et d'estime avec lesquels j'ai Fhonneur d'etre Monsieur 
votre tres humble et tres obeissant serviteur, 


PrC (MoSHi); endorsed; at foot of text: *'Monsr. de Puisaye, ancien Capitaine 
de Cavalerie a Beaufosse proche le Mele sur Sarte [en Normandie, au] Mele sur 

To Tarbe 

Paris lime. Fevr. 1787. 

J'ai Phonneur, Monsieur, d'accuser la reception de la lettre que 
vous m'avez fait celui de m'ecrire, et de vous informer que votre 
billet d'echange a et present^ et pay6, et que le vin est arriv6 ^ 
sa destination. Je vous prie de vouloir bien agreer rnes sinceres 
remerciments pour toutes vos bonts et les assurances des senti- 
ments d'estime et de respect avec lesquels j'ai Thonneur d'etre 
Monsieur votre tres humble et tres obeissant serviteur, 


PrC (MoSHi); endorsed. Tarbg's letter of 22 Jan. 1787, to which the present is 
a reply, is recorded in SJL as having been received on 27 Jan.; it has not been 


To Vergennes 

glR Paris Feb. 11. 1787. 

My hand recovering very slowly from the effects of it's disloca- 
tion, I am advised by the Surgeons to try the waters of Aix in 
Provence. From thence I think it possible I may go as far as Nice. 
As circumstances might arise under which a passport might be 
useful, I take the liberty of troubling your Excellency for one. I 
propose to set out on Thursday next. 

I would at the same time ask an enfranchisement for three bar- 
riques of common wine, and one of wine de liqueur, one of which 
is arrived at Paris, and the other three are soon expected there. 
They are for my own use. 

With my sincere prayers for the speedy reestablishment of your 
health, I have the honor to assure you of those sentiments of perfect 
esteem & respect with which I am your Excellency's most obedient 
and most humble servant, TH: JEFFERSON 

PrC (MoSHi). This is accompanied chise d'une barrique de vin ordinaire 

by a faded PrC of a declaration, un- contenant 250 bouteilles, arrive'e S. la 

dated but possibly written a day or so douane de cette ville 55. notre adresse," 

after the present letter, in French and and promised to transmit the passport 

in TJ's hand, wherein TJ certified that to "Monsieur Richard" as soon as it 

he had requested of "M, le Comte de was received. 
Verg-ennes un passeport pour la fran- 

To Charles Burney 

SIR Paris Feb. 12. 1787 

I have been honoured with your favor of the 20th. of January, 
and am now to return you my sincere thanks for your very kind 
attention to the instrument I had desired. Your goodness has in- 
duced you to give yourself a great deal more trouble about it than 
I would have presumed to propose to you. I only meant to intrude 
on your time so far as to give a general instruction to the workmen. 
Besides the value of the thing therefore, it will have an additional 
one with me, of the nature of that which a good catholic affixes 
to the relick of a saint. As I shall set out within three or four days 
on a journey of two or three months, I shall propose to Colo. Smith, 
if the instrument is not already embarked, not to send it till about 
the 1st. of April when it will be less liable to be injured by bad 
weather. A friend of mine in America (the same who im- 
proved the quilling of the harpsichord) writes me word he is 


12 FEBRUARY 1787 

succeeding in some improvements he had proposed for the Har- 
monica. However imperfect this instrument is for the general mass 
of musical compositions, yet for those of a certain character it is 
delicious. We are all standing a tip-toe here to see what is to be 
done by the assembly of Notables. Nothing certain has yet trans- 
pired as to the objects to be proposed to them. The sickness of 
the ministers continues to retard the meeting. I have the honor to be 

PrC (DLC)j endorsed; at foot of text: "Dr. Burney"; lacks part of complimen- 
tary close and signature (on which, see Vol. 9: 217, note 1). 

TJ's FRIEND ... IN AMERICA was Francis Hopkinson; see Hopkinson to TJ, 28 
June 1786. 

To Borgnis Desbordes, Freres 

GENTLEMEN Paris Feb. 12. 1787. 

Mr. Barclay the American Consul general for France being at 
present out of the kingdom, I have given orders to Mr. Grand, 
banker at Paris, to pay your draught for one hundred and eighty 
six livres advanced by you for the relief of the shipwrecked 
Americans. I thank you for your attention to these unfortunate 
people. It will rest with Mr. Barclay to give such future directions 
as he shall think proper for cases of this kind, which properly fall 
within the Consular department. A certainty that your kindness 
will meet his thanks, and that my interference in his absence will 
be approved, has engaged me to do it without any hesitation. I am 
just setting out on a journey of two or three months, but Mr. 
Grand, as I have before mentioned will pay your draught for the 
186. livres whenever you shall be pleased to make it. I have the 
honour to be with sentiments of the most perfect esteem & respect 
Gentlemen your most obedient Sc most humble servant, 


RC (Carl G. Anthon, Iowa City 3 la., 1955); addressed; the following: notation, 
in a French clerk's hand, appears in the margin of the page: tc Du 24 fevrier 1787 
Tire" une Lettre de Change a viie de la somme de ISC.* sur M. Grand pour solde 
des avances f aittes aux nauffrag6s de La Lucie." PrC ( DLC ) . 

To Schweighauser Sc Dobree 

GENTLEMEN Paris Feb. 12. 1787 

I have received the order of Congress for the settlement of 
your accounts, of which order you were pleased to send me a copy 


13 FEBRUARY 1787 

in your favor of Jan. 27. I have reason to expect still an additional 
order on the same subject. This will probably arrive by the time 
I shall have compleated a journey into the South of France which 
my health obliges me to take. I purpose to return by the way of 
Bourdeaux and Nantes, at which last mentioned place I shall have 
the honour of seeing you, and of taking arrangements for the settle- 
ment with as little delay and trouble to you as possible. I have 
the honour to be Gentlemen your most obedient and most humble 
servant ^ H: JEFFERSON 

PrC (DL.C), The letter from Schweighauser & Dobrge of 27 Jan. and its en- 
closure, of which the present is an acknowledgement, have not been found, but 
the letter was recorded in SJL as having- been received on 31 Jan. 1787. 

From C. W. F. Dumas 

The Hague, 13 Feb. 1787. He will write on other subjects by the 
next regular mail; the present only serves to cover the enclosed. 

RC (DLC); 1 p.; in French. Re- drawn on Willink & Van Staphorst for 

corded in SJL as received 18 Feb. 1787. 2,50O florins to be charged ag-ainst 

Enclosure (Dumas Letter Book, Rijks- arrearages due him by Congress (text, 

archief, The Hague; photostats in tog-ether with several enclosures sent 

DL.C): Dumas to Jay, 13 Feb. 1787, by Dumas to Jay, printed in DipL Corr., 

reporting on political affairs in The 1783-89, ra, 549-64). 
Netherlands and advising that he had 

From Andre Limozin 

Le Havre, 13 Feb. 1787. T<Ps two letters of 8 and 11 Feb. have duly 
come to hand, the first by "Colo. Franks and Mr. Bannister, who are 
still waiting for a Fair wind to Sett of on board the Packet bound for 
New York*" On receipt of the second he waited on "Mr. De Sionville 
Captn. of the Packet Le Courier de PEurope," who remembered only 
a small box "containing Plants, which he delivered to Mr. Berard in 
Lorient,^but unhappily he could not recollect by whom that Box was 
Shippd hi New York, neither to whom it was directed for in France"; 
he could only recall that it contained plants. Since Short will be in Paris 
during TJ's absence, Limozin will continue to address his letters there. 

Ti i be ? rs < S > nota " TJ's letter to BSrard of 16 Feb. 1787 5 

in TJ a hand which reads: "Berard see also BSrard to TJ, 6 May 1786, 

n te 

rue Michautiere" (this notation received 15 Feb. 1787 

was no doubt made in connection with 


From John Stockdale 

SlR Piccadilly London 13th. Febry. 1787. 

I duly received your favor's of Janry. 28th. and Febry. the 1st. 
and have sent the Articles agreable to your Order by this Nights 
Coach which I hope you'll receive in time. I sent part of the Books 
to America a long time since by the Gentleman you desir'd, but 
have not been able to get the remainder. I shall be happy to receive 
your corrected Copy, which shall be neatly and correctly Printed 
and Published, according to your desire, without one tittle of 
Alteration, tho' I know there is some bitter Pills relative to our 
Country. As I shall not be above three Weeks in Printing the 
Work, it may not be amiss to send the Plate at the same time, as 
they will take some time to Work; I think a shilling for the Use of 
the Plate, for working each Copy, a very great Price, and I am 
afraid much higher than the Work will bear, but this I leave 
entirely to your consideration. I intend to Print 500 Copies, which 
from the Merit of the Work and the advantage of your Name, I 
hope will be sold, but all things are uncertain. In short, all that 
I wish, is to be the Publisher of your work and to be indemnified, 
without paying any regard to the Profit. I am with great Respect 
Sir Your much obliged & very hble. Servt., JOHN STOCKDALE 

RC (MHi); endorsed. Recorded in SJL as received 18 Feb. 1787. 

To John Adams 

DEAR SIR Paris Feb. 14. 1787 

As I propose to write you on business by Mr. Cairnes who will 
set out in a few days for London, the object of the present letter 
is only to inform you that the Count de Vergennes died yesterday 
morning and that the Count de Montmorin is appointed his suc- 
cessor: and further to beg the favor of you to forward the inclosed 
by the first vessel from London. I set out on my journey on Sunday 
the 18th. I have the honour to be with sentiments of very sincere 
affection & respect Dear Sir Your most obedient & most humble 
servt., TH: JEFFERSON 

RC (MHi: AMT); endorsed. PrC (DLC). Enclosure: TJ^s first letter to Jay, 
this date. 


To John Jay 

glR Paris Feb. 14. 1787 

In the letter of the 8th. instant which I had the honour of writ- 
ing you, I informed you that the Count de Vergennes was danger- 
ously ill. He died yesterday morning, and the Count de Montmorin 
is appointed his successor. Your personal knowlege of this gentle- 
man renders it unnecessary for me to say any thing of him. 

Mr. Morris, during his office, being authorized to have the 
medals and swords executed which had been ordered by Congress, 
he authorised Colo. Humphreys to take measures here for the 
execution. Colo. Humphreys did so; and the swords were finished 
in time for him to carry them. The medals not being finished, he 
desired me to attend to them. The workman who was to make that 
of Genl. Green, brought me yesterday, the medal in gold, twenty 
three in copper, and the dye. Mr. Short, during my absence, will 
avail himself of the first occasion which shall offer of forwarding 
the medals to you. I must beg leave through you to ask the pleasure 
of Congress as to the number they would chuse to have struck. 
Perhaps they might be willing to deposit one of each person in 
every college of the U.S. Perhaps they might chuse to give a series 
of them to each of the crowned heads of Europe, which would be an 
acceptable present to them. They will be pleased to decide. In the 
mean time I have sealed up the dye, and shall retain it till I am 
honoured with their orders as to this medal and the others also 
when they shall be finished. I have the honour to be with senti- 
ments of the most perfect esteem & respect, Sir, your most obedt. 
& most humble servt., TH: JEFFERSON 

PrC (DLC). Tr (DNA: PCC, No. 1O7, n). Enclosed in TJ to John Adams, this 

To John Jay 

SlR Paris Feb. 14. 1787 

In the letter of the 8th. instant which I had the honour of writing 
you, I informed you of the illness of the Count de Vergennes. In 
one of the present date which I send by the way of London, I have 
notified to you his death which happened yesterday morning, and 
that the Count de Montmorin is appointed his successor, with 
whose character you are personally acquainted. As the winds have 
been contrary for the sailing of the Packet and this may possibly 


14 FEBRUARY 1787 

reach Havre by post in time to be put on board, I avail myself of 
that chance of conveying you the above information. 

I have the honour to be with sentiments of the most perfect 
esteem 8c respect Sir Your most obedient & most humble servt., 


PrC (DLC). Tr (DNA: PCC, No. 1O7, n). Enclosed in TJ to Limozin, this date. 

From John Jay 

DR. SIR New York 14th. February 1787 

I understand that a Visit will be paid you by a Gentleman 
who is to be married to a Lady in this Town, and her Friends 
request the Favor of me to mention him in my Letters to you. 

The Gentleman's Name is John Josh. Bauer a Lieutenant in his 
Imperial Majesty's Navy, and late Captain of the imperial East 
India Company's Ships Count de Cobensel and Count Belgioioso. 
I have not the pleasure of being personally acquainted with this 
Gentleman, but from the Commissions he has had, and from some 
other Testimonials I have seen, I infer that he is a Gentleman 
of Merit. "With great and sincere Esteem and Regard, I am &c., 


FC (DNA: PCC, No. 121). Recorded in SJL as received 6 Apr. 1787 at Mar- 

To Andre Lirnozin 

SIR Paris Feb. 14. 1787 

The inclosed letter is to announce to Congress the death of the 
Count de Vergennes and appointment of the Count de Montmorin to 
succeed him. As the winds seem to have been contrary to the sail- 
ing of the packet boat, I send it by post and beg the favor of you 
to deliver it to Colo. Franks if he is not gone; and if he is, to send 
it by the first vessel. I have received duly the papers which Colo. 
Franks sent me by post. I have the honor to be with sentiments of 
perfect esteem & respect Sir your most obedt. & most humble servt., 


PrC (DLC). Enclosure: TJ's second letter to Jay, this date. 


From Louis Guillaume Otto 

MONSIEUR A Newyork le 14. Fevr. 1787. 

Vous apprendr6s probablement par un autre canal que la Vir- 
ginie vient de mettre des droits extraordinaires sur les liqueurs 
Spiritueuses Fexception des eaux de vie de France. M. Madison 
qui ne fait qu'arriver ici m'assure qua la mme f aveur a t accorde 
a nos vins, mais je n'ai pas encore vft Pacte qui concerne cet article. 
Je ne puis ignorer que les raports de Votre Excellence contribuent 
beaucoup aux dispositions que la Virginie manifeste & notre egard 
et je ne neglige aucune occasion d'en rendre compte a ma Cour. 
II est heureux que les interSts des Etats unis en France ayent 6t 
confies & un Ministre aussi attentif & cultiver la bonne intelligence 
qui subsiste entre les deux nations. 

Vous trouver6s, Monsieur, dans les gazettes tous les details 
relatifs & la revolte de Shayse et de ses partisans. Ses troupes ont 
t entierement disperses par le Gal. Lincoln; mais je n'ose encore 
me flatter que la fermentation est tout fait calmge. On croit ass6s 
generalement que la Legislature du Massachussets sera enfin 
obligee de faire du papier monnoye et d'avoir egard aux autres 
griefs, vrais ou imaginaires, des Insurgens. 

Un Capitaine Americain, Monsieur, vient de trouver sur une 
isle dont il cache le nom, des pelleteries trs precieuses, qu'il se 
propose d'envoyer en Chine. Son Batiment est encore mouillg dans 
la rivifere du Nord et doit partir incessament. On dit que ces 
fourrures ressemblent ^ celles que Pequipage du Cape.Cook a 
vendues Canton & un prix exorbitant. Si cette dScouverte est aussi 
importante qu'on le presume elle deviendra pour les Etats unis une 
nouvelle source de richesses. Comme les armateurs gardent le 
plus profond silence, on n^en a encore qu'une connoissance tr^s 
vague. Je suis tente de croire que Tlsle en question est une des 
Falklands puisque difFerens navigateurs et entre autres Wallis et 
Carteret font mention de fourrures qu'ils y ont trouves. Vous 
n'ignor^s pas, Monsieur, que la pgche de la Baleine attire beaucoup 
d'Americains vers ces isles et qu'ils y ont mgme fait quelques 
etablissemens passagers. 

Plusieurs Caroliniens, Monsieur, desirent de faire passer leurs 
ris en France; mais pour les rendre convenables a nos marches, ils 
ont besoin de Vos bons offices. Vous rendries un tres grand service 
aux liaisons commerciales des deux nations en faisant passer en 
Amerique tous les renseignemens que Vous pourres Vous procurer 

C 146} 

14 FEBRUARY 1787 

sur cette matiere. M. Ed. Rutledge et d'autres Carolinlens doivent 
Vous en avoir ecrit. 

L'Etat de Frankland vient de se reunir & la Caroline du Nord et 
la tranquillit6 paroit tout-S.-f ait retablie de ce cotg la. 

Fai Phonneur d'etre avec le plus respectueux attachement Mon- 
sieur de Votre Excellence le tres humble et trs obeisst. serviteur, 


RC (DLC); endorsed. Recorded in 
SJL, as received 6 Apr. 1787 at Mar- 

few days earlier Otto had sent to Ver- 
gennes a remarkable tribute to TJTs 
influence in promoting Franco-American 
relations, particularly as exercised 
through his private letters to America: 
**M. Jefferson, Monseigneur, est pour 
nous en Virginie ce que M. Franklin 
a toujours te en Pensylvanie c'est a 
dire le Panegyriste le plus infatigable 
de la france. Les Delegues de cet Etat 
me traitent avec la plus grande confiance 
et ils ont soin de rn'informer de toutes les 
mesures qui peuvent interesser directe- 
ment ou indirectement les sujets de SJVI. 
ou d'importance nation ale, Leur Etat 
vient denous donner une nouvelle preuve 
de son attachement en mettant des droits 
extraordinaires sur toutes les liqueurs 
etrangers a Perception des eauux de vie 
de France importees dans des batimens 
francois ou Americains. Un autre acte 
qui n'est pas encore public" etend la 
mme faveur aux wins de france. On 
avoit propose" dans P Assemble" e de 
mettre des droits tres considerable sur 
les soiries etrangeres et d'en excepter 
les etoffes francoises; la chambre basse 
avoit deja donne" son consentement & 
cette motion, mais la difficulte d'em- 
pgcher la contrebande des Etats Voisins 
I'a fait rejeter par le Senat. Ces bonnes 
dispositions sont evidemment dues a 
la lettre de M. de Calonne a M. Jeffer- 
son que j'ai eu soin de faire publier 
dans toutes les gazettes; un Delegu 
m'a assure qu'on n'a eu connoissance 
de cette lettre que la veille de la redac- 
tion des nouvelles loix et que des ce 
moment les membres de 1'Assemblee 
etoient unanimement resolus d'accorder 
a notre commerce toutes les faveurs qui 

peuvent se concilier avec les interets par- 
ticuliers de la Virginie. C*est principale- 
ment par sa correspondance particuliere 
que M. Jefferson s'efiForce de conserver 
en Amerique les sentiments de recon- 
noissance que plusieurs de ses collegrues 
en Europe ont pris tant de peine S. 
etoufiFer. Je suis persuade, Monseigneur, 
que la satisfaction que vous en temoig- 
neres a ce IMinistre produira le meilleur 
effet et qu'il ne manquera pas d'en 
rendre compte a ses Constituans. Xoutes 
les mesures prises en france en faveur 
du commerce Americain operent sur le 
champ sur Pespri des assemblies legisla- 
tives et chaque sacrifice de notre part 
est immediatement suivi par une com- 
pensation 1 ' (Otto to Vergennes, 1O Feb. 
1787; Arch. Aff. Etr., Corr. Pol., E.- 
U-, Vol. xxxn; Tr in DLC; received [by 
Montmorin] 23 Mch. 1787). This con- 
clusion was doubtless optimistic, but 
Otto's appraisal of TJ's influence and 
good dispositions was undoubtedly ac- 
curate. However the enthusiasm with 
which Otto reported here and in pre- 
vious months was probably due in part 
to the fact that Virginia delegates 
took pains to convey the nature of TJ's 
communications to Otto in the certain 
knowledge that this would in turn be 
transmitted back to the French court 
which was precisely what Otto was ad- 
vising in this dispatch to Vergennes, 
thus closing the circle of an endless 
promotion of good will. In this sort of 
private and unofficial diplomacy, James 
Madison was very adept; the informa- 
tion in Otto's dispatch of 10 Feb. par- 
allels that in Madison's to TJ of 15 
Feb. 1787 so closely as to indicate that 
he was the "Delegue"" who had assured 
Otto of Virginia's good dispositions. 
See note to Madison to TJ, 19 Mch. 


From Maria Cosway 

London 15 Feb. 1787 

I have the pleasure of receiving two [letters from you, and though 
th]ey are very short, I must content Myself, and lament Much 
fo[r the] reason that deprivd Me of their usual length. I must 
confess that the begining of your corrispondence has made Me an 
enfant gatge. I shall never recover to be reasonable in My ex- 
pectations, and shall feel disapointed whenever your letters are 
not as long as the first was. Thus you are the occasion of a con- 
tinual reproching disposition in Me. It is a disagreable One. It 
will teaze you to a hatread towards Me, notwithstanding your 
partiality you have had for Me till now. Nothing disobliges More 
than a disatisfied Mind, and thou' my fault is occasion'd by your- 
self you will be the most distant to allow it. I trust that your friend- 
ship would wish to see Me perfect, and Mine to be so, but diffects 
are, or are not, Most conspicuous according to the feel we have 
about the Objects which Mislead them. We may be apt to feel our 
own, as to discover them in others, and in both, one of the humane 
weakness we are subject to. [This trait of ch]aracter, we both 
possess it, you to [. . .] a thought, I for suffering patiently those 
not bestow'd [or be]gruje them, and silence My pretensions with 
due consciousness; I feel at present an inclination to Make you an 
endless letter but have not yet determined what subject to begin 
with. Shall I continue this reproching stile; quote all the what's, 
and why's, out of Jeremias's lamentations, then present you with 
some outlines of Job for Consolation? Of all the torments, tempta- 
tions, and weariness, the female has always been the principal and 
most powerfull object, and this is to be the most fear'd by you at 
present, from my pen. Are you to be painted in future ages sitting 
solitary and sad, on the beautifull Monticello tormented by the 
shadow of a woman who will present you a deform'd rod, twisted 
and broken, instead of the emblematical instrument belonging to 
the Muses, held by Genius, inspired by wit, from which all that 
is pleasing, beautifull and happy can be described to entertain, and 
satisfy a. Mind capable of investigating every Minutia of a lively 
immagination and interesting descriptions. [I have wro]t this in 
Memoria of the Many pages [you wrote in reply to the scrlawls 
adress'd to you by One who has only a good intention to [apololgies 
for such long insipid Chit chat, that follows more the dictates of 
her own pleasure, than the feeling of understanding: Allegories 
are allways very far fecht. I don't like to follow the subject, though 

[ 148] 

15 FEBRUARY 1787 

I Might find something to explain My Ideas. Supose I turn to 
relate to you the debats of Parlement? Was I a good politition I 
could entertain you Much. What do you think of a famous speach 
Sheridan has made which lasted five hours? which has astonished 
every body which has Made the subject of conversation and admira- 
tion of the whole Town. Nothing has been taulk'd of for Many 
days but his Speach. The Whole House applauded him at the 
Moment. Each Member Complimented him when they rouse. 
Pitt Made him the highest encomioms, and only poor Mr. Hastings 
suff erd for the power of his eloquence; all went against him, though 
nothing can be decided yet. Mr. H. was with Mr. Cosway at the 
very Moment [the speech was] going on. He seemd perfectly easy, 
talkfing of a variet]y of subjects with great tranquility and cheer- 
fulness. The second day he was the same, but on the third seem'd 
very Much affected and agitated. All his friends give him the 
greatest Character of humanity, generosity and feelings, amiable 
in his Maner. He seems in short totaly different from the disposi- 
tion of cruelty they accuse him of. From Parlementary discussions 
it is time to tell you I have ben reading with great pleasure your 
description of America. It is wrot by you, but Nature represents all 
the scenes to Me in reality. Therefore dont take any thing on your- 
self. I must refer to your Name to Make it the More valuable to 
Me but she is your rival, you her usurper. Oh how I wish My self 
in those delightful places! Those enchanted Grotto's! Those Mag- 
nificent Mountains rivers, &c. &c.! Why am I not a Man that I 
could sett out immediatly and satisfy My Curiosity, indulge My 
sight with wonders! [Since I have been] in Lond[on there have 
been a great man]y little parties. I have [attended only a very 
few of] 2 them. I am grown so excessively indolent, that I [do not 
go] out for Months together. All the Morning I paint whatev[er] 
presents it self most pleasing to Me. Some times I have beautifull 
Objects to paint from and add historical Characters to Make them 
More interesting. Female and infantine beauty is the Most perfect 
Object to see. Sometimes I indulge More Malincholy subjects. 
History rappresents her self sometimes in the horrid, in the grand, 
the sublime, the sentimental, the pathetik. I attempt, I exercise 
and end by being witness of My own dissapointment and incapacity 
of executing, the Poet, the Historian, or my own conceptions of 
immagination. Thus the Mornings are spent regretting they are 
not longer, to have More time to attempt again in Search of better 
success, or thinking they have been too long and have afforded me 
Many Moments of uneasiness, anxiety and a testimony of my not 


15 FEBRUARY 1787 

being; able to do any thing [I devote my eveni]ng[s to] Music 
and then I am Much [visited by] the first Professors who come very 
often to play, every evening Something new, and all perfect in their 
different kind. And to add to Compleat the pleasure a small society 
of agreable friends frequently Come to see me. In this Manner 
you see that I am More attached to My home, than going in search 
of amusement out, where nothing but crowded assemblies, un- 
comfortable heat, and not the least pleasure in Meeting every body, 
not being able to enjoy any conversation. The Operas are very 
bad iho* Rubinelli and Madme. Mosa are the first singers, the 
danceres are very bad. All this I say from report as I have not been 
yet. Pray tell me Something about Madme. de Polignac. They 
make a great deal about it here. We hardly hear any thing else, 
and the stories are so different from one another that it [is] im- 
possible to guess the real one. She is expected in England. I send 
this letter by a gentleman whom I think you will like. He is a 
Spaniard* I am partial to that Nation as I know several that are 
very agreable. He is going to Paris Secretary of Ambassy [of his] 
Court. He has travell'd Mu[ch . . . J If I should be happy enough 
to come again in the Sumfmer to] Paris I hope we shall pass many 
agreable days. I am in a Milliofn] fears about it. Mr. Cosway still 
keeps his intention, but how man[y] chances from our inclinations 
to the execution of our will! Poor D'Ancarville has been very ill. 
I received a very long letter from him appointing himself My 
Corrispondant at Paris. I know a Gentleman who has banished My 
faith in this occasion for he flatter'd me with hopes which I have 
seen faiL However I have accepted his offer. I shall see if I find 
a second disapointment. 

Is it not time to finish My letter? Perhaps I should go on but 
I must send this to the gentleman who is to take it. 

I hope you are quite well by this time, that your hand will tell 
me so by a line. I must be reasonable, but give me leave to remind 
you how Much pleasure you will give, to remember Sometimes 
with friendship One who will be sensible and gratfull of it as is 
yours Sincerly, MARIA COSWAY 

RC <MHi); mutilated; the MS con- The first and second sheets of this 
i?l WO tSOf - OUrpa8:e3eacb ' of letter are now separated in MHi, but 

t h t? ^^ PW8 K? ha i fa ? S ^ en b th lntflrnal ^dence and the char- 
the last being blank; date-line acter of the mutilations at the top of 



15 FEBRUARY 1787 

prove that he -or perhaps His heirs- 
kept her letters together, since no others 
in his correspondence seem to bear this 
particular kind of mutilation. Evidently, 
then, her letters were also kept separate 
from his principal files, but in a place 
less secure from -what Arthur Ag^ard, 
Queen Elizabeth's archivist, described 
as one of the chief enemies of manu- 
scripts. These mutilations in the present 
letter account for the loss of from a 
word or two to almost a whole line; the 
conjectural reading's in some instances 
(see notes below) may not be the only 
or even the correct reading's, but they 
are offered as the Editors' best guess 
as to the words that would fit Mrs. 
Cosway's somewhat discursive style. 
Most of the text of this letter is printed 
in Randolph, Domestic Life, p. 89-92, 
under date of 15 Feb. 1788, but the 
conjectural readings (not indicated) 
differ from those given here and are at 
variance at times with the space in- 
volved and remnants of descenders of 
missing: words. 

The TWO . . . VERY SHORT letters 

from TJ are those of 29 Nov. and 24 
Dec. 1786. Sheridan's FAMOUS SPEACH 
was delivered on 7 Feb. 1787* The allu- 

is the only evidence that TJ had pre- 
sented to Mrs. Cosway a copy of Notes 
on Virginias her copy has not been 

1 About three words missing"; no 
remnants of descenders are present. A 
possible reading- is: "you to compliment 
me in thought," but there are other 
equally plausible alternatives that might 
fit the involved language of this passage. 
Randolph, Domestic JLife, p. 90, omits 
this entire sentence. 

2 Randolph, Domestic Life, p. 91, 
reads: "I go to very few parties. I have 
a dislike for them, &c." This is clearly 
in error, for almost all of the first line 
of the fifth page and about half of the 
second line are missing 1 . This and the 
two preceding conjectural readings for 
this passage may allow alternative 
phrasing-, but they seem approximately 
correct in substance. 

From L. J. M. Daubenton 

MONSIEUR A Paris le 15. fevrier 1787 

Je suis trs flatg de Ihonneur que m'a fait la Socit6 philosophique 
cTAm^rique en me recevant au nombre de ses membres, et je vous 
dois bien des remercimeiis de la bontg que vous avez eu de xri*en- 
voyer le diplome de ma nomination. Je vous prie, Monsieur, de 
vouloir bien f aire tenir a M. franklin la lettre ci jointe par laquelle 
je temoigne a la Society toute la satisfaction que j'ai d'y tre 

Je suis fort aise d'avoir cette occasion de vous t6moigner le 
respect avec lequel j*ai Thonneur d'etre, Monsieur, Votre tres 
humble et trs ob^issant Serviteur, DAUBENTON 

RC (DLC); endorsed. Enclosure not found. 

From Louis Le Pelletier 

Paris , 15 Feb. 1787. As requested by TJ, he has forwarded a copy 
of the minutes of the ceremony at the Hotel de Ville for the unveiling 
of the bust of Lafayette. Having received no acknowledgement, he 


15 FEBRUARY 1787 

fears that the packet may have been lost. If so, he will have another 
copy made* 

RC <MHi)- 2 P.; in French; endorsed: "Prevot des marchands." Not recorded 
in s. Sef note to La PeUetier to TJ, 1 Feb. 1787. 

From James Madison 

DEAR SIR New York Febv - 15th - 1787 

My last was from Richmond of the 4th. of December, and con- 
tained a sketch of our legislative proceedings prior to that date. 
The principal proceedings of subsequent date relate as nearly as 
I can recollect 1st. to a rejection of the Bill on crimes and punish- 
ments, which after being altered so as to remove most of the objec- 
tions as was thought, was lost by a single vote. The rage against 
Horse stealers had a great influence on the fate of the Bill. Our 
old bloody code is by this event fully restored, the prerogative of 
conditional pardon having been taken from the Executive by a 
Judgment of the Court of Appeals, and the temporary law grant- 
ing it to them having expired and been left unrevived. I am not 
without hope that the rejected bill will find a more favorable 
disposition in the next Assembly. 2dly. to the bill for diffusing 
knowledge. It went through two readings by a small majority and 
was not pushed to a third one. The necessity of a systematic pro- 
vision on the subject was admitted on all hands. The objections 
against that particular provision were 1. the expence, which was 
alledged to exceed the ability of the people. 2. the difficulty of 
executing it in the present sparse settlement of the Country. 3. the 
inequality of the districts as contended by the Western members. 
The latter objection is of little weight and might have been easily 
removed if it had been urged in an early stage of the discussion. 
The bill now rests on the same footing with the other unpassed bills 
in the RevisaL Sdly. to the Revisal at large. It was found impossible 
to get thro' the system at the late session for several reasons. 1. the 
changes which have taken place since its compilement, in our 
affairs and our laws, particularly those relating to our Courts, 
called for changes in some of the bills which could not be made with 
safety by the Legislature. 2. the pressure of other business which 
tho 1 of less importance in itself, yet was more interesting for the 
moment. 3. the alarm excited by an approach toward the Execu- 
tion Bill which subjects land to the payment of debts. This bill 
could not have been carried, was too important to be lost, and even 


15 FEBRUARY 1787 

too difficult to be amended without destroying its texture. 4. the 
danger of passing the Repealing Bill at the end of the Code before 
the operation of the various amendments &c. made by the Assembly 
could be leisurely examined by competent Judges. Under these 
circumstances it was thought best to hand over the residue of the 
work to our successors, and in order to have it made compleat, Mr. 
Pendleton, Mr. Wythe and Blair were appointed a Committee to 
amend the unpassed bills and also 1 to prepare a supplemental re- 
vision of the laws which have been passed since the original work 
was executed. It became a critical question with the friends of 
the Revisal whether the parts of the Revisal actually passed should 
be suspended in the mean time, or left to take their operation. The 
first plan was strongly recommended by the advantage of giving 
effect to the system at once, and by the inconveniency arising from 
the latter of leaving the old laws to a constructive repeal only. The 
latter notwithstanding was preferred as putting the adopted bills 
out of the reach of a succeeding Assembly, which might possibly 
be unfriendly to the system altogether. There was good reason to 
suspect Mr. Henry 2 who will certainly be then a member. By suf- 
fering the bills which have passed to take effect in the meantime 
it will be extremely difficult to get rid of them* 4thly. Religion. The 
Act incorporating the protestant Episcopal Church excited the 
most pointed opposition from the other sects. They even pushed 
their attacks against the reservation of the Glebes &c. to the 
Church exclusively. The latter circumstance involved the Legisla- 
ture in some embarrassment. The result was a repeal of the Act, 
with a saving of the property. 5th. the district Courts. After a 
great struggle they were lost in the House of Delegates by a single 
voice. 6thly. taxes; the attempts to reduce former taxes were 
baffled, and sundry new taxes added; on lawyers %o of their fees, 
on Clerks of Courts % of do., on doctors a small tax, a tax on houses 
in towns so as to level their burden with that of real estate in 
the Country, very heavy taxes on riding carriages, &c. Besides those 
an additional duty of 2. per Ct. ad valorem on all merchandizes 
imported in vessels of nations not in treaty with the U.S., an addi- 
tional duty of 4d. on every gallon of wine except French wines, 
and of 2d. on every gallon of distilled spirits except French 
brandies which are made duty free. The exceptions in favor of 
France were the effect of the sentiments and regulations communi- 
cated to you by Mr. Calonne. A printed copy of the communication 
was received the last day of the Session in a newspaper from N. 
York and made a warm impression on the Assembly. Some of the 


15 FEBRUARY 1787 

taxes are liable to objections, and were much complained of. With 
the additional duties on trade they will considerably enhance our 
revenue. I should have mentioned a duty of 6s. per Hhd. on 
Tobacco for complying with a special requisition of Congress for 
supporting the corps of men raised for the public security. 7th. 
The Mississippi. At the date of my last the House of Delegates only 
had entered into Resolutions against a surrender of the right of 
navigating it. The Senate shortly after concurred. The States South 
of Virga. still adhere as far as I can learn to the same ideas as 
have governed Virginia. N. Jersey one of the States in Congress 
which was on the opposite side has now instructed her Delegates 
against surrendering to Spain the navigation of the River even for 
a limited time. And Pena. it is expected will do the same. I am 
told that Mr. Jay has not -ventured to proceed in his project and I 
suppose will not now do it. 8th* The Convention for amending the 
federal Constitution. At the date of my last Virga. had passed an 
act for appointing deputies. The deputation consists of Genl. 
Washington, Mr. Henry late Governor, Mr. Randolph present 
Governor, Mr. Blair, Mr. Wythe, Col. Mason and Js. M. North 
Carola* has also made an appointment including her present and 
late Governor. S.C. it is expected by her delegates in Congress will 
not fail to follow these examples. Maryland has determined I just 
hear to appoint but has not yet agreed on her deputies. Delaware, 
Penna. and N. Jy. have made respectable appointments. N. York 
has not yet decided on the point. Her Assembly has just rejected 
the impost which has an unpropitious aspect. It is not clear how- 
ever that she may not yet accede to the other measures. Connecticut 
has a great aversion to Conventions, and is otherwise habitually 
disinclined to abridge her State prerogatives. Her concurrence 
nevertheless is not despaired of. Massts. it is said will concur, 
though hitherto not well inclined. N. Hampshire will probably do 
as she does. Rhode Island can be relied on for nothing that is good. 
On all great points she must sooner or later bend to Massts. and 

Having but just come to this place I do not undertake to give 
you any general view of American affairs, or of the particular state 
of things in Massts. The omission is probably of little consequence 
as information of this sort must fall within your correspondence 
with the office of foreign affairs. I shall not however plead this 
consideration for a future letter when I hope to be more able to 
write fully. 

Mr. Fitzhugh has paid into my hands for your use 58-6-8. 


15 FEBRUARY 1787 

Virga. currency in discharge of 1000 livres advanced to him in 
France. He was anxious to have settled it according to the actual 
exchange instead of the legal one of 33% on the British standard, 
and even proposed the addition of interest. I did not hesitate to 
conclude that I should fulfill your intentions by rejecting both. I 
have sent to Mrs. Carr 25 for the use of your nephews as you 
directed. The balance is in my hands subject to your orders tho' I 
shall venture to apply it in the same way if I should be apprized 
of its being necessary to prevent interruption to the studies of the 
young gentlemen. My last informed you of the progress &c. of 
Master Peter. I have since received from the president of Hampden 
Sydney a letter containing the following paragraph. "Dabney Carr 
is a boy of very promising genius and very diligent application. He 
conducts himself with a good deal of prudence, and I hope will 
answer the expectations of his friends. I was afraid at first that 
he was dull or indolent from his appearance, but I find myself 
agreeably disappointed. His principal study at present is the Latin 
language, but he is also obliged to pay some attention to his 
native tongue. 77 

I remain Dr. Sir Yr. Affecte. friend, Js. MADISON Jr. 

RC (DLC: Madison Papers); en- (probably contemporaneously): "com- 

dorsed. Recorded in SJL as received 3 pleated to this time Mr. Pendleton, Mr. 

May 1787 at Aix-en-Provence. Wythe and Mr. Blair -were appointed." 

2 This and subsequent words in 

i The passage "made compleat, Mr. italics are -written in code and -were de- 

Pendleton , . * the unpassed bills and coded interlineally by TJ; decoding 

also" is interlined in substitution for verified by the editors, employing Code 

iiae following- words, which were deleted No. 9. 

From John Trumbull 

DR. SIR London Febry. 15th. 1787. 

I recevM your Letter of Inquiries about the Relations of Mrs. 
Trist some weeks ago. I found that Mr. Rt. Trist of Arundel St. 
Strand was living, but not being in Town, I thought it better to 
wait his return than to make my application to any others of the 
Family. I have at last seen him this morning. He informs me that 
the legacy is left as you mention and not only so, but that the son 
of Mrs. N. Trist is next heir to the Uncles who have no male 
Children, and possess 300O, a year. Mr. Trist expresses a doubt 
whether the Child be living, because the Family, particularly Mrs. 
Champernone and himself have repeatedly written to Mrs. Trist this 
information and as often requested her either to send the Child 


1 6 FEBRUARY 1787 

over to them, or to come herself with him, that He might be 
educated among the Family: to which letters she has not, as He 
says returned any explicit Answer, tho She sometimes has written 

to them. 

Further, He has inquir'd of several people from America about 
the child, some of whom have informed him that he is dead, in 
which case the Legacy and Estates remain in the Branches of the 
Family here: in short He seem'd dissatisfied, that any enquiry such 
as I made, should come from Mrs. Trist, when she was already 
informed the same from him, that she had returnd no answer to 
the request of the Family to send or bring her Son to them, and 
in short had for some time been silent as to him. 

As this Idea of the Childs death seems to prevail in the Family, 
and as Mrs. Champernone has appeared so friendly, would it not 
be adviseable for you to write to her, especially as She has a con- 
siderable Fortune 1000 a year in her own Gift. I should indeed 
think it wise in Mrs. T. if she has such invitations to come over with 
her Son. The Gentleman whom I have seen assures me she will 
be receivd with great affection by all the Family. 

I shall send you the clause of the will and Names of the Execu- 
tors as soon as I can procure them: and shall be happy if I can 
be of any use on this or any other occasion to you or your friends. 

Mrs. Cosway who will write you in a few days, and on whose 
Table I write this, charges me to assure you of her Esteem and 
to present in her name every good wish. To her's permit me to 
[add] mine and to assure you that I am most sincerely & gratefully 
Your servant & friend, JNO. TRJLJMBULL 

RC (DLC); addressed to "Mr. Jefferson a la Grille de chaillot Paris," and noted 
as sent by "Grand." Not recorded in 

To Simon Berard 

SlR Paris Feb. 16. 1787. 

A friend of mine in Charlestown sent me a box of plants and a 
letter to New York to the care of Mr. Otto, Chargg des affaires of 
France there who delivered them to Capt. Sionville of the packet 
Courier de PEurope. The letter came to hand without the box 
of plants. I wrote to Mr. Champion of L'Orient to ask the favor of 
him to enquire for the box. He wrote me word the vessel was gone 
on to Havre. I then wrote to Mr. Limosin of Havre who enquired 
of the Captain for the box. He answered that he well remembered 


16 FEBRUARY 1787 

having such a box delivered him, but had forgotten by whom and 
for whom, and that being without a direction, he had delivered it 
to Mr, Berard at Lorient. I enter into these details, Sir, in hopes 
you will have the goodness to write to Mr, Berard by tomorrow's 
post if possible, and to procure the plants to be sent on to me by 
the first Diligence to Paris- I shall gladly repay any expence they 
may occasion. I fear the delay may destroy their vegetative power. 
I am just setting out on a long journey but Mr. Short my secretary, 
will receive them in my absence. I beg your pardon for the trouble I 
am giving you, but the honor of the little acquaintance I have had 
with you encouraged me to take this liberty. I am with much 
respect Sir Your most obedt. humble servt., 


PrC (DLC); endorsed: 6fi Berard." 

From Simon Berard 

East India house Rue de Grammont 
16th: feby: 1787. 

I am very happy in the opportunity you Give me of being 
of some utility to you. I shall write by to morrow's Post to my 
brother at Torient and recommend the Plants may be sent to you 
by the first diligence. 

I am with much Respect Sir Your most obedient and Humble 
Servant, S. BERARD 

RC (DLC); endorsed. Not recorded in 

To Henry Champion 

SIR Paris Feb. 16. 1787. 

On receipt of the letter you were so kind as to write me, I wrote 
to M. Limozin to make enquiry for the box of plants which was 
the subject of the letter with which I troubled you. He called on 
Capt. Sionville of the packet the Courier de PEurope, who in- 
formed him he did bring such a box of plants, that having forgot 
from whom he received them and for whom they were intended, 
and there being, as he thinks, no address on the box, he had de- 
livered them to Monsr. Berard of L'Orient. I must therefore pray 
you, Sir, to apply to Mr. Berard for them and to forward them 
to me by the Diligence, taking measures to prevent their being 


1 6 FEBRUARY 1787 

stopped at any of the Douanes by the way. Any expence which has 
attSdTd or which shall attend them I wiU thankfuUy repay. I 
shall set out in three days for the South of France, but Mr Short 
my secretary, will receive all dispatches in my absence and forward 
them to me. He will receive also this box of plants and dispose of 
them according to my directions. I have the honour to be Sir your 
most obedt. humble servt., TH: JEFFERSON 

FrC (Mffi); endorsed. 

From C. W. F. Dumas 

16 ** 1787 


Depuis Ma Lettre du ler. Dec. dernier qui est la dernire de 
celles dont Votre Excellence ma accus6 la reception dans la sienne 
du 25, Elle doit avoir regu No. 14 a 18, du 2 au 6, 22 Dec., ler. 
et 26 Janv. et 13 fevr. pour le CongrSs, comme aussi les miennes 
pour Votre Excellence des ler., 1 5e. et 23 Janvr. dernier. 

Voici No. 19 de ce jour, dont 1'important contenu m'a paru valoir 
la peine (Tune D6p6che exprds. 

Je joins ici une Gazette Angloise, que V.E. gardera pour Elle- 
mSme. On me Fa envoyee d'Amstm. avec permission d'en disposer. 
V.E. verra par Particle marqug d'une f 9 ce dont & s'agit. 

Je languis d'apprendre que la main de votre Exce. est parfaite- 
ment gugrie: comme aussi, ce que V.E. pense du contenu de ma 
Lettre du 23 Janvr. dernier. Comme il s'y agit d'un projet qui, 
sauf meilleur avis, me parolt avantageux et aux Et. Unis, et k la 
France, tant par lui-m^me que parce qu'il rempliroit outre cela 
indirectement par TOption propos^e, Tobjet de PEmprunt que m'a 
propos^ V.E., si Paffaire se trouvoit agr6gr entre V.E. et le 
Ministere de Fee., et qu'il ne fallfrt, pour Pacc6lerer, qu'une course & 
Paris, V.E. n'auroit qu'zl ordonner. Je serois prt la faire avec 
celui qui m 1 a fourni le projet, et qui Pexcuteroit. 

Je suis toujours avec le plus respectueux d^vouement, De Votre 
Excellence, Le trs humble & tres obissant serviteur, 


RC (DLC). FC (Dumas Letter Book, and those "merely passable" (five); 

Rijksarchief, The Hague; photostat in text printed in Dipl. Corr.> 1783-89, m, 

DLC); differs in phraseology, one in- 564-5. (2) The marked copy of the 

stance of which is noted below. Not "Gazette Angloise" has not been identi- 

recorded in SJL, Enclosures: (1) Dumas fied. 
to Jay t 16 Feb. 1787 (same), giving- a 

list of commissioners appointed to in- i There is no record of a letter from 

struct the Prince of Orangre, classified Dumas to TJ of this date; undoubtedly 

by Dumas as "grood men" (eigrht); an error for the letter of 29 Dec. 1786, 

those of a contrary character" (two); which is the date given in FC. 


To Philip Mazzei 






sea's tragedies. 






Lophon's memorabilia. 


chines* Socratic dialogues. 

sro's Philosophical works. 

eca's philosophical works. 

Feb. 16. 1787. 


Xenophon's Cyropaedia. 

?s Hellenics. 

*s Anabasis. 



Quintus Curtius. 


Diodorus Siculus. 

Dyonisius Halicarnassus. 





Plutarch's lives. 

Cornelius Nepos. 

Vill Mr. Mazzei be so good as to write to some friend in Italy to 
>nn him whose translations into Italian of the above authors, are 
best: and also to denote by the addition of the figures 1. 2. 3. 
which are of the 1st. degree of merit, which are only 2d. rates, 
ra[tes] and which are the best of the small editions of them, for 
very humble servt., TH: JEFFERSON 

rC (DLC). 

From the Commissioners of the Treasury 

Board of Treasury February 16, 1787. 

VVe are favored with your Letter of the 12th. of August last 
:nowledging the Receipt of ours of the 9th. of May and 1 25th. 
June last, and advising us of your having received of Captain 
il Jones the sum of One hundred and twelve thousand, one 
idred and seventy two Livres, two Sols and four deniers, being 

balance which that Officer states to be due on the Prize money 
him received of the Court of France. "With respect to the Claims 
Captain Jones they can only be decided on by the United States 
Congress, who no doubt will be disposed to give all the weight to 

pretentions of that officer to which they may be justly entitled. 


16 FEBRUARY 1787 

Enclosed you will receive a certified Copy of an Act of the 
United States in Congress, directing and authoriseing you to cause 
the claim of the representatives of the late Mr. Daniel Schweig- 
hauser of Nantes against the United States of America to be ad- 
justed in such manner as you should judge most for the Honor 
and Interest of the United States, together with the Documents 
which we conceive necessary for throwing proper Light on this 
Claim. You will observe that you are directed to apply to the 
discharge of the balance (if any) which may be found due to the 
Estate of Mr. Schweighauser the property which has been attached 
on account of this Claim; to what amount that property is, we can- 
not from any documents in this Office ascertain, or whether it 
consists of any other objects than the Arms belonging to the 
United States, which were in the Arsenal of Nantes. You will 
oblige us in obtaining a particular Abstract of the property re- 
ferred to in the Act of Congress and in forwarding it to us as soon 
as possible together with the issue of the claim submitted to your 

We are sorry to observe that the Monies received by Captain 
Jones (after the deductions made from it) falls far short of the 
Sum which we supposed you would have received; and that part 
of these funds had been employed in reimbursing to Mr. Grand 
the sums which at your instance he had advanced for the objects 
mentioned in your letter amounting to 66,719 Livres. 

No Account of Mr. Grands disbursements has been received at 
this Office since the 18th. July 1785. We presume that we shall 
receive them shortly, when we shall direct the proper entries to be 
made on these disbursements. 

With respect to the payment made on the drafts of Mr. Dumas, 
Agent for the United States at the Hague, unless it was by your 
direction we know of no reason that Mr. Grand had for honoring 
these Drafts. As soon as we can ascertain the monies received by 
that Gentleman we will endeavor to make arrangements for the 
payment of his Salary in Holland, in future so that there may be 
no necessity of his drawing on Mr. Grand. 

Our immediate attention shall be turned to making a proper 
remittance for your Salary for the present year, but it is necessary 
to observe that the public em[barr]assments for want of revenue 
encrease so rapidly, that it will be with the greatest difficulty that 
we shall be able to pay the expences of the Civil Establishment 
during the present year: all hopes of our being able to make 
any Remittances to the Foreign Officers or for the payment of In- 


16 FEBRUARY 1787 

st &c. due on the French Loans are entirely vanished. The 
e of New York has rejected the reccom[men]dation of the 
ted States in Congress to grant the Impost agreeably to the 
sral System proposed by the Act of the 18th. April 1783, 
1st some late proceedings of the Legislature of Pennsylvania, 
i respect to Requisitions, baffle all expectations of any effectual 
ply from that sotirce: As we presume however that you will 
;ive the Political detail of the situation of this Country from 
Department of Foreign Affairs, we shall forbear dwelling on a 
ject the reflection on which from the nature of the trust reposed 
us] fills us with continual anxiety. 

Ve have the Honor to be Sir, with great Respect Your Obedt. 
.e. Servts., 


C (DLC); in a clerk's hand, signed ent letter was written (see TJ to 

Osgood, Livingston, and Lee; en- Schweigliauser & Dobr6e, 12 Feb. 

ed: "Treasury board." Recorded in 1787). 
as received 3 May 1787 at Aix-en- 

rence. Enclosures: Only the resolu- 1 Thus in MS; it should read "on 

of Congress, 16 Oct, 1786 (Tr in the. 7 * There is no record of a letter 

\: PCC, No, 59, iv; text printed in from the Commissioners to TJ of 25 

, XXXI, 878-9) lias been identified. June 1786; TJ on 12 Aug. 1786 wrote: 

had already received a copy of this "Your favor of May 9. came to hand on 

lution through Jay before the pres- the 25th. of June." 

From Vandenyver Freres 

[Parisl Ce 16 fev. 

Mm. Vandenyver freres auront besoin de nouveaux ordres de 
n. Willink & Staphorst pour remettre a M. Jefferson Largent 
LI desireroit recevoir sur ce qui lui reste de bon sur le credit que 
dits Sieurs avoient ouvert en Sa faveur chez Vandenyver en 
85. Us ecrivent en consequence a Mm. Willink et feront part 
vtonsieur Grand de leur reponse. 

1C (MHi: AMT); without indication of the year, but see TJ to Adams, 2O Feb. 
*7, in 'which he refers to the present letter as an "answer," presumably to one 
had -written. Neither his to Vandenyver Freres (missing) nor theirs to him is 
orded in SJL. 


From Benjamin Vaughan 

g IR Jeffries Square London, Feby. 16, 1787. 

I have been honored with your letter of the 29th: of Deer., 
though it arrived four weeks after its date. The very day after 
I received it, I began a long answer, which only waits for Messrs. 
Nairne & Blunt's execution of what is mentioned in it, to be for- 
warded to you through Col. Smith; for it is too bulky for the post. 
I hope it will leave my hands tomorrow, and convince you of the 
anxiety I have to attend to any communication or directions you 
may think proper to favor me with* 

It is very true that Dr. Herschell has discovered two satellites 
to the Georgium Sidus; one revolving in about a week, the other in 
about a fortnight; but by his account to us their orbit does not seem 
favorable for affording us eclipses. He discovered them last month 
by means of some new advantages he had given to one of his 
instruments, for he had never been able to discover them before. 
His great instrument will still take some little time to perfect; and 
it is hard to say what is not to be expected from it, if it succeeds. 
He will have all the world before him, and a certainty that nobody 
can for some time have the same advantages. This is a more 
honest monopoly than some others that could be named. I am 
happy that these satellites are not to be discovered without the best 
instruments, for it will be a criterion to the instruments of every 
country and a disgrace to those that are deficient, which will tend 
to the improvement of astronomy generally, and little be lost with 
respect to the present object, which seems most interesting* at 
present as a spectacle of curiosity. 

Dr. Herschell has promised me an account of these satellites 
for the Philadelphian Philosophical Society, of which he has lately 
been elected member. 

I know of nothing very mate[rial] here at this moment, (which 
you are [not] likely to learn from other quarters,) on other sub- 
jects. I have the honor to be, with great respect & esteem, Your 
Excellency's Most obedient & most humble servt., 


RC (DLC); addressed and endorsed. Recorded in SJL as received 21 Feb. 1787. 

From Froulle 

Paris i 17 Feb. 1787. TJ had informed him that a person of his ac- 
quaintance had also received a copy of the work of "Monsieur aDams 
sur les Constitutions de PAmerique"; wishes to know if he may be per- 
mitted to inquire the name of that person and to borrow his copy while 
awaiting that ordered for him by TJ from a London, bookseller. If his 
request "n'est point indiscrete* 1 he would like to have a reply by the 

RC (DL.C); 1 p.; in French. Not recorded in SJL; see TJ to Stockdale, 27 Feb. 
1787; Stockdale to Short, 15 May 1787. 

To Thomas Barclay 

DEAR SIR Paris Feb. 18. 1787 

I am now to acknowlege your separate favors of Dec. 4. and 
Jan. 6* and the joint one to Mr. Adams and myself of Jan. 6. 
This last has been communicated to Congress and to Mr. Adams. 
You have my full and hearty approbation of the treaty you obtained 
from Marocco, which is better and on better terms than I expected. 
Mr. Adams and myself have annexed our confirmation to two of 
the copies, one of which is gone to Congress, the other with a joint 
letter to Fennish I now inclose to Mr. Carmichael, apprehending 
you are not in Madrid. I concur clearly with you in opinion that 
for many reasons Mr. Carmichael would be a proper person to 
negotiate our business with Algiers, if it be negotiable with such 
means as we possess. I have expressed this opinion in my letters 
to America: but I am sure we cannot raise the money necessary. 
Colo, Franks was gone to London before I received your letter. He 
returned and embarked in the packet from Havre, but nothing 
was done on the subject of accounts or money. I was unlucky 
enough to dislocate my right wrist five months ago, and tho' it was 
well set, I can yet make no use of it but to write. I am advised to 
try mineral waters, and those of Aix in Provence being as much 
recommended as any others, I am induced to go to them by the 
desire of making the tour of the ports with which we trade, Mar- 
seilles, Bourdeaux, Nantes &c. I set out in two days and shall be 
absent three months. The packets are finally fixed at Havre. They 
sail every six weeks. Honfleur will I think certainly be made a free 
port: and I flatter myself will become the center for much of our 
trade and particularly of that of our rice. The death of Ct. de 
Vergennes and appointment of Monsr. de Montmorin will reach 


1 8 FEBRUARY 1787 

you before this letter does. I have letters &c. from America as li 
as the 15th. of Dec. The Insurgents of Massachusets had pray 
pardon for themselves and their leaders in jail, and on these ten 
had offered to retire and live peaceably at home. Mrs. Barclay a 
your family are well, except that they are somewhat apprehensi 
of a film growing over the eye of your youngest daughter. B 
should it do so, it will be easily removed. I have the honour to 
with much esteem & respect I>r. Sir your most obedt. & me 
humble servt., TH: JEFFERSON 

PrC (DLC). 

To William Garmichael 

DEAR SIR Paris Feb. 18, 1787 

My last to you was dated Dec. 26. since which I have be< 
honoured with yours of Dec. 17. I now inclose you a duplicate 
the vote for the recall of Mr. Lamb. I take the liberty also of puttir 
under cover to you our confirmation of the Marocco treaty t 
gether with a joint letter to Fennish. The fear that Mr. Bards 
might not be at Madrid has occasioned my giving you this troub 
as well as that of addressing the letter properly, and of bavin 
it transmitted. 

I have received from Mr. Jay sundry despatches relative to tl 
frigate the S. Carolina, and to a claim against the court of Madri 
founded on the aid of that vessel in taking the Bahama an 
Providence islands: with an instruction from Congress to confe 
with the Prince of Luxemburg and get him to interest the Dul 
de la Vauguyon to join you in your sollicitations of this matter. Th 
is accordingly done, and you will have the aid of the Duke. Tt 
dispatches relative to this subject I have sealed up and addresse 
to you, but they will be delivered to the Duke de la Vauguyon t 
find a safe occasion of forwarding them. My last news froi 

America was of the 15th. of Decemb. The insurgents of Mass? 
chusets had sent in a petition to their government, praying th 
release of their leaders in jail, and an act of pardon for themselves 
and offering thereon to retire every man to his home and to liv 
submissively. You will have heard of the death of the Ct. d 
Vergennes, and appointment of Monsr. de Montmorin. I was ur 
lucky enough five months ago to dislocate my right wrist, and th< 
well set, I have as yet no use of it except that I can write, but i 

1 8 FEBRUARY 1787 

pain* I am advised to try the use of mineral waters, and those of 
Aix in Provence being- as much recommended as any others, I 
combine with this object a design of making the tour of those 
seaports with which we trade, Marseilles, Bourdeaux, Nantes &c. 
and shall set out the day after tomorrow, and expect to be absent 
three months. This may probably prevent my having the honor 
of writing to you during that interval, unless any thing extraor- 
dinary should arise. I take measures for the receipt of all letters 
addressed to me as regularly as were I here. I have the honour to 
be with sentiments of the most perfect esteem & respect Sir your 
most obedient & most humble servt., TH: JEFFERSON 

PrC (DLC), Enclosures: (1) Copy of resolution of Congress of 26 Sep. 1786, 
revoking Lamb's commission ( JCG, xxxi, 692), (2) Attested copy of Treaty with 
Morocco (see Vol. 10: 426, note). (3) Commissioners to Taker Fennish, 27 Jan. 

To De Corny 

DEAR SIR Paris Feb. 18. 1787. 

The inclosed letter to the Prevot des Marchands et echevins de 
Paris is to acknolege the receipt of the report which you were so 
kind as to put into my hands, and which I immediately forwarded 
to the Governor of Virginia. As the letter is written in English, and 
will therefore need your explanation, I take the liberty of passing 
it thro 1 your hands, and even of praying you to put the address on 
it, lest I should err in that. I do this with the more pleasure as 
it gives me occasion to renew my thanks to you for the zeal and 
energy with which your aid has been afforded, as well as my as- 
surances of the esteem & respect with which I have the honour to 
be Sir Your most obedient & most humble servant, 


PrC (BLC). Enclosure follows. 

To the Prevot des Marchands 
et Echevins de Paris 

SIR Paris Feb. 18. 1787. 

I am now to acknolege the receipt of the letter with which you 
have been pleased to honour me, together with the report on the 
inauguration of the bust of the Major General the Marquis de la 


18 FEBRUARY 1787 

Fayette. I availed myself of an opportunity which offered, in the 
moment, of transmitting them to the state of Virginia, with a 
faithful representation of the favor with which the Prevot des 
marchands et echevins de Paris received their proposition, the 
zeal with which it was pursued, and the dignity of it's ultimate 
execution. Knowing the attachment of my country to the char- 
acter which was the subject of that transaction, and the price 
they will set on the attentions of the Magistracy of Paris, I am 
safe in assuring you that they will feel themselves infinitely obliged 
on this occasion. 

The interest you are pleased to take in the happiness of our 
infant states, your judicious admonitions as to the means of pre- 
serving it, and the terms in which you particularly honor some 
of their members, require my personal thanks, which I humbly 
offer with all those sentiments of homage and respect with which 
I have the honor to be, Sir, your most obedient & most humble 
servant, TH: JEFFERSON 

PrC (DLC); enclosed in preceding. See note to Le Pelletier to TJ, 1 Feb. 1787. 

From Andre Limozin 

Le Havre, 18 Feb. 1787. Wrote to TJ on 13 Feb.; received TJ's of 
14th with enclosed letter for Jay too late for the packet, which sailed 
"yesterday very early in the morning at least three hours before the 
Letters were delivered out of the Post Office." Will forward them by 
the next. Wishes TJ a good journey and "a safe return in a good health." 

RC (MHi); 2 p.; endorsed. Not recorded in SJL. 

From Anne Blair Banister 

DEAR SIR Battersea, Feby. 19th: 1787. 

On the score of old acquaintance, and a knowledge of your 
humane disposition, I am emboldned to entreat your favor in be- 
half of Mrs. Oster (the French Consuls Lady) who has been mis- 
represented by her cruell Husband to the Minister. The inclosed 
therefore is her Vindication- and which necessity alone wou'd have 
extorted from her. It is left open for your perusal; when having so 
done, flatter myself you can have no scruple in presenting it as 
directed. It is not (be assured) from an ill judged opinion of my 
own, that I have dared to be thus troublesome; I know her estima- 


19 FEBRUARY 1787 

tion in every Family (of any distinction) throughout Williamsburg; 
while He, by arts to injure her, is as universally despised. From 
a delicacy that no one ought to interfere between Man and Wife, 
this worthy distrest Lady is suffering in a strange Country all 
her Letters suppressed, and no prospect of redress unless the 
liberty I have taken with you, shou'd have the desired effect. That 
it may, I cannot forbear being very sanguine. Yet, forgive me if 
I urge this matter too far; since I never felt more Interested for 
another in my Life, having seen her distress, her diffidence to make 
known her ill treatment (which became too obvious to hide) and 
withall, her good Sense and sweetness of disposition, that must 
naturally excite pity, and render her an object worthy attention. I 
wou'd not however (anxious as I am) have you swerve from the 
dictates of your own superior Judgement, being conscious upon 
this, as well as on every other occasion, of its propriety; in sub- 
mission therefore that I trust wholly, relying on the Friendship with 
which you formerly Honored me ( and in a late Letter to my better 
half kindly renew'd) to pardon this freedom. We have just re- 
ceived a Letter from Mr. J. Banister, with the pleasing Informa- 
tion of his returning Health. Shou'd he be in your Neighborhood, do 
me the favor to present me Affectionately to him, as well as your 
amiable Daughter. I make no doubt but some of your Correspond- 
ents, have already acquainted you with the irreparable loss of your 
Friend at Rosewell. His much Loved Fanny has taken her final 
leave! That Health and Happiness may be your attendants thro' 
Life, are among those wishes that will ever be uppermost in the 
Mind of Yours with perfect Sincerity, A. BANISTER 

RC (DLC); endorsed: "Bannister HALF (Dupl reads "late letter to Mr. 

Ann. reed, at Paris June 11.** Recorded Banister") "was that from TJ to Banister 

in SJTL under date of receipt. Enclosure of 14 Aug. 1786 with its postscript to 

not found. Dupl (DLC); dated 20 Feb. Mrs. Banister in which he said that he 

1787; differs somewhat from RC in would be "very happy ... to renew an 

phraseology. Recorded in SJL as re- acquaintance which he has always held 

ceived on SO June 1787. See Banister among the most precious of those he 

to TJ, 6 May 1787. has ever made." 


To Alexander McCaul 

DEAR SIR Paris Feb. 19. 1787. 

Your favor of the 2d. inst. Is duly received. I agree chearfully 
to the alteration you propose, in our terms, for converting the 
current into sterling money. It will guard against injustice, should 


19 FEBRUARY 1787 

the madness of paper money invade our assembly. I send you the 
inclosed paper finally settling this business. I am not well acquainted 
with the situation of your matter in Virginia. I had hoped that 
Mr. Lyle's bill in Chancery had suspended the effect of the escheat 
law till the treaty of peace had put it out of danger. I wrote, while 
in London, to a friend very powerful in our assembly, and as just 
as powerful, in case any thing could be done there. Not even the 
sufferers by escheats can condemn them more than I do, and have 
always done. Principle therefore as well as friendship will render 
it very pleasing to me if I can be instrumental in preventing your 
being affected by them: being with very sincere sentiments of 
esteem and respect Dear Sir Your most obedient & most humble 
servt., TH: JEFFERSON 

ES. I shall be glad to know by a line that this gets safe to hand. 

PrC (DLC); endorsed. Enclosure not found, but see TJ to McCaul, 4 Jan. 1787. 

McCauFs FAVOR OF THE Qx>. INTST. Has not been found, but it is recorded in SJL 
as received 14 Feb. The letter that TJ wrote to a FRIEND VERY POWKKFUX. was tlxat 
to Madison of 25 Apr. 1786. 

To William Stephens Smith 

DEAR SIR Paris Feb. 19. 1787. 

I have duly received your favor of Jan. 29. and Dr. Barney's 
which was inclosed in it. If the harpsichord be not sent off, per- 
haps it may as well await the last of March or beginning 1 of April 
when it may be less exposed to rains. But it is not material. I shall 
be absent till the 1st. of May. Franks was unlucky with the instru- 
ment made by Jones. It was stolen out of his carriage in the neigh- 
borhood of Dover. Payne at Dover assured him he should be able 
to recover it. Perhaps he might be spurred to it by a letter from 
you if you would be so good as to write him one. The plants came 
in perfect order. No news yet of the second press. So much for 

I did really expect that that ungracious, rascally court would 
wear out the patience of Mr. Adams. Long habits of doing business 
together and of doing it easily and smoothly, will render ine 
sincerely sensible of his loss. And I fear we shall lose him on the 
other side the water also; for I shall consider it as a loss, if, instead 
of going to Congress, he should be buried in some office. With 
respect to yourself I have had the pleasure of writing what both 
duty and inclination concurred in dictating. I wish you with all my 


20 FEBRUARY 1787 

heart every success you can desire. The Notables meet on Thursday 
next. I wait to see the causes declared for which they are convened. 
Not a word has yet transpired. I am in hopes our new Minister 
has very friendly dispositions towards our country. He has the 
reputation of being a very honest man. His son married the neice of 
the Chevalier Luzerne. Perhaps this may make some promotion 
for the Chevalier and prevent his return to America. Remember 
Mr, Adams's picture, I pray you; and Sir Walter Raleigh's too. 
When they shall be ready, I would wish to receive them with my 
own which Mr. Brown has. Let me know if you please how stand 
our accounts. There must now be a balance due to you, -which I 
will remit you the moment you inform me of it, or I will pay it to 
your draught. That for Jones's instrument has been duly honored. 
Present me in friendly terms to Mrs. Smith & the little Hans & be 
assured of the esteem & affection with which I am Dr. Sir Your 
friend & servt., TH: JEFFERSON 

PrC (DLC); endorsed. 

To John Adams 

DEAR SIR Paris Feb. 20. 1787. 

I am now to acknoledge the receipt of your favor of Jan. 25. 
Colo. Franks sailed in the packet of this month from Havre for 
New York. This arrangement of the packets opens a direct com- 
munication between Paris and America, and if -we succeed as I 
expect we shall in getting Honfleur made a freeport, I hope to see 
that place become the deposit for our Whale oil, rice, tobacco and 
furs, and that from thence what is not wanted in this country may 
be distributed to others. You remember giving me a letter of 

credit on Messrs. Willink and Staphorst for 1000 guineas to pay 
for the swords and medals. When the swords were finished I drew 
on the Vandemjvers, with whom the money was deposited for 
6500 livres to pay for the swords. They paid it. A medal is now 
finished, and others will very soon be: but these gentlemen say 
they must have fresh orders. In the mean time the workmen com- 
plain. "Will you be so good as to draw in favor of Mr. Grand on 
Willink &c. for the balance of the thousand guineas (which is 
about the sum that will be necessary) and send the bill to Mr. 
Grand, who in my absence will negotiate it and pay the workmen. 
I inclose you Vandemjers answer. The meeting of the Notables 


20 FEBRUARY 1787 

on Thursday and the necessity of paying my court to our new 
minister will detain me till Friday and perhaps till Tuesday next. 
Nothing is known yet of the objects of this assembly. I inclose 
you two new pamphlets relative to it: and will inform you of what- 
ever I can discover relative to it during my stay. 

I learn with real pain the resolution you have taken of quitting 
Europe. Your presence on this side the Atlantic gave me a con- 
fidence that if any difficulties should arise within my department, 
I should always have one to advise with on whose counsels I could 
rely. I shall now feel bewidowed. I do not wonder at your being 
tired out by the conduct of the court you are at. But is there not 
room to do a great deal of good for us in Holland in the department 
of money? No one can do it so well as yourself. But you have taken 
your resolution I am sure on mature consideration, and I have 
nothing to offer therefore but my regrets. It any thing transpires 
from the Notables before my departure worth communication, you 
shall yet hear from me. In the mean time believe me to be with 
sincere esteem & respect Dr. Sir your most obedt. & most humble 
servt., TH: JEFFERSON 

KG (MHI: AMT); endorsed in part: "ansd. Maich 1. 1787." PrC (E>LC). En- 
closure: Vandenyver Frfcres to TJ, 16 Feb. 1787. The enclosed pamphlets have 
not been identified. 

From John Adams 

DEAR SIR Grosvenor Square Feb. 2O. 1787 

Dr, Gordon who is about publishing his Proposals for printing 
his History desires a Letter to you. I told him that he might de- 
pend upon your good offices without any Letter, but as no harm 
will be done by complying with his Desire I beg Leave to introduce 
him, and to recommend his History to your Patronage in France. 
With equal affection, Esteem and respect, I have the Honour to 
be, Sir your most obedient humble Servant, JOHN ADAMS 

endorsed ' Rec **ded in SJL as received 26 Mch. 1787 at Aix-en- 

From De Corny 

DEAR SlR Paris Le 20. fevrier 1787 

The inclosed Report in parchement is to be sent to you, trusted 
to your Excellency's cares, and immediately forwarded to the State 


20 FEBRUARY 1787 

of Virginia. I take the Liberty of passing it thro' your hands and 
even of praying you to put it at End By the first opportunity. I do 
that with the more pleasure as it affords me occasion to renew 
thousand assurances of the Esteem, respect and friendship with 
which I have the honor to be for ever Dear Sir Your Excellency's 
the most obedient and most humble servant, DE CORNY 

ES. I sent for you, to the Mis. de la Fayette, 70 printed copies 
of the report, in order of being forwarded to the North america. 
But M. le Mis. de la Fayette desires for himself, the notoriousness 
and distribution of it could be prevented. I owe comply to his 
Will. You may, for your own account settle this matter with him. 

RC (DLC). Not recorded in SJL. En- 
closure: Le Pelletier to TJ, 1 Feb. 1787 
and its enclosure ( see note there ) . 

For a bibliographical and historical 
account of the publication of the ProcSs- 
VerbauM, which bears the imprint 
"Philadelphia: Printed by M. Carey and 
Co. Front-Street, West-Side, near Mar- 
ket-Street. 1786," see Gilbert Chinard's 
**Notes and Appendix" to a reprint of 
the unique copy owned by Stuart W. 
Jackson as set forth in Bulletin de L?In- 
stitut Fran$ai$ de Washington, new 
ser., No. 4, Dec. 1954, p. 67-1 1O. 

There is no evidence that TJ actually 
sent any o the printed texts to America 
or that he took any part in procuring 
publication there. This is surprising in 
-view of his frequent and full testimo- 
nials in letters to Jay, Washingrton, and 
Madison about the valuable assistance 
rendered by Lafayette in promot- 
ing American interests in France and in 
view of his interest in procuring 1 Euro- 
pean publication (see TJ to Rayneval, 
30 Sep. 1786). The factual summary 
that TJ caused to be printed in the 
Gaxette de Leide stands in marked con- 
trast to the extraordinary record set 
forth in the proceeding's themselves. 
According to the latter, the prS-odt des 
marchands et echertins at a meeting on 
15 Sep. 1786, at which a letter was 
read from. Baron de Breteuil conveying 
the king's permission for the bust to be 
presented, directed Veytard to notify 
the deans of the counsellors of the city 
that the date had been fixed for the 
ceremony and to inform them that 3 
"comme la modestie des personnes prin- 
cipalement interesse'es 5. cette ceremonie 
a sollicitg qu'elle fut faite sans eclat, le 
Bureau a cru devoir se dispenser a 
regard des Compagnies d'une Convoca- 
tion en regie." This would seem to 

mean that both TJ and Lafayette, per- 
haps through De Corny, had made the 
request for a ceremony "sans eclat," 
for they were certainly the principals. 
Both, ironically, were absent from the 
occasion: three days after the meeting 
on 15 Sep., TJ suffered the accident 
to his -wrist that confined him to his 
room and, though Lafayette had spent 
about two weeks in Paris in September, 
he departed for Auvergtie before the 
ceremonies on the 28th, Short took TJ's 
place in the great hall of the H6tel de 
Ville amid circumstances that may have 
made TJ grateful for the injury that 
pleaded his excuse though that injury 
did not prevent him, scarcely a week 
later and at the cost of a night of ex- 
cruciating pain, from making an excur- 
sion with Maria Cosway on the eve of 
her departure from Paris. Short had 
long since given TJ and friends in 
Virginia an account of the ceremony, 
but Le Pelletier's enclosure included 
not only all of the relevant documents 
but also an exact description of the 
arrangements and the ceremony "sans 
eclat," In the great hall of the H6tel 
de Ville there was arranged a long 
phalanx of benches for the audience, at 
the upper end of which were two arm- 
chairs for Le PeUetier and Short and 
six others for the echevins^ all of them 
in crimson velvet adorned with gold 
lace. Toward the upper end of the 
phalanx, before a table covered with 
crimson velvet and facing the prevdt, 
was the seat for the procureur du roi 
(De Corny); on the other side of the 
table, its back to the prStfdt^s chair, was 
the seat of the grejfier en chef, also 
covered with crimson velvet and gold 
lace. In a recess the bust of Lafayette 
rested on a table under a velvet veil. 
The officials were in their ceremonial 


20 FEBRUARY 1787 

robes and the huissiers in livery. 
the counsellors, minor officials, and the 
audience entered the hall under an arch 
of crossed arms held by two ranks of 
guards and took their places, Houdon 
beside the bust. Then Short, "membra 
au Conseil des Etats de Virginia charge 
de r6pre"senter S. E. M. de Jefferson, 
Ministre plgnipotentiaire des Etats-Unis, 
retenu chez luy pour cause de maladie," 
arrived at the H6tel de Ville where he 
had been received within the entrance 
by two huissiers. These, preceded by a 
sergeant and four guards, conducted 
him up the grand stairway, where, at 
the landing, he was met by the greffier 
en chef. The procession then continued 
into the great hall, through the phalanx 
of benches and up to the pr$-o$t<, where 
Short saluted the officials and sat down, 
covering himself, as did the officials. 
He then presented TJ's letter of 27 
Sep. 1786, which Le Pelletier accepted 
in a speech in which he declared that 
the act of Virginia was "un hommage 
aussi honorable que les services qui 
Pobtiennent ont 6t& distingue." Le 
Pelletier handed TJ's letter and the 
Virginia resolution to Veytard, who 
read them in French. When this was 
done, De Corny pronounced his remark- 
able address (see Vol. 1O: 414-5) 

which he concluded by formally re- 
questing, in the name of the king: and 
of the city, that the letter of Baron de 
Breteuil and of TJ, as well as the 
Virginia resolution^ be recorded in the 
"Registre des actes Importantes de 
rhdtel de Ville" and that the bust of La- 
fayette "soit place" dans la grande salle 
destine aux Elections et aux seances 
publiques dans un lieu apparent." Le 
Pelletier then called for tbe advice of 
the gchevins, who gave their approval 
by acclamation, -whereupon he requested 
Houdon to place tlie bust cm the mantel 
at the back of the great hall. At the 
same instant the bust was unveiled and 
borne between two files of guards to 
the place designated, **au bruit des 
Trumpettes et des Timbales et d'une 
Musique militaire" and to the applause 
of the audience. "Many tears were shed 
at the moment of the music commencing 1 
and the placing- of the bust," Short 
declared (Short to William Nelson, 25 
Oct. 1786; DLC: Short Papers). Fol- 
lowing this climactic moment of the 
ceremony, Short was conducted by some 
of the che-vins, guards, and huissiers 
to the entrance of the H6tel de Ville. 
A month later lie reported that the 
"sensation [the proceedings] made in 
Paris is inconceivable" (same). 

From William Gordon 

SIR London Feby. 2O. 1787 

I promised myself the honour of being introduced to your Ex- 
cellency by a letter which my friend general Gates gave me, before 
I had the pleasure of hearing You was appointed ambassador to 
the court of Versailles. Ere I could reach home in the neighbour- 
hood of Boston You had sailed for France. I have therefore applied 
to his Excellency John Adams for a few introductory lines, recom- 
mending- at the same time to your patronage a work which has 
long engaged my attention, and which I mean should go to the 
press the beginning of October, and continue printing till finished, 
if Heaven indulges me with health. Suffer me to request the favour 
of your support; and that You will forward to the Marquis Le 
Fayette the parcel directed for him, as I am a stranger to his 
place of residence. I remain with the sincerest respect Your Ex- 
cellency's most humble servant, WILLIAM GORDON 


22 FEBRUARY 1787 

news. I have only to add then that Mr. Cairnes has taken charge of 
15. aunes of black lace for you at 9 livres the aune, purchased by 
Petit and therefore I hope better purchased than some things have 
been for you; and that I am "with sincere esteem Dear Madam your 
affectionate humble servt., TH: JEFFERSON 

RC (MHi: AMT). PrC (DLC); en- 

TJ's famous and oft-quoted state- 
AND THEN cannot properly be tinder- 
stood unless taken in the context of 
his correspondence with John and Abi- 
gail Adams in the weeks preceding the 
time it -was written. On 3D Nov. 1786 
John Adams, assuming- that TJ had 
heard of Shays's Rebellion through the 
public press, casually urged him not 
to be alarmed "at the late Turbulence 
in New England." TJ received this on 
2O Dec., the very day that he also re- 
ceived Jay's disturbing- letter of 27 Oct. 
about the Massachusetts insurgents. He 
replied to Adams at once saying that 
he had not been initially alarmed by 
public reports, but that Jay had "really 
affected" him with his pessimistic ac- 
count and Adams had set him "to 
rights." He repeated this to Mrs. Adams 
in his letter of 21 Dec. 1786, but added 
sentences which showed his character- 
istic desire "to see the people awake 
and alert" and his confidence in their 
good sense. Mrs. Adams bristled in 
disagreement and undertook to explain 
the rebellion more fully to TJ, who 
clearly, in her view, misunderstood its 

nature; her letter of 29* Jan. 1787 (pre- 
ceded by a carefully phrased draft -with 
one revealing passage that she decided 
to eliminate from, the text sent to TJ) 
must have surprised him by the vigor 
of her exposition. But this did not deter 
him from making: a calm, though more 
extreme, reaffirmation of his belief. 
His expressed hope that the MALCON- 
TENTS would be pardoned may have 
been mere coincidence or it may possi- 
bly have reflected his understanding 1 of 
the lady whom he admired and liked 
so much but the fact is that it was in 
direct opposition to the suppressed pass- 
age in Mrs. Adams* letter, for she had 
thought it not unlikely that "some 
examples must be made before the riots 
will be totally quelled and peace and 
good order restored.** Mrs. Adams did 
not reply or write ag-ain until she re- 
ceived little Mary Jefferson late in June, 
when she revealed the warm and kindly 
facet of her character that TJ found 
much more congenial than her political 
views. Possibly, too, TJ*s extreme state- 
ment may be in part a reaction to the 
views on aristocracy set forth in John 
Adams* Defence of the American Con- 
stitutions, a book that he had just re- 
ceived (TJ to Adams, 6 Feb. 1787). 

To De Langeac 

& Paris ce 22me. Fevrier 1787. 

Monsieur le Comte, par les affaires dont une voiage projettge 
m'a accable il y a quelque terns, je n'ai pas pu repondre plutot & 
la lettre que vous m'avez fait Phonneur de m'ecrire. C'est vrai que 
pendant que nous etions en trait pour votre maison, vous m'avez pro- 
pose qu'au lieu de 7500.* que j'offrois pour le loyer, je donnerois 
8000.* et que vous payeriez les gages d'un jardinier. Je me suis trouve 
oblig6 de m'y refuser, parcequ'un domestique qui ne dependroit de son 
maitre ni pour ses gages, ni pour sa place, ne devroit etre bien utile, ni 
bien complaisant. La proposition etoit abandonn done, et le bail 
sign6. Quelques jours aprSs mon etablissement ici, j'ai fait un ar- 
rangement avec le jardinier qui venoit de sortir de votre service. Je 


23 FEBRUARY 1787 

trouvois bientot que le jardin, qui est tout en arbres, ne lui donnolt 
presque rien a f aire. La repugnance toutef ois de congedier un domes- 
tique, quoique il m'etoit absolument inutile, m'en a fait reculer le 
moment un an et demi. Enfin je 1'ai avert! de tacher de se placer. Je ne 
Pai pas press6 de sortir dans le moment. Au contraire je pensois 
de lui donner un terns convenable pour chercher son etablissement, 
en lui payant ses gages en attendant, et lui permettant de pester ici. 
Ce n'est pas done, comme on vous a fait croire Monsieur, pour 
une offence quelconque que je me propose de le congedier. Votre 
lettre, dans ce cas, lui auroit bien valu sa grace, et ce m'auroit fait 
un veritable plaisir de pouvoir vous temoigner mes egards par 
cette complaisance. Mais c'est un arrangement oeconomique et 
necessaire. A un autre fois, Monsieur, je serai infiniment charm 
de trouver une occasion oft je pourrai vous prouver combien je 
souhaite de me preter %. vos desirs, et combien sinceres sont les 
sentiments de respect avec lesquels j'ai 1'honneur d'etre Monsieur 
votre tres humble et tres obeissant serviteur, 


PrC (UL.C); endorsed. month. However, TJ did not move into 

For De Langeac's appeal in behalf the H8tel de Lang-eac until 17 Oct. 

of his former gardener, see his letter 1785. The discrepancy as probably ex- 

to TJ of 27 Jan, 1787. QXJELQTJES JOXTRS plained by the fact that TJ made the 

AFHfes \*ON ETABLISSEMENT ii: An engagement with the g-ardener a few 

entry in Account Book shows that on days after moving- into the new quarters, 

4 Nov. 1785 TJ paid the "Jardinier 17 but paid him for the whole time that 

days @ 45f-25-10," which would have had elapsed since the former tenant 

put the date of employment around 14 moved out. 
Oct., since the 17 days all fell in that 

To John Adams 

DEAR SIR Paris Feb. 23. 1787 

The Notables met yesterday. The king opened the assembly with 
a short speech, wherein he expressed his inclination to consult with 
them on the affairs of his kingdom, to receive their opinions on the 
plans he had digested, and to endeavor to imitate the head o his 
family Henry IV. whose name is so dear to the nation. The speech 
was affectionate. The Guarde des sceaux spoke about 2O minutes, 
complimented the Clergy, the Noblesse, the Magistrates and tiers 
etats. The Comptroller general spoke about an hour. He enumerated 
the^ expences necessary to arrange his department when he came 
to it, he said his returns had been minutely laid before the king, 
he took a review of the preceding administrations, and more par- 


23 FEBRUARY 1787 

ticularly of Mr. Neckar's, he detailed tlie improvements which had 
been made, he portrayed the present state of the finances, and 
sketched the several schemes proposed for their improvement; he 
spoke on a change in the form of the taxes, the removal of the 
interior custom houses to the frontiers, provincial administrations 
and some other objects. The assembly was then divided into Com- 
mittees. To-day there -was to be another grand assembly, the plans 
more fully explained and referred to the discussion of the Com- 
mittees. The grand assembly will meet once a week and vote in- 
dividually. The propriety of my attending the first audience 
day of Count Montmorin, which will not be till the 27th. retards my 
departure till then. 

I have read your book with infinite satisfaction and improve- 
ment. It will do great good in America. It's learning and it's good 
sense will I hope make it an institute for our politicians, old as 
well as young. There Is one opinion in it however, which I will 
ask you to reconsider, because it appears to me not entirely accurate, 
and not likely to do good. Pa. 362. 'Congress is not a legislative, 
but a diplomatic assembly. 9 Separating into parts the whole 1 
sovereignty of our states, some of these parts are yeilded to Con- 
gress. Upon these I should think them 2 both legislative and execu- 
tive; and that they would have been judiciary also, had not the 
Confederation required them for certain purposes to appoint a 
judiciary. It has accordingly been the decision of our courts that 
the Confederation is a part of the law of the land, and superior in 
authority to the ordinary laws, because it cannot be altered by the 
legislature of any one state. I doubt whether they are at all a 
diplomatic assembly* On the first news of this work, there 

were proposals to translate it. Fearing it might be murdered in that 
operation, I endeavored to secure a good translator. This is done, 
and I lend him my copy to translate from. It will be immediately 
announced to prevent others attempting it. I am with sincere 

esteem & respect Dear Sir Your most obedt. & most humble servt., 


RC (MHi: AMT); endorsed, in part: by De la Croix, Defense des Constitu- 

"ansd. March. 1. 1787." PrC (BLC). tions Americaines, Paris, 1792. (See 

TJ approached the bookseller Froinlle" also Adams to TJ, 1 Mch. 1787; TJ to 

with the idea of getting- Adams' Defence Adams, 23 July 1787.) 
of the Constitutions of the United States 1 TJ first wrote "all the sovereignty ,** 

published. No evidence has been found &c. and then altered the passage by 

that it was UWDVDEIJIATELY ANKTOXJNCEI>, overwriting- to read as above, 
and the first French edition is appar- 2 Preceding- four words interlined in 

ently that with notes and commentary substitution for "they are," deleted. 


To Mrs. Champernoune 

MADAM Paris Feb. 23. 1787. 

Tho' I have not the honor of being known to you by name even, 
yet the interest you have been so good as to take in behalf of the 
persons who will be the subject of this letter, encourage me to 
take the liberty of addressing it to you. The late Mr. Trist of 
America was your brother, and I learn from his widow that you 
had been pleased to take notice of her and of her son by way of 
letter. Well acquainted with both, knowing the uncommon worth 
and good sense of the mother, and the promising genius of the 
son, and proposing to pay a visit to England the last spring-, I 
wrote to Mrs. Trist for information as to the relations of her son 
Hore Browse Trist, and the places of their residence. I meant to 
have taken the liberty of waiting on such of them as I could, and 
of informing them how hopeful a member of their family was 
rising up in America. Unluckily I did not receive her answer till 
I had returned from England, I therefore desired a gentleman, a 
friend of mine, in London to make some enquiries of the family, 
and particularly of Mr. Richard Trist of Arundel street London. 
The result of these enquiries is that letters and invitations have 
been sent to Mrs. Trist to bring her son to England, that these 
have not been answered, and that it has even been said the son 
was dead. My last letter from Mrs. Trist was of the 24th. of 
July last, when he was alive and well, and I am certain had any 
accident happened to him since, I should have heard of it. The 
letters written to her, and the invitations which any of the family 
may have been so good as to have given her, may have miscarried, 
or that may have been the fate of her answers to them. I know 
the respect she entertains for the family too well, to suppose she 
could have neglected to answer any letter received from them. She 
is a most excellent mother, judicious and prudent, and devoting 
her whole existence to the care of her son. She has hitherto been 
able to supply the expences of his education which has been well 
conducted: but as he makes further progress these expences will 
increase, and she is not rich. I fear the possibility therefore that 
his education may suffer. He is a beautiful boy, of mild dispositions, 
and fine genius, and as far as can be judged at his age, we may 
rely that he will do honour to his family, be the station, to which 
he may be called in that, ever so honorable. The friendly notice you 
have been already pleased to take, Madam, of the widow and son 


23 FEBRUARY 1787 

their views without too much departing from his own, and will then 
submit them to the vote (but I believe not to the debate) of the 
General assembly, which will be convened for this purpose one 
day in every week, and will vote individually. 

The event of the count de Vergennes 7 death, of which I had the 
honour to inform you in two letters of the 14th. inst., the appoint- 
ment of the Count de Montmorin, and the propriety of my attending 
at his first audience which will be on the 27th. have retarded the 
journey I had proposed, a few days. I shall hope on my return 
to meet here new powers for the Consular convention, as under 
those I have it will be impossible to make the change in the con- 
vention which may be wished for. I have the honor to be with 
sentiments of the most perfect esteem & respect, Sir, your most 
obedient & most humble servant, TH: JEFFERSON 

PrC (DLC). Tr (DNA: PCC, No. 107, n). 

To Eliza House Trist 

DEAR MADAM Paris Feb. 23. 1787. 

I must refer you to my letter of Dec. 15. for the reason why I had 
not asked of you sooner some information of Browse's relations in 
England and of their residence. Having received that information 
from you after my return from England, I wrote to my friend Mr. 
Trumbul to make such enquiries as he could. I inclose you a copy of 
his letter containing the result of these enquiries. You will per- 
ceive that either the letters of the family to you or your answers 
to them have miscarried, that they have made enquiries and given 
you invitations to which they have not received answers, and that 
they even doubt Browse's being alive. I shall write as Mr. Trumbul 
advises, to Mrs. Champernon by this conveiance, and I imagine you 
will write not only to her but to Mr. Trist of London. How far It 
may be eligible to commit yourself, by a voiage to England, to 
the invitation of the family you alone can judge. If you have not 
received such invitations, and they are sincere in desiring your 
presence, my letter to Mrs. Champernon shall produce a repetition 
of them. The prospects of your son there seem to be very fair, and 
doubtless would be much improved were he put into the hands of 
the family. The opportunities of education there too are as good, 
perhaps, as in America: only more attention would be requisite to 
prevent his being diverted from his studies, and a judicious plan of 
study pursued. No doubt your presence would be of infinite value 


23 FEBRUARY 1787 

to him, and probably the voiage would cost you less pain than 
the separation from him. I am just setting out on a journey of 
three months to the South of France. If Mrs. Champernon therefore 
should honor me with an answer, my absence may occasion it's 
coming late to you. If I can be useful to you in this or any other 
business, command me freely. I will act for you as I would for 
myself, but with more diligence. Should you come to England I 
think you would come and pay a visit to our good allies. I need 
not tell you how much pleasure it would give to Patsy and myself. 
Perhaps before that time I shall have received my other daughter, 
who I hope will sail in May. Pressed with many letters which must 
go off with this, I have only time to add [ass]urances of my sincere 
friendship for you, and of the sentiments of respect & esteem with 
which I am Dear Madam your affectionate friend & servt., 


PrC (MHi); endorsed. Enclosure: Copy of Trumbull to TJ, 15 Feb. 1787. 

To John Trumbull 

DEAR SIR Paris Feb. 23. 1787. 

I thank you for the trouble you have been so good as to take in 
the case of Mrs. Trist. I have sent her a copy of your letter and I 
now trouble you with a letter to Mrs. Champernoune. If we do 
some good by these enquiries we shall share the happiness of it. 
The illness and death of the Count de Vergennes have retarded 
my departure on my journey till the 27th. I foresee nothing to 
hinder it then: and expect to be absent three months. This will 
almost bring about the time of your return to Paris, for I take for 
granted you will come to the exhibitions of the Salon. Your apart- 
ment here will expect you, and that you become a part of our 
family again. Tell Mrs. Cosway she is an inconstant. She was to 
have been in Paris long ago, but she has deceived us. The first 
evening that I find myself seated in a comfortable inn, warm, soli- 
tary, and pensive, I [will] invite her to sup, and will commit our 
conversation to writing. It will be a very scolding one on my part. 
In the mean time lay all my affections at her feet, desire her to 
write to me to comfort me on my journey, as I take measures for 
the forwarding my letters safely. Accept yourself assurances of the 
esteem of Dear Sir, your friend & servt., TH: JEFFERSON 

PrC (DLC); endorsed. Enclosure: TJ to Mrs. Champernoune, 23 Feb. 1787. 


To Michel Capitaine 

Paris Feb. 25. 1787. 

Je viens de recevoir, Monsieur, de Monsieur Peters une lettre 
de change sur votre compte pour 4755*-14s, qu'il me prie de vous 
remet[tre]. Je partirai pour la Provence dans deux jours, et je 
laisserai la lettre de change dans les mains de Monsieur Short, mon 
Secretaire, qui aura Phonneur de la livrer & vos mains si vous aurez 
la bontg de la lui demander. J'ai Fhonneur d'etre avec bien de 
respect Monsieur votre tres humble et trgs obeissant serviteur, 


PrC (MHi). See Peters to TJ, 1 Oct. 1786. J.-B. Le Roux, agrent for Capitaine, 
gave a receipt to SHORT on 7 Mch. 1787 for *t4755tt~14s, (MHi). 

From D'Hancarville 

Paris, 25 Feb. 1787. Encloses a letter from "1'aimable Mde. Coswai" 
which he would have brought but he has been confined to his chamber 
for four months: "son mal est Peffet d'une entorse a la jambe, pareille & 
celle que Mr. Jefferson s'est donn6e & la main. II apprend avec dplaisir 
que Peffet de cette derniere se fait encore ressentir." Count de Moustier 
will make his apologies, and he promises himself to call on TJ when 
he returns from the southern provinces. 

RC (DLC); 1 p.; in French. Recorded in SJL as received 25 Feb. 1787. En- 
closure: Maria Cosway to TJ, 15 Feb. 1787. 

From William Jones 

[Bristol, 25 Feb. 1787. Recorded in SJL as received 26 Mch. 1787, 
at Aix-en-Provence. Not found, but see TJ to Jones of 5 Jan. 1787.] 

To Richard Peters 

DEAR SIR Paris p e b. 26. 1787. 

Your favor of Octob. 1. covering the letter and bill to Captn, 
Capitaine did not come to my hands till yesterday. I wrote to Him 
immediately to inform him it should be delivered him at any 
moment. We talk and think of nothing here but the Assemble 
des Notables. Were all the puns collected to which this assembly 
has given rise, I think they would make a larger volume than the 
Encyclopedie. The government is said to want eighty millions of 


27 FEBRUARY 1787 

livres revenue more than they have and they propose to give to 
the people provincial administrations and to make other improve- 
ments. It is a pity they had not more of the virtue called oeconomy, 
of which we have something to spare. I hope the company of Mrs. 
Peters and your little ones have cured all your aches and pains 
both of body and mind. That you and they may continue for ever 
clear of them is the sincere prayer of Dr. Sir your friend & servt., 


PrC <DLC); MS faded, and a number of words have been overwritten in a later 
hand, probably that of H. A. Washington (see Vol. 10: 288, note 1). 

TJ was aware that Peters would be interested in THE FXTNS . . . TO WHICH THIS 
HAS GIVEN RISE, since Peters was a famous punster. 

To John Stockdale 

SIR Paris Feb. 27. 1787. 

By the Diligence of tomorrow I will send you a corrected copy 
of my Notes, which I -will pray you to print precisely as they are, 
without additions, alterations, preface, or any thing else but what 
is there. They will require a very accurate corrector of the press, 
because they are filled with tables, which "will become absolutely 
useless if they are not printed with a perfect accuracy. I beg you 
therefore to have the most particular attention paid to the correct- 
ing of the press. With respect to the plate of the map, it is impos- 
sible to send it at the same time. It was engraved in London, and on 
examination I found a prodigious number of orthographical errors, 
Being determined that it shall not go out with a single error, an 
engraver is now closely employed in correcting them. He promises 
to have it finished the next week, say by the 10th. of March: but 
I suppose you must expect he will not be punctual to a day. The 
map will be worth more than the book, because it is very particular, 
made on the best materials which exist, and is of a very convenient 
size, bringing the states of Virginia, Maryland, Delaware and 
Pennsylvania into a single sheet. It will make the book sell. I think 
it would be worth your while to print 400 copies of the book for 
America, sending 200. to Richmond in Virginia, and 20O to Phila- 
delphia. If you have no correspondents there, you might send those 
for Richmond to Mr. James Buchanan merchant there, and those 
for Philadelphia to Aitken bookseller there. These are men on 
whose punctuality you may depend. But they should 1 be re- 
strained from selling but for ready money: so that you may always 
find in their hands either the money or the books. I set out on 


28 FEBRUARY 1787 

my journey tomorrow: but Mr. Short, my secretary, remains here, 
and will hasten, and forward the plate to you by the Diligence. 
Be so good as to send by the next Diligence a copy of Mr, 
Adams's book on the American constitutions printed by Dilly, in 
boards, it being for a bookseller here. I am Sir your very humble 
servt ? TH: JEFFERSON 

PrC (DIXI). South of France (see TJ to Barrels, 22 

The ENGRAVER of the corrected map June 1787). 

for Notes on Virginia was far from m m 

bein* PUNCTUAL TO A DAY: he returned 1 This word is interlined in substitu- 

the plate only upon TJ's insistent de- tion for "must," deleted, 
rnands after TJ had returned from the 

To John Adams 

DEAR SIR Paris Feb. 28. 1787. 

The inclosed letter is come to hand since I had the honour of 
addressing you last. "Will you be so good as to forward a copy 
to Mr. Jay? The assembly of Notables is held to secrecy, so that 
little transpires and this floats among so much incertain matter 
that we know not what can be depended on. 80. millions more of 
annual revenue and provincial assemblies are the certain objects. 
The giving to the protestants a civil state will be effected without 
recurrence to the Notables. I am now in the moment of my de- 
parture and have therefore only time to add assurances of the 
esteem & respect with which I have the honor to be Dear Sir your 
most obedient humble servt., TH: JEFFERSON 

PrC (DLC). Enclosure: Barclay to the American Commissioners, 1O Feb. 1787, 
received by TJ on 25 Feb. 1787. 

Jefferson's Letter of Credit 
from Ferdinand Grand 

MESSIEURS [ ca . 28 Feb. 1787] 

Cette lettre vous sera rendue par Monsieur Jefferson, un des 
Cytoiens les plus respectables de I'Etat de Virginia, k la personne 
duquel je suis extremement attach^ par tous les motifs qui sont 
faits pour inspirer Pestime et la consideration. Je viens dans ces 
sentiments reclamer votre empressement et vos gards pour cet 
Ami dans le voyage qu'il entreprend dans vos provinces, et vous 
prier, Messieurs, de fournir 21 ses besoms contre ses doubles quit- 

C 184] 

28 FEBRUARY 1787 

tances,, du moment des quelles je ne manquerai pas de vous tenir 
Compte avec reconnoissance. J'en aurai Surtout pour Fattention 
que vous voudrez bien avoir a ma Recommandation et je serai 
toujours charm6 de pouvoir vous prouver a mon tour le dvouement 
reciproque avec lequel JPai Llionneur d'etre Messieurs Votre trs 
humble et trs ob6issant Serviteur, GRAND 

MS (DL.C); undated; in a clerk's (CSmH), under the entry for 6 Mch. 
hand, sigrned by Grand; wititi list of ad- 1787, there is a list of names with ad- 
dresses: "A Messieurs Finguerlin & dresses of persons he apparently in- 
Scherer a Lyon J. L. Brethoul S. tended to visit, including' all of the 
Marseilles Le Clerc & Cie. a Nice addressees of the present letter. The 
Feger Gramont & Cie. a Bordeaux original letters of credit of which the 
Burnet Durand & De la Maxche a present is a retained file copy have not 
Montpellier." An entry in TJ's Account been found. 

Book under 15 Mch. reads: "reed, of It will be noted that TJ was travel- 
Messrs. Fing-erlin & co, on Mr. Grand's lingr as a private citizen, not as minister 
letter of credit 75O." &c., while in from the United States. 
TJ's rough memoranda of title journey 

To Ferdinand Grand 

SIR Paris Feb. 28. 1787. 

This serves to advise you that I have taken the liberty of drawing 
on you for the following sums paiable at the dates and to the 
persons here mentioned. 

in favor of Petit - 1450.* paiable immediately 

in favor of do. - - - - 600. paiable April 1st. 

in favor of do. - 600, paiable May 1st. 

in favor of the Ct. de Langeac 1875, paiable April 15. 
All those orders bear date this day. 

I expect that Mr. Carmichael will draw soon for a quarter's 
salary which ought to be paid. I have written to Mr. Adams to 
send you an order to receive of Van Staphorst & Willink a sum 
somewhere about six hundred guineas, which be pleased to receive 
of them so soon as you shall have the order, and place it to the 
credit of the United States. It is intended to make good draughts 
which will be made on you in favor of the workmen employed in 
making medals. 

I am just in the moment of my departure, and have therefore 
only time to thank you for the letters you have been so kind as 
to favor me with, and to assure you of the esteem & respect with 
which I have the honor to be Sir your very humble servant, 


PrC (DLC). 


From Richard Paul Jodrell 

Berners Street, London. 28th. Febry. 1787. 

The Author of The Persian Heroine, having received from Mr. 
Jefferson Mr. Wythe's book of Virginia, intreats his acceptance of 
the inclosed Tragedy. 

RO fMHiV endorsed: "JbddreU." TJ's absence on his southern tour 

iJSded fa 8JL received 25 May (Smith to TJ, 19 May 1787). 

1787 at Bordeaux. The enclosed quarto TJ's inscription to Jodrell in a pres- 

edition of Jodrell's The Persian Heroine, entation copy of Notes onVtrgtnia had 

London, 1786, was prohably not re- led the latter to suppose George Wythe 

ceived with the covering- letter but left its author (see note to Wythe to TJ, 

at the Hotel de Lang-eac with Bother 10 Feb. 1786). 
books and letters brought by Smith in 

To Lafayette 

Paris Feb. 28. 1787. 

I am just now, my dear Sir, in the moment of my departure. 
Monsr. de Monttnorin having given us audience at Paris yesterday, 
I missed the opportunity of seeing* you once more. I am extremely 
pleased with his modesty, the simplicity of his manners, and his 
dispositions towards us. I promise myself a great deal of satisfac- 
tion in doing business with him. I hope he will not give ear to any 
unfriendly suggestions. I flatter myself I shall hear from you some- 
times. Send your letters to my hotel as usual and they will be 
forwarded to me. I wish you success in your meeting. I should 
form better hopes of it if it were divided into two houses instead of 
seven. Keeping the good model of your neighboring country before 
your eyes you may get on step by step towards a good constitution. 
Tho' that model is not perfect, yet as it would unite more suffrages 
than any new one which could be proposed, it is better to make 
that the object. If every advance is to be purchased by filling the 
royal coffers with gold, it will be gold well employed. The king, 
who means so well, should be encouraged to repeat these assemblies. 
You see how we republicans are apt to preach when we get on 
politics. Adieu my dear friend. 

Yours affectionately, 


PrC (DLC), 


To Madame de Tesse 

Paris Feb. 28. 1787. 

If you will be so good, Madam, as to send to ray hotel any 
letters with which you will be pleased to honour and relieve me 
on my journey, Mr. Short if he is here will take care to forward 
them, and with the more care as coming from you. If he should 
not be here, they will be forwarded by a servant who has charge of 
the house. My letters will be sent to me by post twice a week. 

I have had the pleasure to learn from Mr. Berard of Lorient 
that he has our box of Magnolia and Dionseas safe; that he "will 
send it by the first Diligence; and take measures to prevent their 
being stopped or opened on the road, at the Douanes. This informa- 
tion was dated the 21st. of February, and as the Diligence is 
fifteen days on the road, we may expect them from the 7th. to the 
14th. of March. My servant will carry them to you the moment they 
arrive, as well as any other parcels of seeds or plants, should any 
others escape thru all the dangers and difficulties which beset 
them. I set out on my journey in the moment of writing this. 
It is a moment of powerful sensibility for your goodness and friend- 
ship, wherein I feel how precious they are to my heart, and with 
how affectionate an esteem & respect I have the honor to be 
Madam, your most obedient & most humble servant, 


PrC (MoSHi). 

If TJ received a letter from :MR. BERABD OF LORTENTT dated the 21st, it has not 
been found; it is probable that TJ only had in mind information received from 
Berard through Champion's letter of 21 Feb. 1787, q.v. 

To Madame de Tott 

Paris Feb. 28. 1787. 

Have you been, Madam, to see the superb picture now exhibiting 
in the rue Ste. Nicaise, No. 9. chez Mde. Drouay? It is that of 
Marius in the moment when the souldier [ente]rs to assassinate him. 
It is made by her son, a student at Rome under the care of David, 
and is much in David's manner. All Paris is running to see it, and 
really it appears to me to have extraordinary merit. It fixed me like 
a statue a quarter of an hour, or half an hour, I do [not] know 
which, for I lost all ideas of time, "even the consciousness of my 
existence." If you have not been, let me engage you to go, for I 



think it will give you pleasure. Write me your judgment on it: 
it will serve to rectify my own, which as I have told you is a bad 
one, and needs a guide. It will multiply too the occasions of my 
hearing- from you; occasions which I claim by promise, and which 
will strew some roses in the lengthy road I am to travel. That your 
road, through life, may be covered with roses, is the sincere prayer 
of him who has the honour to mingle his Adieus with sentiments of 
the most affectionate esteem and respect, Tn: JEFFERSON 

PrC (MoSHi); MS faded, illegible de Marius de M. Drouais a attire" chez 

words supplied in brackets. Mme sa Mere un concours eactraordi- 

A reproduction of the painting by naire et a paru jiiatifier 1'opinion avan- 

Drouais that all Paris was running 1 to tageuse qu'on avoit concue du talent de 

see is to be found in this volume. On 17 ce jeune Artiste sur son premier ouv- 

Mch. 1787 the Journal de Paris made rage." 
the following- comments "Lie Tableau 

To St. John de Crevecoeur 

DEAR SIR [ca, Feb. 1787] 

I return you your papers with many thinks. Monsr. de Chalut 
who has shewn me many civilities, being desirous of sending 
some packages of pictures to Charles town I advised him to send 
them by the packet from Havre to New York, and to have them 
reimbarked thence to Charles town. He asks me for a correspondent 
at New York to whom he may address them. Knowing that men 
of the same language and nation can always give the best satisfac- 
tion to each other, I will beg your permission to let them be 
addressed to your deputy at N. York. Will you be so good as 
to give me a line to him, desiring him to take the trouble of 
receiving and reshipping them? If you could send me such a line 
by the return of the bearer it would much oblige Dr Sir Your 
friend & servt TH: JEFFERSON 

RC (Ixniis St. John de Crfcvecoeur, respecting: the Wyoming massacre that 

Montesqmeu-sur-Losse, France, 1947); had been lent to the latter through TJ's 

n ,2. t **? not recorded *n SJL, but good offices (see TJ to Soules, 2 Feb. 

evidently Bitten soon after TJ re- 1787) and were also enclosed In the 

ceived back from Soules the "papers" present letter. 

From John Adams 

DEAR SIR London March 1. 1787 

I am much obliged to you for your favours of Feb. 20. and 23 
by Mr. Games, and the curious Pamphlets. 


1 MARCH 1787 

Opening a direct Communication between Paris and America 
will facilitate the Trade of the two Countries, very much, and 
the new Treaty between France and England, will promote it 
still more. John Bull dont see it, and if he dont see a Thing at 
first, you know it is a rule with him ever after wards to swear 
that it dont exist, even when he does both see it and feel it. 

I have this moment written to Messrs. Willinks and Vanstap- 
horsts to remit to you or Mr. Grand in your absence, what remains 
to be received to make up the Thousand Guineas for the Swords 
and Medals, you having before drawn for 6500 Livres tournois, 
as part of them. 

My Resolution of Quitting Europe, has been taken upon mature 
deliberation: but really upon motives of Necessity, as much at 
least as Choice. Congress cannot consistent with their own honour 
and Dignity, renew my Commission to this Court and I assure 
you, I should hold it so inconsistent with my own honour and 
Dignity little as that may be, that if it were possible for Congress 
to forget theirs I would not forget mine, but send their Commission 
back to them, unless a Minister were sent from his Britannic 
Majesty to Congress. 

As to a Residence in Holland, that Climate is so destructive 
to my health, that I could never bear it: and I am sure it would 
be fatal to her, on whom depends all the satisfaction that I have 
in Life. No Consideration would tempt me to think of removing 
to that Country with my Family. 

For a Man who has been thirty Years rolling like a stone never 
three years in the same Place, it is no very pleasant Speculation, 
to cross the seas with a Family, in a State of Uncertainty what 
is to be his fate; what reception he shall meet at home; whether 
he shall set down in private Life to his Plough; or push into 
turbulent Scenes of Sedition and Tumult; whether be sent to Con- 
gress, or a Convention or God knows what. If it lay in my 
Power, I would take a Vow, to retire to my little Turnip yard, 
and never again quit it. I feel very often a violent disposition 
to take some Resolution and swear to it. But upon the whole, it 
is best to preserve my Liberty to do as I please according to 
Circumstances . 

The approbation you express in general of my poor Volume, 
is a vast consolation to me. It is an hazardous Enterprize, and will 
be an unpopular Work in America for a long time. When I am 
dead, it may be regretted that such Advice was not taken in the 
season of it. But as I have made it early in life and all along a 


1 MARCH 1787 

Rule to conceal nothing from the People which appeared to me 
material for their Happiness and Prosperity, however unpopular 
it might be at the time, or with particular Parties, I am determined 
not now to begin to flatter popular Prejudices and Party Passions 
however they may be countenanced by great authorities. 

The Opinion you Object to p. 362, 'that Congress is not a 
legislative but a diplomatic assembly" I should wish to have con- 
sidered as a Problem, rather for Consideration, than as an opinion: 
and as a Problem too, relative to the Confederation as it now 
stands, rather than to any other Plan that may be in Contemplation 
of the States. It is a most difficult Topick, and no Man at a distance 
can judge of it, so well as those in America. If the Book Should 
be translated into french, I wish you would insert this, in a Note. 
You have laid me under great obligation, by taking the trouble to 
Secure a Good Translator. If the Thing is worth translating at 
all, it will not surely bare to loose any Thing by the Translation. 
But will not the Government proscribe 1 it? If I should get well 
home, and Spend a few Years in Retirement, I shall pursue this 
subject, somewhat further: but I hope never to be left, again, to 
publish so hasty a Production as this- A Work upon the Subject 
you mention, Nobility in general^ which I once hinted to you a wish 
to see handled at large would be too extensive and Splendid for 
my means and Forces. It would require many Books which I have 
not, and a more critical Knowledge both of ancient and modern 
Languages than at my Age a Man can aspire to. There are but 
two Circumstances, which will be regretted by me, when I leave 
Europe. One is the oppertunity of Searching any questions of this 
kind, in any books that may be wanted, and the other will be the 
Interruption of that intimate 2 Correspondence with you, which is 
one of the most agreable Events in my Life. There are four or five 
Persons here, with whom I hold a friendly Intercourse and shall 
leave with some degree of Pain but I am not at home in this 

With every affectionate and friendly Sentiment I am and shall 
be in this world and the future yours, JOHN ADAMS 

i s < f dorse(L F ? <*?? i: AMT); in W. S. Smith's hand, with differ- 
phraseology, two of which are noted below. 

1 FC reads "prohibit." 

2 FC reads "immediate." 


From Elias Hasket Derby 

SIR Salem, 1st. March, 1787 

I have the Honor of inclosing You a letter from Our mutual 
Friend the Honble. John Sullivan Esqr. President of the State of 
New Hampshire, Incloseing Copy of a Petition from me to His 
most Christian Majesty, with depositions of Captain Nichols who 
had the transacting the bussiness at Port au Prince, and Capt. 
Tibbetts who was Comander of Capt. Nichols's Vessell before she 
was conveyed to Mr. LeMaire the French Merchant there, to 
support said Petition. And many more depositions may be obtained 
purporting the same from several American Masters of Vessels 
that were present at the time. By these papers you will see the 
method taken by these People to defraud Capt. Nichols of His and 
my Interest. I will not trespass on your time and patience by coment- 
ing on the papers. I have received two papers from the West Indies, 
Copys of which I now inclose you. One a letter from Mr. LeMaire 
to Mr. Francis De la Ville Merchant Nantz dated Port au Prince 
16th. Augt. 1786, acknowledging the Debt, and directing Him 
to deliver Vessell, and Cargo, to Capt. Nichols, or to follow his 
directions relating the Interest. The other an Obligation given by 
Mr. J. Marc Barrere dated the 31st. Aug. 1786, wherein He 
obliges Himself to prosecute the Appeal, and supposes there is 
reason to think that the Judgement will be reversed, and promisses 
to hold Himself accountable to Capt. Nichols or His order for the 
same, deducting the charges that may attend the prosecution; 
compareing these two papers their Art may be seen. Le Maire is 
the first of the House and Consigns the Vessell, and Cargo to 
Messrs. De la Ville as by His letter of the 16th. Augt. 86. After she 
is Condemned, J. Marc Barrere on the 31st. day of August, 86, 
gives an Obligation to Capt. Nichols to prosecute an Appeal, and 
account with Him, or Order, for what may be recoverd. I would 
observe that Monsr. Le Maire was the man to whom Capt. Nichols 
made over his Vessel, and the only One that He put any confidence 
in, that taking alltogather there is the greatest Appearance of 
Fraud, and design, that if the Interest was recover'd the Originall 
Owners should not be benifited by it. Mr. Le Maire, or Barrere, 
or both, have had the address to keep every other paper relating 
the concern from Capt. Nichols's hand. 

J. M. Barrere's obligation shows that they promised Capt. 
Nichols to persue his claim to France, and Capt: Nichols has in- 


1 MARCH 1787 

formed me that they promised Him to write Me from Time, to 
Time of Their Doings, but I have not as yet received a line from 
them, and by what I hear from that way, I do not expect they will 
write me on the Subject. ^ 

They have all the papers, and vouchers in their possession, and 
not prosicuting the Appeal to France, I have no remedy left but by 
Petitioning His Most Christian Majesty, and for that purpose I now 
inclose to my Son Elias Hasket Derby who is now in France the 
petition to the King with the several papers accompanying it. Should 
there be any inaccuracy, in any of the Forms, or Expressions made 
use of, my Ignorance I hope will be my Apoligy. 

Presuming on your Excellencys readiness to Assist the Injured 
and Oppressed, especially a Citizen of America, I have directed 
my Son to wait on Your Excellency, and I flatter myself you will 
direct a youth unacqainted with the Etiquette of Courts, and seek- 
ing redress for an injured Father the steps properest to be taken 
to lay His complaint at His Majestys feet. 

Any Assistance you may Afford my Son in this Transaction, 
will greatly Oblige, & be highly esteemed by Your Excellency's 
most Obedient, & very Humble Servant, 


RC (DLC). Recorded in SJL as re- 
ceived 16 June 1787. Enclosures: (1) 
Sullivan to TJ, 26 Jan. 1787 (second 
letter), and its enclosures. (2) Notar- 
ized copy of Le Maire to Francis de la 
Vtlle, Port au Prince, 16 Aug. 1786 
(DLC), stating that he owes 160,000 
livres to Captain Nichols payable in 
island produce, but that on account of 
the scarcity of specie and the prohibi- 
tion against exporting- thence to a for- 
eign port anything* but molasses or 
taffia, he has decided to purchase the 
Neptune from Nichols; and that the 
vessel had been "loaded and Consigned 
to you for, and on Account of Mr. 
Nichols whose orders I desire you may 
follow with strictest sense, being- per- 
suaded that in Case markets should be 
low with you he will again reload the 
same Cargo," in which case De la Ville 
was to deliver to Nichols "the Vessel 
& Cargo in her present situation"; Le 
Maire reiterated: fit l would moreover 
observe to you that these Goods were 
shipped for his Account and Risque, my 
Debt with him being discharged by this 
Remittance. I again repeat that you 
are to hold all at his disposal." (3) 
Notarized copy of the declaration signed 
J. Marc Barrere, Port au Prince, 31 

Aug. 1786 (DLC), in which he states 
that as **the Snow Neptune Capt Va- 
vasuer formerly the Lydia Capt Richard 
Tibbets the property of Capt Ichabod 
Nichols" had been seized with her cargo 
and condemned by the admiralty coiirt 
"on Suspicion of Illicit and Contraband 
Trade,** and as there was reason to 
believe an appeal would be made to 
have the judgment nullified in France, 
he would do everything possible to have 
the judgment set aside and, if this were 
done, he would hold himself account- 
able to Nichols for the vessel and cargo. 
(4) A declaration dated at Boston, 22 
Feb. 1787, signed by John Lowell, 
Samuel Phillips, Jr., Nathaniel Gorham, 
and Elbridge Gerry, stating: "We the 
undersigners do hereby certify that "We 
are well acquainted with Elias Hasket 
Derby Esqr. of Salem and do consider 
him as one of the first Merchants in 
this Commonwealth for respectability 
and honor in his dealings, and as a 
Gentleman to whose representations or 
declarations full Credit is justly do" 
(clerk^s copy, signed by those named, 
in DLC, attested by Gov. James Bow- 
doin under the seal of the Common- 
wealth, who certified that Phillips was 
president of the Massachusetts Senate, 


1 MARCH 1787 

Gorham late president and at that time by Bowdoin, and also dated 22 Feb. 
a member of Congress, and Gerry and 1787). 
Lowell late members of Congress; signed 

From Alexander Donald 

DEAR SIR Richmond 1st. March 1787 

In the multiplicity of important business, which must take up 
your time and attention, I am almost affraid to trouble you with 
this letter. But recollecting with much satisfaction, your former 
Friendship, I trust that your good nature will pardon me for 
intrudeing upon your time, and haveing the honour of being a 
Citizen of this State, and being deeply interested in its Welfare, 
I hope you will not think me impertinent in communicateing to you 
the following information. 

In consequence of the Agreement with the Farmers General of 
France on the 24th. May last, for to recieve from 12. to 15,000 
hhds. of Tobacco over and above the quantity contracted for with 
Mr. Morris at the same prices which are paid to him, provided 
the Tobacco was sent direct from the place of its growth, in French 
or American vessels, several speculations have already been made, 
and I have lately chartered a large Ship to send to Havre de 
Grace, but I am much allarmed at being lately informed that every 
possible obstacle is thrown in the way of carrying the resolutions 
of the Committee of Berni into effect. Some cargoes have been 
refused, and those that have been accepted, has been at an in- 
feriour price to what Mr. Morris recieves for Tobacco shipt from 
the very same Rivers. I hope this information is not founded. But 
if it is, many individuals will suffer severely by their confidence, 
and it will be a great loss to the Publick, For the prices allowed 
Mr. Morris appeared so tempting, that many Gentlemen were 
induced to speculate to France. The consequence has been a very 
considerable rise in the price of Tobacco at all the lower ware- 
houses on this River, as well as at Petersburg, and upon Rappk. 
and Potowmack, from which places Mr. Alexander chiefly draws 
his quantity. He ships very little from this place, or Pages (where 
you and myself have passed some happy days). I will take the 
liberty of writeing my Partner Mr. Robt. Burton in London, that if 
there is any obstacles in the way of receiveing the Cargo of Tobacco 
which my Friends are now shipping for Havre, to apply to you for 
your Friendly and effectual interposition. For tho Mr. Morris's 
contract is at an end this year, yet if the Farmers General or their 


1 MARCH 1787 

Agents, have it in their power to evade the receiveing all Tobacco 
that does not come from Mr. Morris or his Agents your spirited 
exertions in behalf of this State and Maryland will be rendered 
nugatory, and of no effect, and the Tobacco Trade to France, must 
remain to all intents and purposes, a monopoly in the hands of Mr. 
M. and his Friends, as it has done since the conclusion of the War. 
And they may buy the inferiour qualities in this Country at any 
price they please. m m 

I will not presume to trouble you with my opinion of the Political 
situation of the United States. That you will no doubt be informed 
of by those who are more adequate to the Task, But I cannot help 
expressing great uneasyness at the disturbances in the Eastern 
States. And it gives me pain to add, that the People in this State 
will in the course of a year or two, be unable even to pay the taxes, 
unless there is a possibility of falling upon some happy plan of 
moderateing their extravagance, and encourageing their industry. 
I am sure you will blush for your Countrymen, when I assure you 
that in this, and all the other Towns in this State, we are supplied 
by our Sister States to the Eastward, with the most of our Hay, 
Cabbages, Potatoes, onions &c. and that they even send us Lime, 
Bricks, and frameing for Houses ready for setting up. Many a 
time I laugh at my Friends for their want of industry. 

Last Fall I was up in Albermarle and passed a very happy week 
with our Friend Jack Walker, and his Caret Sposa. I had the Honour 
of forwarding a letter to you lately from him. 

It would be presumptuous in me to make you an offer of my 
services here, but I beg you will do me the Justice to believe, that 
it would make me happy, if I could serve you either here or in 
London, and I can add, that my Partner's sentiments perfectly 
accord with mine. 

I am with great respect & esteem Dear Sir Your mo: obt. humb 

RC (DLC); endorsed. Recorded in wrote again. However, no such letters 

SJL as received H June 1787. are recorded in SJL or have been found. 

^ALEXANDER was Morris's agent in In the light of the politically inspired 
Virginia in the purchase of tobacco. charges of a later day concerning- TJ's 
The LETTER TO YOU from John Walker relations with Mrs. Walker ( see Ma- 
must not have been that of 4 Feb. 1786, lone, Jefferson the Virginian^ "The 
which Donald would scarcely have re- Walker Affair, 1 768-1 8O9," p. 447-51), 
ferred to as having been forwarded it is important to note that the letter of 
lately. TJ had received Walker's of 4 Feb. 1786 addressed TJ as "My Dear 
4 Feb. on 23 June 1786, and, since it Friend" and that Walker assured TJ 
spoke of the death of his daughter, it <fi Mrs. Walker . . . begs to be affec- 
is possible that TJ replied during the tionately remember'd to you and Miss 
latter part of 1786 and that "Walker Patsy." 


From Benjamin Vaughan 

SIR [ca. 1 Mch. 1787] 

I take the liberty to introduce to your acquaintance, Mr, Garnett 
of Bristol, a gentleman who is particularly recommended to me 
by my particular connection Mr, Richard Bright of Bristol, as his 
friend and a person of very good character. His object with you, 
will be to make you acquainted with an invention of his (for which 
himself and the Revd. Mr. Milton have obtained a patent here) for 
relieving friction upon the axes of wheels &c. Its simplicity will 
soon enable you to determine how far it may be useful in the 
United States; and your protection of the invention and its author, 
in case you should approve it, will give you a pleasure, which I am 
happy in being the means of bringing to your Excellency's notice. 
I have the honor to be with great respect, Your Excellency's Most 
obedient & most humble servt., BENJN. VAUGHAN 

RC (DLC); undated; endorsed. The two or three weeks past"; and from an 

date has been assigned from Short's entry in SJTL recording- the receipt of 

letter to TJ of 6 Apr. 1787 which reads an undated letter from Vaughan on 26 

in part: "A Mr. Garnett . . . brought Mch. 1787 at Aix-en-Provence (see 

some letters and left a card for you also TJ to Vaughan, 2 July 1787), 

C. W. F. Dumas to William Short 

MONSIEUR LaHaie 2e Mars 1787 

J'ai Phonneur de vous adresser Pincluse pour le CongrSs, toujours 
ouverte, ainsi que celles qui suivront, afin que S. E. M. Jefferson 
ait la satisfaction a son retour de voir ce que vous jugerez a propos 
d'en noter ou extraire pour le tenir au courant des affaires de ce 

Je suppose, Monsieur, que vous savez ce que c'est que YQuverture 
dont je parle dans Pincluse. Mais il est de mon devoir, tant envers, 
Mr. Jefferson qu'envers d'autres a qui je dois le secret de vous 
prier de me marquer tres clairement et promptement que vous le 
savez, afin que je puisse non seulement vous ecrire plus explicite- 
ment la-dessus moi-mSme, mais aussi vous adresser une Lettre 
qu'on gcrira peut-etre & ce sujet a Mr. Jefferson, pour qu'il puisse, 
ou vous, Monsieur, pendant son absence, donner connoissance au 
Congr&s du contenu par le paquebot qui partira du Havre le 25 
de ce mois. 

Veuillez me faire part des bonnes nouvelles que vous aurez 


2 MARCH 1787 

de la sant de Mr. Jefferson, et de lui faire parvenir mes voeux 
& cet gard et mes respects. Mr. Massey est-il toujours k Paris? 
II a, avec vous, les meilleurs complimens de ma famille et de^celui 
qui 'a Fhonneur d'etre, avec la plus parfaite estime et considgra- 
tion Monsieur, Votre trs-humble & trfcs obSissant serviteur 

RC (DLC: Short Papers); endorsed t 
"Dumas Mar .2.87. [received] 10." 
FC (Rijksarchief, The Hague, Dumas 
Papers; photostats in DLC). Enclosure 
(FC in same): Dumas to Jay, 27 Feb. 
1787, with a postscript added on 2 
Mch. 1787 (printed in Dipl. Corr., 
17 8 3-8 9 1 HI, 565-7); forwarded by 
Short to Jay, 21 Mch. 1787. 


L'iNCLtJSE: This was the proposal con- 
cerning the purchase of the American 
debt to France by Holland bankers (see 
TJ to Jay, 1 Feb. 1787); as translated 
and printed in Dipl. Corr., 1 783-89 y HI, 
565-6, Dumas's comment on the OTJVER- 
TURE in his letter to Jay reads: "Mr. 
Jefferson has, I know, sent to Congress 
by the last packet from Havre a most 
important proposition, which came 
through me to him; but I am ignorant 
whether it was addressed to your de- 
partment. In any case, I think it neces- 
sary to inform you, sir, that the affair, 
which will be most favorable to the 
United States, as -well as agreeable to 
France, must be carried on with the 
utmost secrecy, not only in America 
but also in Europe, especially at Amster- 
dam, at which place it is most essential 
to its success, that no one should be 
made acquainted with it, nor authorized 
by Congress to act upon it, except Mr. 
Jefferson and myself* under his orders. 
In this case, Congress would only have 
to acquiesce in a most admirable ar- 
rangement." Short was well informed 
about this matter, and when the present 
letter was received by him on 10 Mch., 
he made extracts bearing: the following 
caption: ''Extracts from M. IDumas's 
letters to Mr. Jay, taken by his request 
for the perusal of M. Jefferson"; the 
MS in -which Short recorded these ex- 
tracts of Dumas' letter of "March 2" 
also included brief extracts of Dumas* 
letters to Jay of 23 and 30 Mch. 1787 
CDLCt Short Papers). Dumas* under- 
standable injunction to secrecy was 
useless; for, ten days earlier, Otto in 
New York had reported the facts of this 
OUVERTURE to Verg-ennes: "Une com.- 
pagmie de negocians hollandois ayant 
fait transmettre au Congres un projet 

de rembourser sur le champ la dette des 
Etats unis envers la franco et de se nan- 
tir de la creance de S.M., cette assem- 
bles en a renvoye" 1'examen au Bureau 
de la tresorier. Ce Bureau, Monseig 1 - 
neur, est bien eloigne* d'approuver la 
proposition des hollandois. Dans le ra- 
port qu'il a remis au CongrSs il com- 
mence par analyser les vues que ces 
negocians peuvent avoir en se charg-eant 
d'une dette qui dans ce moment ci est 
presque desesperee. II lui paroit proba- 
ble que les hollandois n'ont fait cette 
off re que parce quails esperent se faire 
payer en denrSes et s'emparer pendant 
plusieurs anne'es d'une espece de mo- 
nopole en Amerique. Les Commissaires 
pensent que le Congrgs n*a aucun in- 
teret de chang-er la nature d'une dette 
qui a toujours e"te" reg-ardee par les 
Americains comme sacree puisqu'elle a 
ete contracted non settlement en- 
vers leur bienfaieur mais pour suppleer 
aux besoins les plus pressans de la 
confederation, qu'en transferant cette 
creance aux hollandois elle cesseroit 
d'etre aussi respectable et les peuples 
sentiroient beaucoup moins la necessite 
de se libererj qn'il est trSs heureuac 
pour le Congires d'avoir une grand 
dette a payer, parceque sans ce lien 
conunun la confederation perdroit 
bientot toute son importance par le 
refus des peuples de suvenir aux be- 
soins du irouvernement general, mais 
que la consideration des grands services 
rendus par la franco foruniroit toujours 
de puissans motifs pour disposer les 
peuples a remplir les eng-ag-emens pris 
par le CongrSs, qu'il ne paroit pas d'ail- 
leurs que S.M.F. Chret. soit instniite de 
cette proposition et qu*elle pourroit etre 
offens^e d'une demarche aussi impor- 
tante, qui devoit dans tous les cas avoir 
son approbation avant de produire 
aucun effet; que S.M. paroit avoir egard 
a la confusion actuelle des affaires en 
Amerique et qu'Elle attendra vraisem- 
blablement une epoque plus favorable 
pour demander les arreragres qui lui 
sont dus. Les Commissaires proposent 
done de rejeter entierement le projet 
des hollandois. Cette affaire, Monseig- 
neur, est encore tres secrete et ce n'est 


3 MARCH 1787 

qu'avec beaucoup de peine que j'ai pu Samuel Osgrood, Walter Livingston, and 

me procurer les details que j'ai Phon- Arthur Lee submitted their report on 

neur de Vous transmettre. Le Congres the proposal that TJ had transmitted 

n'a pas encore pris de resolution" (Otto to them in his letter of 26 Sep. 1786 

to Verg-ennes, 17 Feb. 1787; Arch. AfF. (jrcc, xxxn, 65). It may have been 

Etr., Paris, Corr. Pol., E.-U., xxxn; one of these who g-ave Otto the informa- 

Tr in DLC; endorsed as received 23 tion of the "tres secrete" nature of the 

Mch. 1787) . Two days after Otto wrote, report, 
the Commissioners of the Treasury 

C. W. F. Dumas to William Short 

MONSIEUR Lakaie 2e. Mars 1787 

Cette nuit part pour Paris Mr. le Rh. Gr. de Salm, charg6 
d'affaires les plus importantes pour cette Republique et pour la 
France. II aura la bont de vous remettre une Lettre de ma part. II 
auroit bien des choses a\ dire a S.E. Mr. Jefferson. Je Fai avert! 
qu'on 6toit absent, mais qu'il pouvoit s'ouvrir a vous en toute 
confiance, comme s'il le faisoit si Mr. Jefferson Iui-m8me. Celle-ci 
est pour vous prevenir que vous pouvez avoir la m6me confiance 
envers lui sur ce qu'il vous dira des affaires de la republique, de 
la France et de moi. J^ai Thonneur d'etre avec la plus sincere estime 
& consideration Monsieur Votre tr6s humble et tr6s-obeissant servi- 
teur C. W. F. DUMAS 

RC (DLC: Short Papers); endorsed in part: "2 March, [received] 9 [Mch.]." 
FC ( Hi jksarchief , The Haggle, Dumas Papers; photostats in DLC); several varia- 
tions in phraseology; the name of the Rhinegrave de Salm is heavily scored out. 

From Lavoisier 

MONSIEUR Paris 3. mars 1787 

J'ai 6t6 pnetr de reconnoissance en recevant avec la lettre dont 
vous m'avs honorg Le Dipldme qui me donne le titre de Membre 
de la Soci6t Philosophique de Philadelphie. Un Zdle ardent pour 
tout ce qui peut contribuer a la destruction des Erreurs et aux 
progr^s des connoissances humaines; "Une grande veneration pour 
Les grands homines qui ont rendu La Libert^ aux habitans d'une 
des plus belles parties de TUnivers, Voila les Seuls titres que 
J'avois a offrir a la Socit6. Anime depuis Longtems des mSmes 
vlies qu'elle, Je m'honorerai de Tassociation a la quelle Elle veut 
bien m'appeller. Je ferai tous mes Efforts pour na'Elever Jusqu'a 
Elle pour partager Ses nobles travaux et pour concourir avec 
Elle a tout ce qui peut rendre Les hommes meilleurs et plus 


3 MARCH 1787 

J'ai LTionneur d'etre trfcs respectueusement Monsieur Votre trfcs 
humble et tres Ob6issant Serviteur, LAVOISIER 

RC (ViWC). Recorded in SJL as received 26 Mch. 1787 at Aix-en-Provence. 

From De Saint-Paterne 

MONSIEUR A Versailles le 3. mars 1787. 

Les vertus de Mr. Washington m'ont inspire le d6sir de faire 
des vers pour son Portrait; j'ai Thonneur de vous les envoyer avec 
la lettre que je vous supplie de faire parvenir a. Messieurs les mein- 
bres du Congrgs, si vous la jugez favorablement. Je remets ma 
cause entre vos mains, et quelque soit votre jugement il ne diminuera 
rien des sentiments reconnoissants et respectueux avec lesquels j'ai 
Phonneur d'etre, Monsieur Vdtre tr6s humble et trs ob6issant 



officier de la grande Fauconnerie, 
cour des princes. 

RC (DLC); endorsed. Recorded in SJL as received 26 Mch. 1787 at Aix-en- 
Provence* Enclosures not identified. 

From Madame de Tott 

A Paris ce 4. mars 1787. 

JPai suivi Le conseil que Vous avez eu la bont de me donner. 
Monsieur; JPai t6 voir Le tableau de Mr. Drouai et J'en ai 6t 
Vraiment tonne; mais puisque Vous Voulez absolument que je 
Vous dise Les Remarques que <Tai faites, quoique Vous Soyez 
parf aitement en 6tHt de Le Juger Vous mme, et par Lre gout exquis 
que Vous avez sur tout, et par P6tendue de Vos connoissances, Je 
Vais Vous Obe'fr. Je trouve Le soldat admirable, Le ton de sa 
couleur est harmonieux et fort, son Attitude est parf aitement belle, 
parfaitement naturelle; en Un mot L'ensemble de sa personne est 
Vraiment le grand genre de L'histoire. Quant . marius, ce n'est pas 
La figure ni Le corps de marius de LTiistoire Romaine. Infiniment 
plus instruit que moi Vous aurez sans-doute t& plus frapp de La 
figure delicate et presque chStive qu'on donne & cet homme c^lfebre. 
II me semble qu'on d!t qu'il avoit une figure commune, mais trs 
caracterisfe et qu'elle approchoit plus de La erocit, que de La 
dglicatesse qu'il y a dans Le marius de Mr. Drouai, quoiqu'il lui 

5 MARCH 1787 

ait donn6 une expression trs forte. Son bras, ses Jambes et son 
Corps sont trop blancs, sa Draperie qui a des beautes est d'un ton 
de couleur trop entier, Le bras stir Lequel il est appuye* est trop 
nonchalant, trop tranquille pour Inaction de L'autre et pour L'ex- 
pression de La figure. Voila Monsieur Les deffauts que j'ai trouve" 
dans Un tableau qui est cependant fait pour produire La plus 
grande sensation et qui annonce Le plus grand talent dans son 
auteur. Permettez moi, actuellement que je Vous ai Obe'i, de Vous 
parler Un peu du plaisir que j'ai eu en Recevant une Marque de 
Votre souvenir Le Jour de Votre depart, permettez moi de Vous 
exprimer ma Reconnoissance, et de Vous Remercier de tout ce que 
Votre Lettre a dXDbligeant. L'assemblee des notables nous prive 
du plaisir de Voir Mr. de La Fayette, Mr. Short se trouve mieux a 
St. Germain qu'a Paris, et comme nous ne pouvons avoir de Vos 
nouvelles que par Fun de ses Messieurs, nous en serons privies 
Jusqu'a ce que Vous ayez La bonte de nous en donner Vous meme. 
Veuillez bien Vous Rappeller Monsieur La promesse que Vous 
nous avez faite et agr6er L' assurance de tous Les sentiments que je 
Vous ai Vous pour La Vie. 

R.C (MoSHi); unsigned; endorsed: "Tott Mde. de." Recorded in SJL as received 
26 Mch. 1787 at Aix-en-Provence. 

From Gaudenzio Clerici 

SIR Novara the 5th. March 1787 

I hope the temperature of the air of Provence has made you 
less sensible of the inconstancy and gloominess of the winter, Tho% 
I must not tell You, Sir, that it is but a weak participation that 
Provence makes of the serenity and mildness of an Italian Climate. 
Pardon my impertinence, Sir. "Will you resist the temptation? You 
have but a step, Sir, from Aix to the Garden of Europe, and to the 
Country of Brutus and Cicero. "Will you have nothing to say from 
your own observations of modern Italy and of modern Italians? 
You will see they are neither so bad as Sharp and Smollet would 
have made their Countrimen believe, nor so good as I wished once 
at annapolis to represent them to you. Come, Sir, give an impartial 
look, and let a philosophical tear drop wherever you see Miseries 
and Wretchedness multiplied by the hand of Oppression. Oh! 
How often you will turn your thoughts upon the Land of Cabot 
and mutter to your Countrymen O fortunati nimium ec:! 

In truth, a little we had of that. Too much I have seen on the 


6 MARCH 1787 

other side of the great water: we should both countries in my 
opinion be better. I do not know whether too much Liberty is not 
worse than too little to live in society. 

I saw my mother and my friends, who received me with a mixt 
of joy and wonder to see me back from that '^Undiscovered 
Country" from whose bourn, according to their notion no traveller 
returns. They are never satisfied to hear me talk of americans and 
american Liberty. When I tell them that america is the Country 
that produces and makes Philosophers, and that the generality of 
the inhabitants know better men and books than we do, they say 
it savours of a Paradox but they believe [it] at last to be a fact. I 
shall not trouble you as often I would wish with my letters for I 
know your affairs will not permit you to extend your correspondence 
to mere matters of Curiosity and compliments. Although I flatter 
myself to receive the honor of a line from you, Sir, to know your 
State of Health since your change of Climate, give me leave in the 
mean time with all possible candor to express my ambition to 
continue the honor of being what I always prided to be since the 
happy moment of my being acquainted with You, Sir, Your very 
respectful Sert., GAUDENZIO CLERIC i 

ES. I request to direct Turin pour Novare. 

RC (DL,C)j endorsed. Recorded in SJL as received 26 Mch. 1787 at Aix-en- 

To Visly 

[Dijon, 6 Mch. 1787. Under this date in TJ's rough journal of his 
journey through Southern France and Italy (CSmH) there is an entry 
reading: "wrote Presdt. de Visly letter recommendation Havward " Not 

From De Guichen 

MONSIEUR a morilais ce 7 mars 1787 

Je recois avec la plus vive sensibilittg, la lettre dont votre excel- 
lance a bien voullu m'honnorer; et m'annoncer la grace que MM. 
de la Societte- philosophique de philadelphie ont eu la bontg de 
madmettre membre de leur tres respectable socigttg. Je sens Mon- 
sieur tout le prix d'une favoeur aussi particulliere; que mes faibles 
tallants ne me permettoit pas d'esperer; et aux quels je ne puis 
supleer, que par les sentiments de la plus parffaicte reconnaiscance, 


8 MAR CH 1787 

et par la scinceritt6 de la part que je prendray toujours ce qui 
poura Tintteresser. Permettes moy de suplier votre excellance, 
d'avoir la complaisance d'estre 1'interprette de la purgtte* de ses 
sentiments; et de prendre la lib^rtte* en leur presantant mes plus 
profonds respectueux hommages, de les suplier d'agreer mes tres 
humbles et parffaicts remerciments, d'un choix aussi honnorable 
que flatteur pour moy, qui ne me laisse rien si desirer que les 
ocasions de le meritter. 

Jay Fhonneur d'estre avec un tres prof ond respec de votre excel- 
lance Monsieur Votre tres humble et tres obeissant serviteur, 


RC (DLC). Recorded in SJL as received 26 Mck. 1787 at Aix-en-Provence. 

From Benjamin Hawkins 

DEAR SIR New-York 8th. March 1787 

I have had within a few days the pleasure to receive your favor 
of the 13th august. It was received at the office of Foreign affairs 
in Novr. and has been traveling since southwardly and North- 
wardly to meet with me. I have been attentive to your other 
request, and expect I shall be able to send you a few plants of the 
Dionaea muscipula some time this Spring. Mr. de la Forest who 
returns to France promises to take charge of them: and a very 
attentive worthy man is to send me a dozen or more from "Wilming- 
ton in small earthen pots. I will also send you some of the seed 
as soon as it is practicable. I shall send you by Mr. de la Forest 
the little Vocabulary of the Cherokee and Choctaw tongues: and 
such other information as I may receive. I have a letter from Mr. 
McGillivray which gives room to hope by that period he will have 
answered fully the part I allotted to him. 

W& are not here in so profound a calm as in Europe. The un- 
easinesses which have existed in Massachusets for some time past 
grew into a serious opposition to that Government, and they are 
now by the vigorous though not timely opposition of the government 
put in train of adjustment. The Southern States are more tranquil, 
and are emerging fast into order; and if the Foederal Government 
can be made efficient the revolution will be a blessing to them. 
Virginia taking the lead for this most desirable object proposed a 
convention to be in may next at Philadelphia. North Carolina and 
some other States have followed her example and Congress on the 


8 MARCH 1787 

21st* of February recommended it to all as the most probable mean 
of establishing a firm national Government. 

Spain availing herself of probable conjectures bids far to be 
the first power who will strengthen our bonds of Union. Unmind- 
ful of her true interest, she seems determined to oppose her partial 
contracted policy, to that generous reciprocity of mutual good 
offices, which being the basis of our friendship would be a never 
failing guarantee to both Nations. She has seized some of our 
boats on the Mississipi and refuses us absolutely the navigation 
thereof. Our citizens view this as an infraction of their rights. The 
States of Virginia, North Carolina, New Jersey and some others 
have expressed it in strong terms; the words of North Carolina 
are "That their delegates be instructed to oppose in the most 
unequivocal terms any attempt that may be made to barter or sur- 
render to any Nation the right of this State to the free and common 
Navigation of the Mississipi, and in case any such surrender should 
take place, that they should be instructed to protest against the 
same, as an unjust depravation of the right of this State, and one 
which Congress are not authorized to make by the articles of 

This arose from this additional circumstance. Seven* states only 
counting from the east have repealed the article in favor of the 
Missisipi in the instructions to Mr. Jay and he is now at full liberty 
to shut up or not the Missisipi and he appears to me to approve 
of it for the period of twenty years. Should this take place, I know- 
not what consequences may ensue. Our Western citizens will feel 
much alarmed for their situation. They will have less confidence in 
the justice of Congress and be disposed to carve for themselves. 
They are already numerous and daily increasing. For a -violation of 
a treaty Congress -would be immediately responsible and probably 
our western citizens might skirmish for some years -without bring- 
ing about an open rupture and -within eight or ten -we -would be 
able to support our right. What can be done? Tou may eventually 
be able to do something. If the French court had the Floridas and 
would establish an entrepot at New-Orleans or some other place 
equally convenient on a liberal scale, it would certainly be of the 
first consequence to them, in a commercial point of view, as we 
should consume their manufactures principally, in return for the 
raw materials which we could supply them with in abundance. 
With Spain somthing could be done if we had a man of great 
abilities and prudence at Madrid there to treat; here I am sure we 

[202 } 

8 MARCH 1787 

have nothing to hope as I conjecture Mr. Gardoqui has duped 
himself and consequently given such an impression of things here 
as to lead his court to be very sanguine in their expectations. And 
he does not appear to me to be a man oj a noble mind enough to 
acknowledge his error and to give that true complexion which he 
has certainly learnt to discover. 

I have used the cypher of our friend Mr. Madison. He, ex- 
pecting shortly an opportunity more certain than the present post- 
pones writing untill then, and he presents you his most respectful 
compliments. Your acquaintance Mr. Nash is dead and I am in 
Congress in his stead. 

I am with sincere esteem & regard & Friendship Dear Sir your 
most obedient hie. Servt., BENJAMIN HAWKINS 

RC (DLC); endorsed; partly in code. (PPAP), though it bears an endorse- 

Recorded in SJL as received 3 May 1787 ment in TJ's hand as follows: **This vo- 

at Aue-en-Provence. cabulary was from Benjamin Hawkins, 

THE Lnrrjs VOCABULARY OF THE probably before 1784." 


be that which bears the caption in an 1 This and the following words in 

unidentified hand: "A Vocabulary of italics are written in code and have 

the Cherokee (over hill) and Choctaw been decoded by the editors, employing 

languages communicated to !Mr. Jeflfer- Code No. 9. 
son by Col. Benjamin Hawkins" 

From Martha Jefferson 

Panthemont february [i.e., March] 8 1787 

Being disapointed in my expectation of receiving a letter from 
my dear papa, I have resolved to break so painful a silence by giving 
you an example that I hope you -will follow, particularly as you 
know how much pleasure your letters give me. I hope your wrist 
is better and 1 I am inclined to think that your voyage is rather for 
your pleasure than for your health. However I hope it will answer 
both purposes. I will now tell you how I go on with my masters. I 
have began a beautiful tune with balbastre, done a very pretty 
landskip with Pariseau, a little man playing on the violin, and 
began another beautiful landskape. I go on very slowly -with my 
tite live, its being in such ancient Italian that I can not read with 
out my master and very little with him even. As for the dansing 
master I intend to leave him off as soon as nay month is finished, 
Tell me if you are still determined that I shall dine at the abesse's 
table. If you are I shall at the end of my quarter. The kings speach 
and that of the eveque de Narbone has been copied all over the 
convent. As for Monseur he rose up to speak but sat down again 

[203 } 

8 MARCH 1787 

Un traite de commerce fonde" sur Fintre*t des deux contrees doit les 
unir de plus en plus intimement. 

Le bien moral & politique des deux nations doit 6tre Fob jet & le 
re"sultat principal de ces liaisons de commerce* 

Elles ne peuvent s'e"tendre qu'en mettant ces deux contrees a porte*e 
de mieux se connottre Tune & Fautre, qu'en rapprochant Findividu fran- 
gois de Findividu ain6ricain. 

Rien n'est done plus necessaire que de fixer un point, un centre, oil 
Ton depose tout ce qui se fait de bien dans chaque nation. Notre Societe" 
former a ce centre. 

II faut, par exemple, qu*en France on sache tout ce qui se passe dans 
les fitats-Unis, qu'on y enregistre tout ce qui s'y fait d'utile, qu'on le 
r6pande & qu'ensuite la Society emploie tout son influence pour faire 
adopter les institutions utiles. 

Tel est un des objets de la Socie"te" Gallo-Am6ricaine qu'on 6tablit H 
Paris; telles sont les considerations qui lui ont donn6 naissance. 

S'il s'en forme une semblable dans FAm6rique libre, comme il y a lieu 
de le croire, elle s'occupera du soin de r6pandre dans FAmrique, tout 
ce que le g6nie frangois peut d^couvrir d'utile, tout ce que Fadministra- 
tion frangoise peut raliser de bien. 

II seroit inutile de dtailler les avantages qui r6sulteront pour les deux 
pays de P^tablissernent de pareilles Soci6ts. 

II est plus n6cessaire d'indiquer les objets principaux dont la Socie*te* 
Gallo-Amgricaine doit s'occuper a Paris. 

Le commerce r6ciproque des deux pays, fixera sur-tout Tattention de 
la SociSte". Elle s'occupera des r eerier ches qui peuvent FSclairer, des 
moyens qui peuvent en applanir les obstacles. 

L'gtat de Tagriculture, les canaux nouveaux, les inventions utiles, les 
progre*s de 1'industrie, de Fesprit humain, de la 16gislation soit fd6rale, 
soit politique, soit civile des fitats-Unis. Voila les points les plus im- 
portans, sur lesquels se portera son attention. 

Pour les connottre, elle fera venir de FAm6rique libre, les gazettes, 
les journaux, les livres, les actes de legislation, les journaux du congrfes, 
&c. & tout ce qui pourra FSclairer. Elle ea formera un repertoire toujours 
ouvert aux hommes qui voudront ou s'instruire ou instruire le public. 

Elle se procurer a des correspondances avec les Soci6tes d'Am6rique 
qui s'occupent d'objets utiles: elle accueillera dans ses assemblies, les 
Americains que leurs affaires ameneront en France, & que leurs con- 
noissances mettront a port6e de donner des instructions. 

D'un autre c6t, pour faire connoltre sans cesse en Europe Tetat de 
FAm^rique libre, la Society prendra tous les moyens possibles pour 
faire publier d^apres Favis de Fassembl6e, soit dans les gazettes & jour- 
naux du continent, soit dans des ouvrages particuliers, soit autrement, le 
r^sultat de ses recherches. 

L'utilit6 des deux motides: voila le but de cette Societe, tout ce qui 
se rapporte a ce but, pourra fixer son attention. Elle sera compose 
dliommes de tout pays, de toute profession, de toute religion, pourvu 
qu'ils soient capables de s'occuper constamment 8t serieusement du bien 
de lliumanite. 

{205 } 

9 MARCH 1787 

RC <DLO- endorsed. Recorded in SJL as received 26 Mch. 1787 at ^-cn- 
Prolence EncloSre (DLC); prmted text, three numbered pages; endorsed by Tj 
on blank fourth page: "Warville." 

From Alexander McCaul 

^Glasgow, 9 Mch. 1787- Recorded in SJTL as received 28 Mch. 1787 
at Aix-en-Provence. Not found.] 

From Sir John Sinclair 

DEAR SIR Whitehall 9th March. 1787 

Accept the inclosed sketch of the journey I made last summer, 

I hope the strain is better, and that you have had no reason, on 
that account to quit Paris, and believe me Yours, with very sincere 

HC (DLC); endorsed. Recorded in SJL as received 26 Mch. 1787 at Aix-en- 
Provence. Enclosure not identified. 

From Madame de Tesse 

a Paris ce 11 fevrier [i.e., March] 

Comme vous semble*s m'avoir choisie, Monsieur, pour exercer 
plus particuliSrement votre bienfaisance, j'ai attendu la Reception 
de vos derni&res libralite*s pour avoir 1'honnexir de vous ecrire. 
J'ai cm ne pouvoir me presenter dMne mani&re plus avantageuse 
qu'en vous annongant que la fortune avoit second^ vos vues et que 
les plants de Caroline toient arriv6s en bon 6tat. C'est ce que je 
puis vous attester aujourdTiuy en vous offrant 1'hommage de ma 
Reconnoissance. La meilleure partie des magnolia a parfaitement 
soutenu le voyage et les dionea m*ont paru en v6ge"tation dans leurs 
petites mottes. J'en garde deux dans ma chambre & Paris, pour les 
soigner journellement moi mme, jusqu'a ce que j'aille m'etablir a 
CMville oil je vais aujourd'huy planter les autres. J'avois menac6 
Mr. Short de vous avertir s'il demeuroit toute votre absence 61oigne" 
de Paris, il a bien voulu diner hier die's moi et m'assurer que ce 
n'6toit pas le produit de sa crainte. L'avantage de passer sa 
jeunesse pr&s de vous, secondant en Lui les dons de la nature, 
j'aime a pr^sager ce qu'il sera un jour, pour sa famille et son paYs. 

II m'a trouv dans un de ces mouvemens d'efJervescence qu'excite 


12 MARCH 1787 

Fassemblee des notables. Je me suis livree devant lui a une con- 
versation un peu vive contre un homme qui n'est pas favorable a 
Mr. de la Fayette; il seroit embarasse de vous faire savoir quelque 
chose de positif sur le Rsultat des deliberations. On ne s'est encore 
explique que sur les objets d'une moindre importance. L'impQt, 
qui est sans doute le principal, peut 6tre Leve, mais ne peut tre 
approuv qu'avec la preuve qu'il est absolument ncessaire. Le 
controlleur gnral s'apuie sur ce qu'elle a 6t6 foxirnie au Roy, et 
les notables sur ce que le Roy peut 6tre tromp6 dans ce moment cy, 
comme Mr. de Calonne assure qu'il Ta &t par le compte Rendu de 
Mr. Necker, qui dmontroit que la Recette etoit au pair de la 
depense, quoiqu^au dire de Mr. de Calonne le deficit fut alors de 
trente a quarante millions. On n'entrevoit pas le moment ou le 
controlleur g6nral se d6cidera a donner ses comptes, ni les notables 
leur avis sans les avoir obtenus, ce qui fait juger que Passemblee se 
prolongera beaucoup. Si vous daign^s vous Rapeller que vous av6s 
bien voulu me souhaiter une petite terre en Virginie, je serai 
aussit6t dispensge de vous imposer mon opinion particuli^re et 
vous approuver6s que je me livre uniquement k la culture de mon 
jardin. Me. de Tott, qui a dj& eu ITionneur de vous crire, me 
charge de joindre Phonneur de tous ses sentimens S. celui de la 
vive Reconnoissance et de Pattachement profond avec lequel j'ai 
Phonneur d'etre, Monsieur, votre tres humble et tres obeissante 

RC (DLC). Recorded in SJL as received 26 Mcli. 1787 at Aix-en-Provence; entry- 
reads: '"Tesse* Mde. de. Paris. Feb. (for Mar.) 11." 

From William Short 

MY DEAR SIR Paris March 12. 1787 

This letter with the others inclosed would have been sent two 
days sooner but for a mistake in the post-days of Aix. I waited 
until Saturday -without writing because I wished to be able to 
give you some information of your map; and from Saturday until 
to-morrow the post does not set out for Aix. The engraver kept 
his word and went through all your corrections in the course of 
the last week. Saturday I went over the three first parallels of 
latitude with him at his house and found only nineteen errors. This 
gave me great hopes for the rest, but my expectations have been 
in some measure disappointed. I employed yesterday in going over 
the remainder of the map at home. The errors amount to sixty three 

207 3 

1 2 MARCH 1787 

Mr. Petit desires I will let you know that your horse, which 
you had never put to the cabriolet goes in it comme un bijou. From 
the beginning he has made no resistance and shews that he has 
been accustomed to it. Mr. Petit drives him into Paris every day 
and purposes doing the same with the other also as he has recovered 
from his sickness which was for one while alarming. He has been 
well taken care of and indeed they are all properly attended to. 

I recieved yesterday letters from Virginia via London. Among 
them is one from Mr. F. Skipwith as late as the 526. Jany. He gave 
to me a list of the acts passed at the late session of Assembly. You 
will see how numerous they are; but it is probable the number is 
not thought sufficient since the Adjournment is to the last of this 
month only. Mr. Skipwith gives me some account also of a late 
dreadful fire in Richmond. It has consumed all the houses on both 
sides the main street from Currie's dwelling house to Truehearts 
long store, whether these incluse I cannot say, but rather suppose 
not from a recollection of their situation. Mr. Skipwith adds that 
the principal sufferers among my acquaintance are Dr. Currie 
Dr. Foushee, 400 a year rent in his houses. Nothing now remains 
to this poor and perfectly honest man, who seems pursued by fate, 
but the ground on which his houses stood and his profession, with 
this a wife and family to support. I feel for his distresses really in 
the most afflicting manner. Mr. Skipwith seems also more affected 
by them, than by his own. The loss of his company is estimated 
at 5000 in goods and 2OOO in houses. Another misfortune which 
he had not heard of when he wrote me, and which I learned yester- 
day, from Mr. Ogilvy who inclosed me the letters from Virginia, 
is the failure of Mr. Eyre an old and well established merchant of 
London with whom Mr. Skipwith had entered into partnership. Mr. 
Ogilvy thinks this will irrecoverably ruin the credit of the company. 
I have never felt myself so sincerely distressed by the pecuniary 
losses of a friend. There is a something in the fortunes of those 
who have been always struggling against unfavorable circum- 
stances and situations in life that attaches us much more to them, 
than to those who, sailing under prosperous gales, have never met 
with a storm. Mr. Ogilvy adds that he has written to Mr. Skip- 
with to desire his immediate return to London in order to put his 
deranged affairs into a train of settlement. This circumstance joined 
to a paragraph in Mr. Skipwith's letter will shew you that there 
is a certainty your daughter Polly will come to Europe under his 
care. Mr. Skipwith after desiring me to inform you that your 
daughter and the family of Eppington were in perfect health, says 

C 209 } 

12 MARCH 1787 

he has lately recieved a letter from Mr. Eppes desiring he would 
take charge of Miss Polly in case it was his intention to return to 
Europe in the Spring. He adds the pleasure it would have given 
him had that been the case: but as it was not he had advised Mr. 
Eppes to send her under the care of Capt. Roberts of the Judith 
Randolph, an exceedingly prudent and gentlemanly man. I know 
not if this is the same of whom Mr. Eppes has already spoken to 


I recieved two days ago by the Rhinegrave of Salm, a letter 
from Mr. Dumas inclosing one for Mr. Jay. He tells me that this 
is sent open that I may read it and extract from it such parts as 
you would chuse to see on your return here. He desires me also to 
let him know If I know what is meant by the ouverture of which 
he speaks, in order that he may write to me confidentially on the 
subject, and send me such information as may be proper to forward 
to Congress in your absence. I have answered him in the affirma- 
tive, and have taken the extracts from his letter as he requested. 

I wrote to M. de Reyneval after your departure and have re- 
cieved the two passeports; one has been given to Petit, the other 
is inclosed to you. 

I have been forced by M. de Crevecoeur and Mr. Barrett to 
engage to press again M. de Colonia; and in consequence wrote 
him a letter this morning desiring he would give me a rendezvous. 
He was not at home, so that I have as yet no answer. I have been 
induced into this measure not so much from an expectation of 
success as to avoid the appearance of neglect and inattention in 
the eyes of those gentlemen, whom I cannot bring to believe that 
I have not the honor of being Charg6 des affaires under the com- 
mission of Congress and of course cannot be known of right to any 
of these bureaux, except as sent in the character of a common 
messenger. M. de Crevecoeur insists with obstinacy that if I do 
not succeed with M. de Colonia I must go to Versailles to pay a 
visit to the Duke of Harcourt. You will readily concieve how 
disagreeable the alternative of risquing to do an impropriety or of 
meeting the censures of M. de Crevecoeur, M. Barrett, and all the 
American merchants who are suffering or may suffer by this affair. 
I am very anxious my dear Sir to hear from you, as well to know 
whether you feel any good effects from your journey as to satisfy 
the incessant enquiries of all your friends here whom I see. None 
of whom however can be half so much attached to you either by the 
ties of affection or gratitude as Your friend & servant, 


1 3 MARCH 1787 

I saw M. de la f ayette yesterday morning at his house. He hopes 
you will not follow the example of M. de Simiane (the husband of 
the beauty of that name) who lately put an end to himself by a 
coup de pistole t at Aix. 

RC (DLC); endorsed. PrC (DLC: 
Short Papers). Recorded in SJL as re- 
ceived 26 Mch. 1787 at Aix-en-Pro- 
vence. Enclosures: In addition to the 
three from Martha (8 Mch.), Madame 
de Tott (4 Mch.), and Madame de 
Tesse (11 Mch.), Short enclosed the 
following TWELVE LETTERS from Adams 
(20 Feb. and 1 Mch.), Clerici (5 
MchO, Gordon (20 Feb.), Guichen (7 
Mch.), Jones (25 Feb.), Jones (22 
Jan.), Lavoisier (S Mch.), St. Paterne 
(3 Mch.), Sir John Sinclair (9 Mch.), 
Vaughan (ca. 1 Mch.), Warv511e (8 
Mch.). In addition to these fifteen and 
the present covering" letter, TJ also re- 
ceived on 26 Mch. at Aix one from 
Petit (17 Mch.) and another from Short 
(14 Mch.). 

For the TWO IPASSEPORTS (one of 
which Short enclosed in the present 
letter), see TJ to Vergennes, 11 Feb. 
1787. The MAGNETS were sent by 
Vaug-han (see Vaughan to TJ, 26 Jan. 
1787). The PARAGRAPH nsr MR. SKEP- 
WTTBt's LETTER reads: "I must urge my 
most aifectionate Compliments to Mr. 
Jefferson, with information that his 

Daughter and the family of Eppin^ton 
were in good health. I have lately re- 
ceived a letter from Mr, Eppes request- 
ing that I would take charge of his 
Daughter on a passage to London, 
should my Intention be to return in 
the Spring. This not being the case I 
have recommended a mode of Convey- 
ance which I imagine Mr. Eppes will 
approve of, and that is to entrust her 
with Capt. Roberts of the Judy Ran- 
dolph. This Vessel is commodious and 
safe and Roberts is an exceeding pru- 
dent, gentlemanly Man. Polly will of 
course be sent to the particular Care 
of Colo. Smith or Mr. Adams, -who will 
no doubt have an Opportunity of con- 
veying her in some eligible way to 
Paris." Skipwith enclosed the LIST OF 
THE ACTS PASSEI>, and Short evidently 
forwarded the same list in the present 
letter, though he neglected to add 
another bit of information in Skipwith's 
letter that would have interested TJ: 
"They have also voted 6,OOO towards 
compleating the Capitol, to be raised 
out of what they call the 2 

To Parent 

MONSIEUR & Lyons ce 13 me. Mars. 1787* 

Quoique Monsieur de la Tour nous a demande pour son vin de 
Monrachet plus que nous n'avions attendu, encore je me propose 
de prendre une feuillette de celui de Fannee 1782. dont nous avons 
goutg chez lui le 8me. de ce mois, au prix qu'il nous a nomm6, 
c'est a dire . 275 ft pour la feuillette. Vous avez bien voulu vous 
charger de ces petites commissions pour raoi. Je vous prie done 
Monsieur d'en acheter une de ces memes feuillettes tout de suite. 
Vous aurez la bont de tirer sur Messieurs Finguerlin et Scherer 
banquiers S. Lyons pour le montant du vin, des bouteilles,, du 
transport S. Paris, des autres petits frais, et de vos propres peines. 
Quand vous saurez que ces Messieurs auront duement pay6 la 
somme pour laquelle vous tirerez sur eux, vous aurez la bontg de 
faire mettre le vin en bouteilles, et de le faire transporter a Paris 


13 MARCH 1787 

& Padresse de Monsieur Jefferson, ministre plenipotentiaire des etats 
unis ffAmerique, & la grille des champs elysees, a Paris. Mes vins 
Octant pas sujets & payer les droits d'entrSe & Paris, il faudra que 
le voiturier les depose aux bureaux de la douane de Paris, et que 
vous le chargiez en arrivant, d'en avertir Monsieur Petit, mon 
maitre dTaotel, & fin qu'il aille les retirer de la douane. II faudra 
encore, pour que nous soyons plus surs, que vous ayez la bont 
d'ecrire un mot par poste a Monsieur Petit, pour lui avertir du jour 
que le vin doit arriver S. Paris, et de la voiture qui en sera chargS, 
et de lui remettre Pincluse avec votre lettre. Quoique je ne serai 
pas Paris qu'au mois de Mai prochain, meme je souhaite que 
nous nous profitons de la saison favorable, en y f aisant transporter 
le vin tout de suite. 

Vous avez [eu aussi] la bonte, [Monsieur, de me dire] que vous 
vous chargeriez de me faire passer des ceps de vigne & Paris. Je 
vous en prie done de vouloir bien me procurer une douzaine de 
ceps des vignes dont on fait le vin de Monrachet, et autant de celles 
du vin de Vougeau, ou de Chambertin. Vous aurez bien le soin de 
les faire tirer de ces vignobles vous meme & fin d^eviter toute pos- 
sibilitg de manquer des veritables especes. Vous les enverrez par la 
meme voiture, et les annoncerez aussi dans votre lettre & Mon- 
sieur Petit. II ne faudra pas qu'ils soient laiss^s si la douane, mais 
que le voiturier les porte chez moi & Monsieur Petit, quand il ira 
Pavertir de I'arriv6e du vin. Comme je me propose de me 
profiter de vos bonnes offices quand f aurai besoin des vins de la 
Bourgogne, je vous prierai de vous donner la peine de me detailler 
par ecrit les qualitgs et les prix de ceux de Chambertin, Vougeau, 
Romanic, Veaune, Nuys, Beaune, Pommard, Voulenay, Meursault 
et Monrachet. Je vous charge de cette peine, crainte d'avoir mal 
entendu ce que vous m'avez deja dit ladessus, et qu^en demandant 
de ces vins ci-aprs je pourrai manquer des qualitgs que j'attendrois, 
sans les renseignemens ulterieures que vous etes bien dans le cas 
de me donner. Je crois particulierement que vous m'avez dit que les 
vins des vignobles qui touchent a celles de Monrachet sont precise- 
ment de la meme qualitg des vins de Monrachet, et que Ton pour- 
roit les acheter ^ beaucoup meilleure march6. Dites moi, je vous 
prie, si je vous aurai bien entendu, et si Ton pourroit conter ladessus. 

Voila, Monsieur, bien de la peine, Mais je souhaite que vous 
vous en dedommagerez dans Teffet que vous tirerez sur Messrs. 
Finguerlin et Scherer. Je desire que vous vous contentiez, et je 
ne crains pas de me remettre vous-meme. J'aurai un veritable 


14 MARCH 1787 

plaisir & trouver des occasions de vous etre utile et je suis avec 
bien de Pestime, Monsieur, votre tres humble et tres obeissant 
serviteur, TH: JEFFERSON 

PrC (MHi); at foot of first page: Teuriet, from Saincaize; that lie should 

"Monsieur Parent, maitre tonnelier a be paid 34 livres 1O sols and not more; 

Beaune, fauxbourgs Bretonniere." En- that he would have sent vines if the 

closure: Probably TJ to Petit, 15 Mch. season had not been so far advanced, 

1787 (missing); but see TJ to Petit, but would, send some in October (MHi). 

527 Mch, 1787 and Short to TJ, 22 Mch. Parent made no mention of an enclosure 

1787. such as TJ had directed him to send 

On 9 Apr. 1787 Parent wrote to AVEC VOTBE LETTKE, a fact which may 

Petit as TJ here requests, advising him explain why TJ's letter to Petit of 15 

that the wine should reach Paris on 17 Mch. has not been found, 
or 18 Apr.; that the carrier's name was 

From William Short 

MY DEAR SIR Paris March 14. 1787 

In my letter the day before yesterday I mentioned to you the 
progress I had made with the engraver. Yesterday his part of the 
work was entirely completed. I have employed him to have 250 
copies taken for you, not knowing any better mode of having it 
done as you left no directions with me respecting it. He enquired 
of me yesterday if I was charged with the payment of these mat- 
ters &c. I have told him that his disbursements for the paper and 
striking the maps should be refunded him immediately. With 
respect to the corrections he had made I should write to know 
your intentions. I could not learn from him what would be his 
demand the nearest I could get to it was "nous arrangerons cela 
quand vous aurez des nouvelles de M. Jefferson.'* 

Young Walton has come to Paris and purposes sailing on this 
packet. I only heard of it this morning and saw him to-day for 
the first time. 

Pio was here this morning. He is quite unhappy about you and 
cannot concieve that you are in existence as you have not written 
since your departure. He is the more uneasy as you set off alone. 
He has figured it to himself as a most daring enterprise and thinks 
much danger is to [be] apprehended in it. A thousand accidents 
may happen "Ou peut tomber malade sur la route enfin" and in 
such a case what could a man do. In short I suppose nothing could 
bring him to believe himself equal to such an undertaking. Al- 
though I have not the same alarms with Monsr* de Pio yet I hope 
you do not doubt of my anxiety to hear from you, and my desire 
to know that you recieve the wished for benefit from the change 

IS MARCH 1787 

of air For be assured my dear Sir no body can be more attached 
to your health and happiness than Your sincere friend, 


RC (DLC); endorsed. PrC (DLC: Short Papers). Recorded in SJL as received 
26 Mch. 1787 at Aix-en-Provence. 

To Adrien Petit 

ILyons, IS Mch. 1787. Recorded in SJL under this date. Not found; 
but see TJ to Petit, 27 Mch.; TJ to Parent, 13 Mch.; and Short to TJ, 
22 Mch. 1787. 1 

To William Short 

DEAR SIR Lyons Mar. 15. 1787. 

So far all is well. No complaints; except against the weather- 
maker, who has pelted me with rain, hail, and snow, almost from 
the moment of my departure to my arrival here. Now and then 
a few gleamings of sunshine to chear me by the way. Such is this 
life: and such too will be the next, if there be another, and we may 
judge of the future by the past. My road led me about 60 miles 
through Champagne, mostly a corn country, lying in large hills 
of the colour and size of those in the neighborhood of Elkhill. The 
plains of the Yonne are of the same colour, that is to say, a brownish 
red; a singular circumstance to me, as our plains on the water 
side are always black or grey. The people here were ill clothed, 
and looked ill, and I observed the women performing the heavy 
labours of husbandry; an unequivocal proof of extreme poverty. In 
Burgundy and Beaujolois they do only light work in the fellds, 
being principally occupied within doors. In these counties they 
were well clothed and appeared to be well fed. Here the hills be- 
come mountains, larger than those of Champagne, more abrupt, 
more red and stony. I passed thro about 180 miles of Burgundy; 
it resembles extremely our red mountainous country, but is rather 
more stony, all in corn and vine. I mounted a bidet, put a peasant 
on another and rambled thro' their most celebrated vineyards, going 
into the houses of the labourers, cellars of the Vignerons, and mix- 
ing and conversing with them as much as I could. The same in 
Beaujolois, where nature has spread it's richest gifts in profusion. 
On the right we had fine mountain sides lying in easy slopes, in 


15 MARCH 1787 

corn and vine, and on the left the rich extensive plains of the Saone 
in corn and pasture. This is the richest country I ever beheld. I 
passed some time at the Chateau de Laye Epinaye, a seignory of 
about 15,000 acres, in vine, corn, pasture and wood, a rich and 
beautiful scene. I was entertained by Madame de Laye with a 
hospitality, a goodness and an ease which was charming-, and left 
her with regret. I beg of you to present to the good Abbs Chalut 
and Arnoud my thanks for their introduction to this family: indeed 
I should be obliged to you if you could see Monsr. de Laye and 
express to him how sensible I am of my obligation to him for the 
letter to Madame de Laye, and of her attention and civilities. I 
have been much indebted here too for the letters from the Abbes, 
tho' the shortness of my stay does not give me time to avail myself 
of all their effect. A constant tempest confined me to the house the 
first day: the second, I determined to see every thing within my 
plan before delivering my letters, that I might do as much, in as 
little time, as possible. The third and fourth have been filled up 
with all the attentions they would admit, and I am now on the 
wing, as soon as this letter is closed. I enter into these details be- 
cause they are necessary to justify me to the Abbs for the little 
time I had left to profit of the good dispositions of their friends. Six 
or seven hundred leagues still before me, and circumscribed in 
time, I am obliged to hasten my movements. I have not visited at 
all the manufactures of this place: because a knowlege of them 
would be useless, and would extrude from the memory other 
things more worth retaining. Architecture, painting, sculpture, 
antiquities, agriculture, the condition of the labouring poor fill 
all my moments. Hitherto I have derived as much satisfaction and 
even delight from my journey as I could propose to myself. The 
plan of having servants who know nothing of me, places me per- 
fectly at my ease. I intended to have taken a new one at every 
principal city, to have carried him on to serve me on the road to 
the next and there changed him* But the one I brought forward 
from Dijon is so good a one that I expect to keep him through the 
greater part of the journey, taking additionally a valet de place 
wherever I stay a day or two. You shall hear from me from Aix 
where I hope to meet letters from you giving me news both great 
and small. Present me affectionately to my friends and more par- 
ticularly to Madame de Tessg and Madame de Tott: and accept 
assurances of my perfect esteem & friendship to yourself. Adieu. 

RC (ViW); unsigned; endorsed in 18." PrC (DLC). 
part: "Jefferson March 15 [received] On trie UETTERS FROM THE ABBES 


17 MARCH 1787 

(not found), see TJ to Arnoux and to an American, as in that country they 

Chalut, 12 Apr. 1787,-Shortly after are always black or grey." Short also 

receiving the present letter, Short wrote informed Madison of Lafayette's pre- 

to James Madison: "Mr. Jefferson's occupation with the business of the 

absence preventing his writing to you Assembly of Notables and said that in 

by this Packet, I suppose it may not be a letter just received, Lafayette had 

disagreeable to you to hear of him from asked him **to let his friends in America 

other hands. He left this place the last know that he is well which by the bye 

of February, in order to see whether is not true"; and that his preoccupation 

the waters of Aix would be of service to with business prevented his writing by 

his wrist put out of place some months the favorable opportunity afforded by 

ago, and I fear badly set. I received Walton. Perhaps remembering Madi- 

a letter from him on the 15th. [sic] son's opinion of Lafayette (see notes to 

when he had got as far as Lyons. He Madison to TJ, 17 Oct. 1784), Short 

was much pleased with his journey that added: "I mention this circumstance to 

far. He had attended very particularly you Sir because I know there are none 

to the soil, agriculture, and condition of his friends south of the Potowmac, 

of the labouring poor, in Champagne, to whom he is more attached than your- 

Btirgundy, and Beaujolois. The latter self, or any whose correspondence he 

he considers as the *richest country' he values more" (Short to Madison, 23 

ever beheld. He observed in Cham- Mch. 1787 j PrC in DLC: Short 

pagne that the low grounds were of a Papers), 
brownish red a singular circumstance 

From Adrian Petit 

[Paris, 17 Mch. 1787. Recorded in SJL 26 Mch. 1787 as received at 
Aix-en-Provence. Not found.] 

From John Ledyard 

SlR St. Petersbourg March 19th. 1787 

It will be one of the remaining pleasures of my life to thank 
you for the many instances of your friendship to me and wherever 
I am to pursue you incessantly with the tale of my gratitude. 

If Mr. Barclay should be at Paris let him rank with you as my 
next friend: I hardly know how to estimate the goodness of the 
Marquis la Fayette to me, but I think a french nobleman of the 
first character in his country never did more to serve an obscure 
citizen of another than the Marquis has done for me: and I am as 
sure that it is impossible (without some kind of soul made express 
for the purpose) that an obscure citizen in such a situation can be 
more gratefull than I am: may he be told so and with my Compli- 
ments to hs Lady. My Compliments wait on Mr. Short, Com- 
modore Jones and Colo. Franks if at Paris-with thanks for their 
favours also. If I was sure Mr . Barday wag ^ parig l ^^ ^ 

him, for no man less acquainted with him esteems him more than 
1 do, believing verily that of such as him consisteth the kingdom 

1 9 MARCH 1787 

of heaven. I cannot tell you by what means I came to Petersbourg, 
and hardly know by what means I shall quit it in the further 
prossecution of my tour round the -world by Land: if I have any 
merit in the affair it is perseverence, for most severely have I been 
buffeted, and yet still am I even more obstinate than before and 
fate as obstinate continues her assaults. How the matter will 
terminate I know not: the most probable Conjecture is that I shall 
Succeed, and be kicked round the world as I have hitherto been 
from England thro Denmark, thro Sweeden, thro Sweedish lapland, 
Sweedish finland and the most unfrequented parts of Russian 
finland to this Aurora Borealis of a City. I cannot give you a his- 
tory of myself since I saw you, or since I wrote you last: however 
abridged, it would be too long: upon the whole, mankind have 
used me well, and tho I have as yet reached only the first stage 
of my journey, I feel myself much indebted to that urbanity which 
I always thought more general than many think it to be, and was 
it not for the villianous laws and bad examples of some Govern- 
ments I have passed thro, I am persuaded that I should have been 
able to have given you still better accounts of our fellow creatures. 

But I am hastning to those countries where goodness if natural 
to the human heart will appear independant of example and furnish 
an Annecdote of the character of man not unworthy the attention 
of him who wrote the declaration of American Independence. 

I did not hear of the death of Monsieur de Vergenes untill I 
arived here. Permit me to express my regret at the loss of so great 
a man and of so good a Man. Permit me also to congratulate you 
as the minister of my Country on account of the additional com- 
mercial privileges granted by france to america and to send you 
my ardent wishes that the friendly spirit which dictated them may 
last forever: I was extremely pleased at reading this account, and 
to heighten the satisfaction I felt I found the name of la Fayette 
there. There was a report a few days ago of which I have heard 
nothing since, 1 that the french ships under the Command Capt. 
Lapereux had arived at Kamchatka. There is an equipment now on 
foot here for that ocean and it is first to -visit the N. W. Coast of 
America: it is to consist of four ships. This and the equipment that 
went from here 112 months since by land to Kamchatka are to coop- 
erate in a design of some sort in the northern pacific Ocean the 
lord knows what nor does it matter what with me nor need it 
with you, or any other Minister or any Potentate southward of 
50 of Latitude. I can only say that you are in no danger of having 
the luxurious repose of your charming climates disturbed by a 


19 MARCH 1787 

second incursion of either Goth Vandal Hun or Scythian. I dined to 
day with Doctr. Pallas Professor of Natural history &c. &c. an 
Accomplished Sweed: my friend: has been all thro European and 
asiatic Russia. I find the little french I have of infinite service to 
me: I could not do with out it. It is a most extraordinary language: 
I believe that wolves, rocks, woods and snow understand it, for 
I have addressed them in it and they have all been very complaisant 
to me. 2 But I dined in a shirt that I had worn four days* I have but 
tivo: and I suppose when I write you next I shall have none. 

We had a Scythian at table that belongs to the royal society of 
Physicians here: the moment the savage knew me, and my designs 
he became my friend and it will be by his generous assistance 
joined with that of Doctr. Pallas that I shall be able to procure a 
royal passport without which I can not stir: but this must be done 
thro the application of the french Minister (there being no Ameri- 
can one here) and to whose secretary I shall apply with Dr. Pallas 
to morrow: and beg liberty to Make use of your name and the 
Marquis la f ayettes as to my character. As all my Letters of recom- 
mendation have been English and as I have been hitherto used by 
them with the greatest kindness and respect I first applied to the 
English Embassy: but without success: the ostensible apology 
was that the present political moment between England and Russia 
would make it disagreeable for the English minister to ask any 
favour: but I saw the reason the true reason in the specula of the 
secretarys eye and so damn his eyes which in this case particu- 
larly I concieve to be polite language: I hate ill nature and pity a 

Sir, I have waited on the Secretary of the french embassy who 
will dispatch my Letter with one of his accompanying it to the Count 
Segur to morrow morning. I will endeavour to write you again 
before I leave Petersbourg and give you some further accounts of 
myself.- In the meantime I wish you health. I have wrote a very 
short Letter to the Marquis. Adieu! 

I have the honor to be with respect & friendship Sr. Your much 
obliged & most obt. & most hbl. Servt., LEDYARD 

) v a 1^ S f d ^ and ^ end . rSedi Tr (Mrs ' Jane Ledyard Remington, 
N.Y., 1951). Recorded in SJL as received 25 May 1787 at Bordeaux, 

1 Preceding: seven words are not in Tr. 

2 This and preceding- sentence are not in Tr 


From James Madison 

N. York. March 19th. 1787. 
was of the 15th. of Feby, and -went by the packet. This 

England in the care of a French, gentleman who will 
to the care of Mr. Adams* 

>ointments for the Convention go on auspiciously. Since 
Borgia, S. Carolina, N. York, Massts. and N. Hampshire 

into the measure. The first and the last of these States 
lissioned their delegates to Congress, as their representa- 
nvention. The deputation of Massts. consists of Messrs. 
)ana. King, Gerry, and Strong. That of N. York, Messrs. 

Yates and Lansing, That of S. Carolina, Messrs. J. 
Laurens, Pinkney (General) Butler, and Chas. Pinkney 
aber of Congress, The States which have not yet ap- 
e R. Island, Connecticut, and Maryland. The last has 
sures which prove her intention to appoint, and the two 
s not doubted will follow the example of their neighbours, 
-n from the Governor of Virginia that Mr. Henry has 
is place in the deputation from that State, and that Genl. 

put into it by the Executive who were authorised to 
^es. The Governor, Mr. Wythe and Mr. Blair will attend, 
hopes are entertained of Col. Mason's attendance. Genl. 
Dn has prudently authorised no expectations of his at- 
but has not either precluded himself absolutely from 
nto the field if the crisis should demand it. What may 
ult of this political experiment cannot be foreseen. The 

which present themselves are on one side almost suf- 
dismay the most sanguine, whilst on the other side the 
L are compelled to encounter them by the mortal diseases 
isting constitution. These diseases need not be pointed 

who so well understand them. Suffice it to say that they 1 
ssent marked by symptoms which are truly alarming, 
e tainted the faith of the most orthodox republicans, and 
illenge from the votaries of liberty every concession in 
table Government not infringing fundamental principles, 
ly security against an opposite extreme of our present 

I think myself that it will be expedient in the first place 
foundation of the new system in such a ratification by the 
^mselves of the several States as will render it clearly 
t to their Legislative authorities. 2dly. Over and above 

19 MARCH 1787 

the positive power of regulating trade and sundry other matters 
in which uniformity is proper, to arm the federal head with a 
negative in all cases -whatsoever on the local legislatures. Without 
this defensive power experience and reflection have satisfied me 
that however ample the federal powers may be made, or however 
Clearly their boundaries may be delineated, on paper, they will be 
easily and continually baffled by the Legislative sovereignties of 
the States. The effects of this provision would be not only to 
guard the national rights and interests against invasion, but also 
to restrain the States from thwarting and molesting each other, 
and even from oppressing the minority within themselves by paper 
money and other unrighteous measures which favor the interest 
of the majority. In order to render the exercise of such a negative 
prerogative convenient, an emanation of it must be vested 8 in some 
set of men within the several States so far as to enable them to 
give a temporary sanction to laws of immediate necessity. 4 Sdly, 
to change the principle of Representation in the federal system. 
Whilst the execution of the Acts of Congress depends on the 
several legislatures, the equality of votes does not destroy the in- 
equality of importance and influence in the States, But in case of 
such an augmentation of the federal power as will render it efficient 
without the intervention of the Legislatures, a vote in the general 
Councils from Delaware would be of equal value with one from 
Massts. or Virginia. This change therefore is just. I think also 
it will be practicable. 5 A majority of the States concieve that they 
will be gainers by it, It is recommended to the Eastern States by 
the actual superiority of their populousness, and to the Southern by 
their expected superiority. And if a majority of the larger States 
concur, the fewer and smaller States must finally bend to them. 
This point being gained, many of the objections now urged in the 
leading States against renunciations of power will vanish. 4thly. 
to organise the federal powers in such a manner as not to blend 
together those which ought to be exercised by separate depart- 
ments. The limited powers now vested in Congress are frequently 
mismanaged from the want of such a distribution of them. What 
would be the case, under an enlargement not only of the powers, 
but the number, of the federal Representatives? These are some of 
the leading ideas which have occurred to me, but which may appear 
to others as improper, as they appear to me necessary. 

Congress have continued so thin as to be incompetent to the 
despatch of the more important business before them. We have 


19 MARCH 1787 

at present nine States and it is not improbable that something 
may now be done. The report o Mr. Jay on the mutual violations 
of the Treaty of peace will be among the first subjects of de- 
liberation. 6 He favors 7 the British claim oj interest but refers the 
question to the court. The amount of the report -which is an able 
one is that the treaty should be put in force as a law and the 
exposition of it left like that of other laws to the ordinary tribunals. 
The Spanish project sleeps. A perusal of the attempt of se-oen 
states to make a netv treaty by repealing an essential condition of 
the old satisfied me that Mr. Jay^s caution would revolt at so 
irregular a sanction. A late accidental conversation with Guardoqui 
proved to me that the negociation is arrested. It may appear strange 
that a member of Congress should be indebted to a foreign minister 
for such information. Tet such is the footing on -which the in- 
temperance of party has put the matter that it rests wholly with 
Mr. Jay how far he will communicate -with Congress as well as 
ho-w far he -will negociate -with Guardoqui. But although it appears 
that the intended sacrifice of the Missisipi will not be made, the 
consequences of the intention and the attempt are likely to be very 
serious. I have already made known to you the light in which the 
subject was taken up by Virginia. Mr. Henry's disgust exceeded 
all measure and I am not singular in ascribing his refusal to 
attend the Convention to the policy of keeping himself free to 
combat or espouse the result oj it according to the result of the 
Missisipi business among other circumstances. North Carolina 
also has given pointed instructions to her delegates. So has New 
Jersey. A proposition for the like purpose was a jetv days ago 
made in the legislature of Pennsylvania but went off without a 
decision on its merits. Her delegates in Congress are equally 
divided on the subject. The tendency of this project to foment 
distrusts among the Atlantic states at a crisis -when harmony and 
confidence ought to have been studiously cherished has not been 
more -verified than [by] its predicted effect on the ultra-montane 
settlements. I have credible information that the people Irving on 
the Western -waters are already in great agitation and are taking 
measures, for uniting their consultations. The ambition of in- 
dividuals will quickly mix itself with the original motives of re- 
sentment and interest. A communication -will gradually take place 
-with their British neighbors. They will be led to set up for them- 
selves, to seise on the -vacant lands, to entice [emigrants] 8 by boun- 
ties^ and an exemption from federal burdens, and in all respects 
to play the part of Vermont on a larger theatre. It is hinted to me 


19 MARCH 1787 

that British partisans are already feeling the pulse of some of the 
Western settlements. Should these apprehensions not be imaginary 
Spain may have equal reason with the United States to rue the 
unnatural attempt to shut the Missisipi. Guardoqui has been ad- 
monished of the danger and I believe is not Insensible to it the? he 
affects to be otherwise and talks as if the dependance of Britain on 
the commercial favors oj his court would induce her to play into 
the hands of Spain. The eye of France also can not Jail to -watch 
over the Western prospects. I learn from those who confer here 
-with Otto and de la forest that they favor the opening oj the Mis- 
sisipi disclaim [ing] 8 at the same time any authority to speak the 
sentiments of their court. I find that the Virginia delegates during 
the Missisipi discussions last fall entered into -very confidential 
interviews -with these gentlemen* In one of them the idea -was com- 
municated to Otto of opening the Missisipi for exports but not 
for imports and of giving to France and Spain some exclusive 
privileges in the trade. He promised to transmit it to Vergennes to 
obtain his sentiments on the whole matter and to communicate 
them to the delegates. Not long since Grayson called on him and 
revived the subject. He assured G that he had recieved no 

answer [from] 8 France and signified his -wish that you might pump 
the count de Vergennes observing that he -would deny to you his 
h&ving recieved any information from America. 9 I discover thro 
several channels that it -would be very grateful to the French poli- 
ticians here to see our negociations "with Spain shifted into your 
hands and carried on under the mediating auspices of their court. 

Van Berkel has remonstrated against the late acts of Virginia 
giving privileges to French wines and brandies in French bottoms^ 
contending that the Dutch are entitled by their treaty to equal 
exemptions with the most favored nation without being subject to 
a compensation for them. Mr. Jay has reported against this con- 
struction but considers the act of Virginia as violating the treaty. 
First because it appears to be gratuitous, not compensatory on the 
face of it. Secondly because the states have no right to form tacit 
compacts with foreign nations. No decision of Congress has yet 
taken place on the subject. 

The expedition under General Lincoln against the insurgents 
has effectually succeeded in dispersing them* "Whether the calm 
which he has restored will be durable or not is uncertain. From 
the precautions taking by the Government of Massts. it would 
seem as if their apprehensions were not extinguished. Besides 
disarming and disfranchising^ for a limited time those who have 


1 9 MARCH 1787 

been in arms, as a condition of their pardon, a military corps is 
to be raised to the amount of 1000, or 1500 men, and to be sta- 
tioned in the most suspected districts. It is said that notwithstand- 
ing these specimens of the temper of the Government, a great 
proportion of the offenders chuse rather to risk the consequences of 
their treason, than submit to the conditions annexed to the 
amnesty, that they not only appear openly on public occasions but 
distinguish themselves by badges of their character, and that this 
insolence is in many instances countenanced by no less decisive 
marks of popular favor than elections to local offices of trust and 

A proposition is before the Legislature of this State now sitting 
for renouncing its pretensions to Vermont, and urging the ad- 
mission of it into the Confederacy. The different parties are not 
agreed as to the form in which the renunciation should be made, 
but are likely to agree as to the substance. Should the offer be 
made, and Vermont should not reject it altogether I think they will 
insist on two stipulations at least, 1st. that their becoming parties 
to the Confederation shall not subject their boundaries, or the 
rights of their citizens to be questioned under the 9th. art: 2dly. 
that they shall not be subject to any part of the public debts already 

The Geographer and his assistants have returned surveys on 
the federal lands to the amount of about 8OO,OOO acres which it 
is supposed would sell pretty readily for public securities, and 
some of it lying on the Ohio even for specie. It will be difficult how- 
ever to get the* 2 proper steps taken by Congress, so many of the 
states having now lands of their awn at marklet]* It is supposed 
that this consideration had some share in the zeal for shutting the 
Missisipi. Ne*w Jersey and some others having no -western land 
which favored this measure begin now to penetrate the secret. 

A letter from the Governor of Virga. informs me that the 
project of paper money is beginning to recover from the blow 
given it at the last Session of the Legislature. // Mr. Henry 13 
espouses it of -which there is little doubt I think an emission "will 
take place. The Governor mentioned the death of CoL A. Gary 
Speaker of the Senate. 

This letter will be accompanied by another inclosing a few 
Peccan nuts. When I sent the latter to the Gentleman who is 
charged with it, I doubted whether I should be able to finish this 
in time, and I only succeed by having written to the last moment. 
Adieu. Yrs. Afy., Js. MADISON JR 

223 } 

19 MARCH 1787 

RC (DLC: Madison Papers); en- 
dorsedj partly in code. Tr (VitT); ex- 
tract, partly in the hand of N. P. Trist 
and partly in an unidentified hand; en- 
dorsed: "Madison, James N.Y. Mar. 19. 
1787. To Thomas Jefferson. Copied 
from the original at Montpellier, for, 
and compared by, N. P. Trist Oct. 1. 
1834." Recorded in SJL as received 16 
June 1787 at Paris. 

TION with Gardoqui, as shown by Madi- 
son's lengthy memorandum on it, took 
place on 13 Mch. 1787. Madison wrote: 
"Called with Mr. Bingham to-day on 
Mr. Guardoqui, and had a long conver- 
sation touching: the Western ^ country, 
the navigation of the Mississippi, and 
commerce, as these objects relate to 
Spain and the United States, Mr, Bing- 
ham opened the conversation with 
intimating' that there was reason to 
believe the Western people were exceed- 
ingly alarmed at the idea of the pro- 
jected treaty which was to shut up the 
Mississippi, and were forming commit- 
tees of correspondence, Sec., for uniting 
their councils and interests. Mr. Gardo- 
qui, with some perturbation, replied, 
that . . . they mistook their inter- 
est. . . , n (H, D. Gilpin, ed., Papers of 
James Madison* n, 590-1.) The conver- 
sation was not only long, but ranged 
over all aspects of the Mississippi ques- 
tion. Gardoqui regretted the Virginia 
resolutions, and said that troops and 
stores would certainly be sent to rein- 
force New Orleans in consequence; he 
said that he **had not conferred at all 
with the Minister of Foreign Affairs 
since October, and did not expect to 
confer again." There followed a long 
discussion of riparian rights under inter- 
national law, and Gardoqui "was re- 
minded of the doctrine maintained by 
Spain in 16O8, as to the Scheldt." 
Madison's memorandum concluded: 
* 6 When we rose to take leave, he begged 
us to remember what he had said as 
to the inflexibility of Spain on the point 
of the Mississippi, and the consequences 
to America of her adherence to her 
present pretensions" (same, p. 592-4). 
If, as Madison endeavored to convey to 
TJ, it was strange that A MEMBER OF 

TION, his own memorandum of the 
conversation proves that, if this was a 


so also was the interference of mem- 
bers of Congress in matters properly 
under the direction of the secretary for 

foreign affairs. For the conversation 
with Gardoqui was scarcely ACCIDEN- 
TAL, as proved by Madison's memoran- 
dums it was a part of the pattern by 
which delegates in Congress, particu- 
larly those from Virginia, had been 
for some time carrying on VERY CON- 
DE LA FOREST in an effort to enlist Ver- 
gennes' protection and influence in the 
conduct of negotiations with Spain, an 
object which Madison here supported 
by transmitting the suggestion that TJ 


GENNES. See note to TJ to Ramsay, 27 
Oct. 1786, and note to Otto to TJ, 14 
Feb. 1787. On 2O June 1787 TJ ac- 
knowledged the receipt of two letters 
from Madison of 18 and 19 Mch. 1787, 
which led Gaillard Hunt into the error 
of supposing that two different extracts 
from the present letter as printed by 
Gilpin, Papers of Madison, n, 622-7, 
and in Letters and Other Writings of 
James Madison^ I, 284-6, -were in fact 
separate letters; Hunt therefore printed 
them separately and assigned to the 
latter (which embraced the first two 
paragraphs of the present letter) the 
date of "March 19th [18th], 1787" 
(Madison, Writings^ ed. Hunt, n, 324-8, 
328-33); the extract published by Gil- 
pin includes almost all of the present 
text not hi Letters, but omits the final 
paragraph in which Madison stated 

PANIED BY ANOTHER. This other letter, 
as shown by TJ's acknowledgment and 
by the entry in sjx, under 16 June 
reading "Madison Jas. N.Y. Mar. 19. 
18 (with Paccans)," was actually dated 
18 Mch. 1787. It was probably only a 
note written to accompany the few 
pecans sealed up in it (see Madison to 
TJ, 6 June 1787); it has not been 

1 At this point Madison deleted the 
following: "have proceeded to such a 

2 This word in Tr is keyed to a mar- 
ginal note in Trist's hand, which reads: 
"That is to say, Monarchy. This is the 
obvious meaning. Moreover, in reading 
the letter to me to-day, Mr. Madison 
made a parenthetical remark to that 
effect. N.P.T. Montpellier Oct. 2. '34." 

s Madison deleted "somewhere" at 
this point. 

* This sentence in Tr is keyed to a 
marginal note in Trist's hand, -which 
reads: "In reading this Mr. Madison 
paused here; and said he had subse- 


1 9 MARCH 1787 

quently satisfied Himself that there 
would be difficulties, perhaps insuper- 
able, in reducing- this idea to practice." 

s Tr ends at this point, begins with 
the first sentence of this paragraph, 
and omits all of the passage reading 
"The first and the last of these States 
, . . but has not either precluded himself 
absolutely from stepping- into the field 
if the crisis should demand it," an omis- 
sion accompanied by the following 1 note 
in Tr: "(Here follow details about the 
elections and members}." 

s At this point Madison deleted a 
sentence which seems to read: "He 
favors the claim of interest [. . .]." This 
was evidently done contemporaneously, 
for Madison then decided to put the 
statement in code. 

7 This and the following- words in 
italics, unless otherwise noted, are writ- 
ten in code and most of them were 
decoded interlineally by TJ. However, 
TJ occasionally failed to write down the 
decoding of familiar symbols (for 
example, he omitted the phrase 46 in 
Congress") and Madison, late in life 
when he had received his letters back 
from Monticello after TJ's death, sup- 
plied the missing -words so as to com- 
plete the decoding-; see the following 
notes for other changes by Madison. 

Their decoding has been verified by the 
editors, employing Code No. 9. 

s The text in brackets (supplied) 
was inserted interlineally by Madison 
late in life; he had omitted both the 
text and the corresponding code sym- 
bols, though TJ could easily understand 
from the context what the -writer in- 
tended. In one instance ("from" before 
'Trance") Madison rectified the omis- 
sion by writing- the word above a code 
symbol as if the two corresponded, 
whereas they were wholly unrelated. 

s The preceding fourteen words are 
underscored in MS; they are also in 
code and were decoded interiineally by 

10 The words <c in French bottoms" 
are underscored in MS; they are also in 
code and were decoded interlineally by 

11 This word underscored in MS, but 
not written in code. 

12 Neither TJ nor Madison decoded 
the symbol for this word, Madison 
evidently preferring to have the text 
read as if the article had been inten- 
tionally omitted. 

is Madison wrote only the symbol for 
"H" and TJ so decoded it, but late in 
life Madison completed the name 

To Jose da Maia 

Nismes 19me. Mars 

Je profile Monsieur du moment de mon arrivee l Nismes pour 
vous en faire part. Je resterai ici 3. ou 4. jours, apr6s lesquels je 
partirai pour Avig[non], Marseilles], &c. Pen serais enchant^ 
si ce rapprochement de vous me donnera le moyen de vous voir ici. 
Dans ce cas ayez la bont de demander seulement le Voyageur 
etranger qui est arriv6 d'aujourdhui. C'est en simple particulier 
que je m'annonce et qu'on me connoit. Peutetre que vous trouverez 
commode de vous loger dans le meme hotel. Ce me sera d'autant 
plus agreable qu'il me mettra plus a portee de m'entretenir avec 
vous et de vous assurer des sentiments &c. 

Dft (ViWC); without indication of In TJ*s list of names and addresses 
addressee or the year; with numerous of persons he "wished to see or consult 

on Ms journey (CSmH), there is an 
entry reading: * e Montpelier. M. Maya, 
chez M. Franc a la petite Ste. Anne." 
See TJ to Jay, 4 May 1787. 

abbreviations and some deletions; on 
margin TJ wrote: "que vous trouverez 
necessaires M. 21.9bre." a phrase 
taken from Da Maia's letter to TJ of 
21 Nov. 1786. Not recorded in SJL. 


To Madame de Tesse 

Nismes. Mar. 2O. 1787. 

Here I am, Madam, gazing whole hours at the Maison quarrge, 
like a lover at his mistress. The stocking-weavers and silk spinners 
around it consider me as an hypochondriac Englishman, about 
to write with a pistol the last chapter of his history- This is the 
second time I have been in love since I left Paris. The first was with 
a Diana at the Chateau de Laye Kpinaye in the Beaujolois, a 
delicious morsel of sculpture, by Michael Angelo Slodtz. This, 
you will say, was in rule, to fall in love with a fine woman: 1 but, 
with a house! It is out of all precedent! No, madam, it is not with- 
out a precedent in my own history. While at Paris, I was violently 
smitten with the hotel de Salm, and used to go to the Thuileries 
almost daily to look at it. The loueuse des chaises, inattentive to 
my passion, never had the complaisance to place a chair there; 
so that, sitting on the parapet, and twisting my neck round to see 
the object of my admiration, I generally left it with a torticollis. 
From Lyons to Nismes I have been nourished with the remains of 
Roman grandeur. They have always brought you to my mind, 
because I know your affection for whatever is Roman and noble. 
At Vienne I thought of you. But I am glad you were not there; 
for you would have seen me more angry than I hope you will ever 
see me- The Pretorian palace, as it is called, comparable for it's 
fine proportions to the Maison quarrge, totally defaced by the Bar- 
barians who have converted it to it's present purpose; it's beautiful, 
fluted, Corinthian columns cut out in part to make space for Gothic 
windows, and hewed down in the residue to the plane of the 
building. At Orange too I thought of you. I was sure you had seen 
with rapture 2 the sublime triumphal arch 3 at the entrance into the 
city. I went then to the Arenas. Would you believe Madam, that 
in [this 18th. centurly,* in France, und[er the reign of Louis 
XVI, they] are [at this mo]ment pulling down the circular wall 
of this superb remain [to pave a ro]ad? And that too from a hill 
which is itself an entire mass of stone just as fit, and more accessi- 
ble. A former Intendant, a Monsr. de Baville has rendered his 
memory dear to travellers and amateurs by the pains he took to 
preserve and to restore these monuments of antiquity. The present 
one (I do not know who he is) is demolishing the object to make 
a good road to it. I thought of you again, and I was then in great 
good humour, at the Pont du Gard, a sublime antiquity, and [well] 

20 MARCH 1787 

preserved. But most of all here, where Roman taste, genius, and 
magnificence excite ideas analogous to yours at every step, I could 
no longer oppose the inclination to avail myself of your permission 
to write to you, a permission given with too much complaisance by 
you, taken advantage of with too much indiscretion by me. 5 
Madame de Tott too did me the same honour. But she being only 
the descendant of some of those puny heroes who boiled their 
own kettles before the walls of Troy, I shall write to her from a 
Graecian, rather than a Roman canton; when I shall find myself 
for example among her Phocean relations at Marseilles. Loving, 
as you do Madam, the precious remains of antiquity, loving archi- 
tecture, gardening, a warm sun, and a clear sky, I wonder you have 
never thought of moving Chaville to Nismes. This is not so 
impracticable as you may think* The next time a Surintendant des 
bailments du roi, after the example of M, Colbert, sends persons 
to Nismes to move the Maison [Car]ree to Paris, that they may 
not come empty-handed, desire them to bring Chaville with them 
to replace it. A propos of Paris. I have now been three weeks from 
there without knowing any thing of what has past. I suppose I 
shall meet it all [at Aix, where] I have directed my letters to be 
lodged poste restante. My journey has given me leisure to reflect 
on this Assemble des Notables. Under a good and young king 
as the present, I think good may be mfade of it.] I would have the 
deputies then by all means so conduct themselves as [to encorage] 
him to repeat the calls of this assembly. Their first step should 
be to get th[emselves] divided into two chambers, instead of seven, 
the Noblesse and the commons separately. The 2d. to persuade the 
king, instead of chusing the deputies of the commons himself, to 
summon those chosen by the people for the Provincial administra- 
tions. The 3d. as the Noblesse is too numerous to be all admitted 
into the assemble, 6 to obtain permission for that body to chuse it's 
own deputies. The rest would follow. 7 Two houses so elected would 
contain a mass of wisdom which would make the people happy, 
and the king great; would place him in history where no other act 
can possibly place him. This is my plan Madam; but I wish to 
know yours, which I am sure is better. 8 

[From a correspondent at N]ismes you will not expect news. 
Were I [to attempt to give you news, I shoul]d tell you stories a 
thousand years old. [I should detail to you the intrigue]s of the 
courts of the Caesars, how they [affect us here, the oppressions of 
their] Praetors, Praefects &c. I am immersed [in antiquities from 
morning to night]. For me the city of Rome is actually [existing 

2 1 MARCH 1787 

in all the splendor of it's] empire. I am filled with alarms for [the 
event of the irruptions dayly m]aking on us by the Goths, Ostro- 
goths, [Visigoths and Vandals, lest they shouljd reconquer us to 
our original bar[barism. If I am sometimes ind]uced to look for- 
ward to the eighteenth [century, it is only when recalled] to it by 
the recollection of your goodness [and friendship, and by those 
sentiments of] sincere esteem and respect with which [I have the 
honor to be, Madam, your] most obedient & most humble servant, 


PrC of first page (MHi). PrC of 
second and third pages (MoSHi)j en- 
dorsed by TJ: "Tessg Mar.20.87"; MS 
is worn and faded, with lower left 
quarter of third page missing. Tr 
(DLC); in TJ's hand, differing- some- 
what in phraseology, as indicated below; 
words for the missing or illegible parts 
of PrC have been supplied from Tr. 
The exact date at which TJ made this 
copy, or the purpose for which it was 
made, is not certain; however, it is to 
be noted that he also made a Tr of the 
letter to Madame de Tott of 5 Apr. 
1787; both of these copies are on very 
similar paper probably having been, 
in fact, parts of the same folio sheet 
and, since the paper on which the Tr 
of the letter to Madame de Tott was 
written bears the watermark "R BAR- 
NARD 1809,"" both copies were written 
sometime between 1809 and 1826 and 
both were evidently written at the same 
time. From this it is clear that TJ 
sought to "improve" his text with some 
particular purpose in mind. 

* Tr reads instead: 'female beauty." 
2 Tr reads instead: "pleasure." 

3 Tr adds at this point: "of Marius." 

4 The text in this and succeeding 
brackets (supplied) is either illegible 
or missing from PrC and lias been 
taken from Tr. 

s Instead of the preceding* nine "words, 
Tr reads: "and used by me -with too 
much indiscretion." 

a Instead of the preceding- four words> 
Tr reads: "of the assembled." 

T This sentence is not in Tr. 

s At this point and in place of this 
sentence, TJ inserted the following in 
Tr: "They would thus {place} put them- 
selves in the track of the best guide 
they can follow, they would soon over- 
take it, become it's iruide in turn, and 
lead to the wholesome modifications 
wanting: in that model, and necessary 
to constitute a rational government. 
Should they attempt more than (not 
the opinion of the moment but) the 
established habits of the people are ripe 
for, they may lose all, and retard in- 
definitely the ultimate object of their 
aim. These, madam, are my opinions; 
but I wish to know yours which I am 
sure will be better." 

From Richard Gary 

** SIR Virga. Warwick March 21st. 1787 

I received your kind and obliging Letter, by Mr. Le Croix with 
the Copy of the new, English Edition of Linnseus's System of 
Vegetables; it got to me in excellent Order sometime in Octr. last, 
and I now return you best thanks for this Book and your friendly 
Intention of sending me some of the vegetable Productions of 
France which I shall most gladly receive. 

The Book is valuable and compiled with great Care and with 
much Pains, and what stil pleases me is that by Advertisements 

[228 ] 

2 1 MARCH 1787 

in it I observe the Editors intend to publish English Translations 
of Linnseus's Genera and Species Plantarum, which will perhaps 
induce others to publish the whole Works of that learned and 
ingenous Naturalist in the same Language. 

Your Favor of Augt. 12th. 1786 I did not get 'til late in Novr. 
which put it out of my Power to attempt sending you any Part of 
the Plants, Shrubs Jkc. which you have requested, as it woud have 
been imposible to get 'em to France in Time; Indeed I am ap- 
prehensive it will hardly be practicable to send the Trees with any 
Prospect of Success. Those Gentlemen who I should be proud to 
please (especially thro' your Medium) must I am affraid be 
obliged to rest satisfied with the Seeds. The wild trees I have 
found from Experience, are much more difficult to make live, by 
transplanting, than what is usually called the domestic trees; and 
many of the Sorts you want I have planted in an Hour or two 
after taking them up, to no Purpose. I have seen to the taking up 
and planting of at least 30 of the Umbrella trees myself, and tho' 
the greatest Care and Caution were used I have not been able to 
raise one. Add to this the Inattention of Shippers, the Room they 
must take up; besides transplanted trees when transported a great 
Distance seldom or never make either so large, beautiful or thrifty 
Plants as those raised from Seeds and removed from a Nursery to 
a moderate Distance* 

What further confirms in this Opinion: I have by Means of 
Mr. Oster the Consul procured for the royal Gardens a Number of 
different things in this Way and the Gentlemen who wrote for 
'em were very particular in requesting that the Seeds should only 
be sent, for that they had frequently received the Plants, Trees 
&c. from America but cou'd never succeed that Way. 

I have received several things in Return and have entered into 
a Correspondence with the Ct. Dangivilliers and the Abb Nolin 
and shall also be highly pleased to do the same -with any Gentle- 
men you will be so good as to recommend if they should think it 
worth accepting. One disagreable Circumstance is, I do not under- 
stand any thing of the French Language. 

Be assured my dear Sir that I shall always esteem it as one 
[of] the happy Incidents of my Life if I can do any thing that can 
oblige you or Your Friends, especially those of France, a Country 
from whom we have received such emminent Assistance and Serv- 
ices, such as ought never to be forgotten but had 1 in perpetual 

Some Books directed to me for Mr. Maddison and Mr. Balleni 

[229 ] 

2 1 MARCH 1787 

came safe to Hand and I sent 'em to those Gentlemen. They were 
the Genl. Chattelux's Journals and a Poem wrote by Colo. Hum- 
phreys. As I am unacquainted with the French, I can't have the 
Pleasure of perusing the General's Work, so can only have it at 
second Hand. It seems the General's Journal is in some Sort found 
Fault with, especially the Passages relative to some Military Oper- 
ations which passed, before the Arrival of the French Troops in 
America; Tis said the General has received bad Information, or 
has been partial in his Relation of them. 

To what I shall send you, I shall subjoin a List with some Re- 
marks as to the Culture &c. which I suppose will be acceptable. 
Some Articles you wrote for are not to be found or procured in 
Virga. These I shall also note and endeavour to supply the De- 
ficiency by some others and I again repeat it that I am truly affraid 
it will be lost Labor to attempt sending Trees except in a very 
few Instances; but 111 try for the best. 

I suppose you have heard of the Insurrection in the Massachu- 
setts. Genl. Lincoln has dispersed the Insurgents and from the 
last Accounts 'tis said the affair will soon be terminated. By what 
I can learn tis something like the Matter of the Regulators of 
No. Carolina, tho' more formidable, but they seem to have no 
certain Object or System in View* 

Mr. Ed. Randolph has resigned his Office of Attorney General 
and is appointed Governor and Colo. Jas. Innis succeeds Mr. 
Randolph as Attorney. 

Your friends of Mr. Wilson Gary's Family (who are my near 
Neighbours ) are well. 

I have the Honor to be Dr. Sir with every Sentiment of Attach- 
ment & Respect Yr. most obt. Servt. & Friend, 


RC (DLC); endorsed. Recorded in SJL as received 31 May 1787 at Nantes. The 
subjoined LIST WITH SOME BEMARKS, if appended to the letter, has not been found. 
i Thus in MS; "held" was probably intended. 

William Short to the Governor of Virginia 

SlR Paris March 21. 1787 

By direction of Mr. Jefferson who is absent, I have the honor 
of forwarding to your Excellency, the proceedings of the city of 
Paris on the reception of the Marquis de la f ayette's bust presented 
to them by the State of Virginia. The French Packet which sails 


2 1 MARCH 1787 

in a few days furnishes the first opportunity which has been 
offered, of conveying these proceedings and I make use of it with 
very great pleasure as it allows me to assure you Sir, of the 
sentiments of the most profound respect and perfect esteem with 
which I have long had the honor of being Your Excellency's most 
obedient & most humble servant, W SHORT 

PrC (DLC: Short Papers); endorsed. Enclosure: See note to Le Pelletier to TJ, 
1 Feb. 1787, and to De Corny to TJ, 20 Feb. 1787. 

William Short to John Jay 

SIR Paris March 21. 1787 

Agreeably to Mr: Jefferson's directions on his leaving Paris, 
I have the honor of forwarding to Your Excellency, the medal 
engraved for Genl. Greene, under the resolution of Congress. 
There is one of gold and twenty three of bronze, all of which are 
committed to the care of Mr. Walton of New York, who sails in 
the French Packet the 25th. of this month. The medal for Genl. 
Gates ordered by Congress and contracted for by Colo. Humphries 
is not yet finished; but will certainly be in time to be sent by the 
May Packet. 

I have the honor of inclosing to your Excellency a letter from 
Mr. Dumas sent to me some time ago: He gave me reason at the 
same time to expect others which he purposed sending here to be 
forwarded by this packet, and which he said would contain in- 
formation of the greatest importance for Congress on the subject on 
which he had lately written to them. As yet no such letters have ar- 
rived. I hope Your Excellency will be persuaded of the punctuality 
with which I should have attended to them. 

I take the liberty of sending to your Excellency the Speech of 
the King, and that of the Comptroller-general at the opening of 
the Assembly as yet sitting at Versailles. I do not presume to 
obtrude longer on you Sir than to assure you of the sentiments of 
the most profound respect with which I have the honor to be, 
Your Excellency's most obedient & most humble Servant, 



dorsed in an unidentified Hand. PrC OF THE COMPTROLLER-GENERAL are 

(I>LC: Short Papers). Enclosures: (1) printed in Proces-Verbal de ISAssem- 

Dumas to Jay, 27 Feb. 1787 (see blee de Notables? Tenue a Versailles 

Dumas to Short, 2 Mch. 1787). (2) ... 1787* Paris, 1788, p. 52, 56-81. 


From William Short 

MY DEAR SIR Paris March 22 

Yours of the 15th. from Lyons arrived here on Sunday last, and 
gave great pleasure to all your friends, to me a double portion be- 
cause it shewed you were pleased with your journey and because 
it furnished me details on the country you passed through of which 
I was very desirous to be informed. I hope you will be so good as 
to continue them. Should I ever be able to make the same trip, 
they will be to me an useful guide. Should I not, they will be 
pleasing and useful information. The objects you propose to your 
attention are precisely those which, in my mind are the most worthy 
of it. As to manufactures they can be little useful to an American 
and for cabinets of curiosities he who has seen one complete one, 
has nothing left to see of the kind since he can have no farther 
curiosity on the subject. 

I went to see the Abbe's as you desired. They had heard of you 
from their friends at Lyons and seemed much pleased, with my 
communications to them of your gratitude. I waited on Mr. de 
Laye also agreeably to your request. He desires me to assure you 
how happy he is that his house has been agreeable to you and how 
much more happy he shall be if you will revisit it when he shall be 
there. I prepared a great many civil things to say to him of Mde. 
de laye, and the satisfaction you had recieved from her civilities, 
but before I had half finished them he skipped over her to a certain 
groupe in his salon, executed by a great artist and estimated at 
60,000* tt He seems anxious to know what you thought of it, how 
you liked the arrangement of his estate and his mode of husbandry, 
to which he seems much attached* I told him you had not had time 
to enter into any details and that you had seemed perfectly occupied 
by your gratitude for the bonte extreme of Mde. de laye. She had 
written him a great many civil things about you, and was au 
desespoir at having a cold during your short stay, which precluded 
her from procuring you a greater number of pleasures. 

I have complyed with the other directions of your letter also, 
in presenting your compliments to your friends and more par- 
ticularly to Mdes. de Tess6 and de Tott. They both expressed the 
greatest satisfaction at hearing from you, and particularly at seeing 
that they were remembered by you. Their expressions were wound 
up to fortissimo, reducing them to forte, which I take to be the true 
tone of their friendship, and I think you may rely on the sincerity 


22 MARCH 1787 

of all they said. Whilst on the subject of Mde. de Tess6, it may be 
proper to mention to you something of the seeds expected from 
London. You recollect the letter I wrote to Mr. Ogilvy on that 
subject, which was solely to desire him to send the box, if in his 
hands, by the diligence. He acknowleged some time ago the re~ 
ciept of several of my letters and particularly that, without saying 
one word of the box of seeds. Before the arrival of his letter Mr. 
Carnes set out for London. I gave him a memorandum to enquire 
of Mr. Ogilvy about this box, and if such an one had arrived to 
have it immediately forwarded by the diligence. Mr. Carnes has 
only attended to one half of my memorandum, as appears by a letter 
just recieved from him. He tells me the box has arrived and that 
he has advised Mr. Ogilvy to look out for a vessel going to Havre, 
in order to forward it. If one cannot be found soon says he, I shall 
advise him to forward the box by the diligence, as you seemed very 
pressing. Was there ever such a bundle of errors one upon another? 
I have written this morning, being the first post, to beg he will 
look for no vessel but send the box immediately on here, to your 
address. I explained all these matters yesterday to Mde. de Tess6. 
It did not serve, as you may suppose, to heighten her idea of 
American punctuality. 

Since my last the engraver has been busily employed in striking 
off your maps. He promises the 250 copies shall be delivered with- 
out fail the day after to-morrow. His charges are 1. for his work 
106V, 2. for 250 sheets of paper 60V, 3. for striking them off 
37 tt 10s. I find that Mr. de Crevecoeur thinks himself entitled also 
to one of these maps. I suppose his claim founded on his possession 
of one of your books and of course good in the equity of the case. 
If I mistake not I heard you say that a map was destined for each 
of the copies you had given, and therefore shall deliver it to him 
or his order. His third volume has not yet appeared, but he ex- 
pects it will in time to let him carry some copies of it to America 
in May. 

Mr. Walton who sat out this morning for Havre took charge of 
the medals for Congress, that is those of Genl. Greene. I have heard 
nothing farther from the engraver of Genl. Gates's. I was not 
certain of my etiquette with respect to Mr. Jay on this occasion. 
I knew not how to send the medals tout liniment, without saying 
a word on the subject. Nor did I know whether it would not be 
presumption in me to address him a letter. However I risqued a 
short one, and as 1 have the honor' *and your Excellency' are as 
often repeated as there are lines in the letter, I hope it will not be 

233 J 

22 MARCH 1787 
supposed that I have forgotten the proper distance between him 

and myself. 

Duquesnay was here a few days ago. He says he has put so 
many engines in motion that he cannot fail of success. Still he is 
sorry you are not here to countenance his patriotic enterprize. He 
has begged my protection, which I suppose was to counterbalance 
Mazzei, who he fears will prejudice his schemes in the view of 
Mr. de 1. f, 'comme ils sont tre"s intimement lie's ensemble.' Mazzei 
has thrown him into some consternation, notwithstanding his cer- 
tainty of success by demonstrating that there is no geometrical 
certainty in the case. He has insisted that I should mention to all 
my friends in America his arrival here, the sensation it has made, 
notwithstanding the critical moment, as Government was occupied 
on subjects of a very important nature, and in fine the certain pros- 
pect of his succeeding. 

Mr. Capitame*s attorney came here some time ago with powers 
to recieve the bill of exchange you left for him. He left with me 
his powers and took the bill of exchange. 

In my last I mentioned my letter to M. de Colonia. As yet I have 
recieved no answer. I have taken no further steps, because as yet 
M. de Crevecoeur and Mr. Barrett have pressed the matter no 

I mentioned in a former letter the adjournment of the Assembly 
to the last of this month. The new elections in April had entirely 
escaped me; a recollection of that circumstance makes me suppose 
the adjournment to March a thing of course and of form only. 

Most of your friends here enquire of me whether you visited 
the works of Mount Cenis. I have not been able to satisfy their 
enquiries. As you said nothing of so important an object, I am 
rather disposed to imagine you did not visit it. And yet I think you 
would hardly have left it behind you without casting on it un 
coup tfoeiL 

I forgot to mention that Mr. Games informs me in his letter 
that Colo. Smith told him he should set out for Paris about the 
24th. of this month. He says nothing of the object of his journey. 
I inclose you Sir three letters, one of which I have read because 
it was delivered to me open by Petit on my return here from St. 
Germains. It was brought here with the objects it mentions by a 
gentleman from Bordeaux. These objects are here in my care. 
There^is also here a large packet, of the size and shape of the 
memoire of the Hotel Dieu. It was sent by the Swedish Ambassador. 


2 3 MARCH 1787 

I mention its size that you may let me know whether you chuse it 
should be sent to you by post. I had doubts on the subject but Mr. 
Petit insists that it would not be proper to send it by post and I 
subscribe to his opinion, en attendant cependant ~oos ordres d cet 

Petit tells me that agreeably to your letter he waited on Miss 
Jefferson, and that she was and is perfectly well. I communicate 
this circumstance because I am sure of the pleasure it will give you. 

Since your departure I have passed my time alternately two or 
three days at a time here and at St. Germains : yet in such a manner 
as to neglect nothing. It has been three days since I have returned 
from thence and do not purpose going there again before monday 
next. In the interim I hope to have the pleasure of hearing from 
you. Be persuaded my dear Sir, of the pleasure it will give Your 
sincerest friend & servant, W SHORT 

RC (DLC); endorsed. PrC (DL.C: coup dc choses qui me sont essentieUes"; 

Short Papers). Recorded in SJL as re- there is also in MHi a copy of a power 

ceived 28 Mch. 1787 at Aix-en-Pro- of attorney executed by **Michel Capi- 

vence. Enclosures: On 28 Mch., accord- taine, Major au Service des Etats urns 

ing 1 to entries in SJL, TJ received only d'Amerique, chevalier de L'ordre de 

two letters in addition to Short's: (1) Cincinatus, demeurant ordinairement a 

Hopkinson to TJ, 8 Nov. 1786, and (2) Mezieres en champagne, e"tant depresent 

McCaul to TJ, 9 Mch. 1787. The third a Paris, Log-e rue des prouvaires a 

of the THREE LETTERS enclosed by Short ITiotel des Colonies,'* in which he named 

must have been the one brought BY A Jean Baptiste Le Roux of Paris as his 

GENTKEMAN FROM BORDEAUX; neither attorney to receive any interest or 

it nor its accompanying- objects has capital sums due him by the United 

been identified. States and paid through Grand, and 

On the BILL OF EXCHANGE for Capi- to receive from. Lafayette and any others 

taine, see TJ to Capitaine, 25 Feb. the different sums due him. Presumably 

1787; to Peters, 26 Feb. 1787. There Le Roux was the ATTORNEY who left 

is in MHi a letter from Capitaine to His POWERS with Short, though this 

Short, 23 Mch. 1787, acknowledging could not have been the copy of the 

the receipt of TJ's letter of 25 Feb. power of attorney just quoted, 
and also * 6 le montant de Cette lettre de It was not in Short's LAST letter 

Change en une rescript! on que m'a (that of 14 Mch.) but in that dated 12 

envoyg M. Gibert mon Notaire," and Mch. that he MENTIONED MY UETTER 

saying that he was astonished not to TO M. DE COLONIA. TJ's letter to PETIT 

have received any letters from Peters, was that of 15 Mch. 1787. For a note 

adding: "J'ignore pour mes affaires on the CERTAIN GROUPS at the Chateau 

dont il a bien voulu se charger beau- de Laye, see TJ to Short, 29 Mch. 1787. 

From the Governor o Georgia 

SIR 23 March 1787 

I am honored with your Excellencys favor of the 22 December 
1785 and have taken the earliest Opportunity of laying it before 
the Hble. House of Assembly of this State, and for your informa- 
tion and the Chevalier de Mezieres inclose you a Resolution of 

25 MARCH 1787 

that honorable body taken thereon. You may rest assured that 
the disposition of the Inhabitants of this State to the King of 
France and his Subjects are founded on the most firm and generous 
principles, and will always be supported] by facts when oppor- 
tunity offers, and should the Chevalier de Mezieres be able to dis- 
cover any property of the late General Oglethorp, this State will not 
be wanting in their aid to forward his right to the Same. It only 
remains for me to assure you every personal service in my power 
shall be given to subjects of real merit, of the King of France. I 

FC (Governor's Letter Book, 1786-1789, G-Ar). Enclosure missing-. On the 
same date Gov. Mathews wrote to the French consul at Charleston, acknowledging- 
his letter of 2O Dec. 1786 on the same subject and enclosing: him a copy of the 
resolution ( same ) . 

From William Carmichael 

DEAR SIR Madrid March 25th. 1787 

I received somewhat later than I should have expected from its 
date the Letter you did me the honor to write me the 18th. Ulto. I 
have forwarded the duplicate of the recall of Mr. Lamb to that 
Gentleman and have also transmitted to Mr. Barclay the joint con- 
firmation of the Morrocco treaty together with the Letter to Fen- 
nish which however is without your signature. 

Mr. Barclay writes me from Barcelona, where he is at present, 
that he chuses to forward it thro' my channel and that he intends 
to return it me for that purpose. It is not probable that he will meet 
Mr. Lamb who writes me from Minorca that he means shortly to 
proceed to N. York. The Latter has occasioned me much chagrin. 
In the autumn of 1784 Doctor Franklin transmitted me a resolution 
of Congress relative to a Claim of the State of S. Carolina founded 
on the aid rendered by a frigate commanded by Commodore Gil- 
Ion, in taking of the Bahama and Providence Islands, but without 
any information respecting the amount of the Claim, for in truth 
I believe he had received none. 

In consequence however of this resolution I addressed the Ct. 
de F. B. and obtained a promise from that Minister to instruct 
Mr. Gardoqui then going to America to examine and liquidate this 
claim conjointly with the Ct. de Galves who directed the expedi- 
tion in question and who was also on his way to the Havanna. I 
well knew that before any arrangement could take place for the 

C236 } 

2 5 MARCH 1787 

Satisfaction of the State of S. Carolina the Latter would be con- 
sulted by this Court and As his Absence and distance from this 
Country must occasion Inevitable delays in a matter which the 
State seemed to have at heart, I thought it most prudent, unin- 
formed as I was and am still of particular Circumstances, to put 
it in the train I did. 

Not having heard further intelligence on the Subject, I concluded 
that the affair had been arranged, until by a Letter from Mr. Jay 
dated the I was advised that the Claim, still subsisted. With 

this second information however I had no account of the particular 
services rendered nor of the amount of the claim demanded for 
those services: I therefore could only speak generally on the sub- 
ject, and have had no reason, from the Answers I received, to think 
the aid of another particularly in the present circumstances^ neces- 
sary, Had I been possessed of proper documents. 

I shall be happy however to cooperate with the Due de Vauguyon 
and until his arrival or until I receive the dispatches in question, I 
must let the Affair remain as it is. 

I have been informed of the compliment you paid the New' 
Minister the first Audience he gave the Corps Diplomatique, You 
will find in the Ct. de Montmorin, unless I am Strangely deceived 
in my Ideas of him, a much honester Man than Ministers are gen- 
erally supposed to be. He Appeared to me to have an enlarged 
liberal and noble Manner of thinking and acting. He is endowed 
with great penetration and is capable of finesse, but seems to dis- 
dain to employ that sort of Talent, unless to combat others with 
their own weapons, weapons which those who know his Character 
and Abilities will be unwise to employ. I lately received the porta- 
ble copying press which you did me the honor to send me. You will 
see that I make use of the Ink which accompanied it. I dare not 
express to you how sensible I am of this mark of your notice of 
me. I hope however I shall never feel remorse, for having from my 
earliest youth wished to acquire the esteem of those few who 
possess general esteem. 

It seems that G. B. means to negotiate its treaty of commerce 
here. That court has chosen an able and indefatigable Minister, 
who can only err from a desire to distinguish himself while at the 
same time he forms projects, which others like himself must be 
employed to bring to maturity, and this is not to be expected where 
system changes but too often with a change of Ministers. I hope 
your tour will reestablish your health while it will contribute to 


25 MARCH 1787 

your Information and amusement. I am constrained to tread the 
same beaten track. You will, If your hand permits you, think some- 
times that my most material Information of American affairs comes 

from you. 

With the highest sentiments of respect & Esteem I have the 
honor to be Your Excellency's Obliged & Hble, Sevt., 


RC (DLC); endorsed. Recorded in compliment that TJ PAID THE NEW 
SJL as received 3 May 1787 at Aix-en- MINISTER appears not to Have been re- 
Provence, corded, but the fact that it was repeated 

The LETTER FROM MR. JAY on the in Madrid indicates that it was perhaps 
South Carolina demands on Spain was comparable to TJ's famous reply at 
that of 1 Dec. 1786 with its various the French court on succeeding Frank- 
enclosures (printed in Dipl. Corr., lin. 
1783-89, rn, 323-47). Unfortunately the 

From Martha Jefferson 

MY DEAR PAPA March 25th, 1787 

Though the knowledge of your health gave me the greatest 
pleasure, yet I own I was not a little disappointed in not receiving 
a letter from you. However, I console myself with the thought of 
having one very soon, as you promised to write to me every week. 
Until now you have not kept your -word the least in the world, but 
I hope you will make up for your silence by writing me a fine, 
long letter by the first opportunity. Titus Livius puts me out of 
my wits. I can not read a word by myself, and I read of it very 
seldom with my master; however, I hope I shall soon be able to 
take it up again. All my other masters go on much the same 
perhaps better. Every body here is very well, particularly Madame 
L'Abbesse, who has visited almost a quarter of the new building 
a thing that she has not done for two or three years before now. 
I have not heard any thing of my harpsichord, and I am afraid it 
will not come before your arrival. They make every day some new 
history on the Assemble des Notables. I will not tell you any, for 
fear of taking a trip to the Bastile for my pains, which I am by 
no means disposed to do at this moment. I go on pretty well with 
Thucydides, and hope I shall very soon finish it. I expect Mr. 
Short every instant for my letter, therefore I must leave you. Adieu, 
my dear papa; be assured you are never a moment absent from my 
thoughts, and believe me to be, your most affectionate child, 

C238 ] 

26 MARCH 1787 

MS not found; text from the printing: may Have addressed TJ by his official 

in Randolph, Domestic Life, p. 114. title, knowing that he was travelling: 

Recorded in SJL as received 6 Apr. as a private citizen and knowing also 

1787 at Marseilles. Martha, on a dare that the address would be hidden by 

by one of her schoolmates, g-ave some Short's covering letter (see Short to 

sort of playful address to the letter, TJ, 26 Mch. 1787). 
thougrh its nature is not known; she 

From William Short 

DEAR SIR Paris March 26. 1787 

By my calculation I hoped to recieve your letter from Aix 
yesterday. Although it has not arrived I shall go into the country 
to-day, not foreseeing that the delay of one day in recieving it can 
be attended with any bad consequences. It will come to me at St. 
Gerrnains in four and twenty hours and perhaps less after Its 
arrival here if that should be before my return. I shall be four or 
five days absent and then come to Paris in order to do the honors of 
your house at Longchamp. I mentioned yesterday to Mde. de Tesse 
with whom I dined, what you had desired me, on this subject. She 
and Mde. de Tott -were both much pleased with your attention. 
The latter declined it because as she added 'ye suis les offices de cette 
semaine mais Mamma qui n'en a aucun scrupule peut tr&s bien y 
aller? Long debates pour et contre. Mde. de Tesse has never seen 
Longchamp, which I hardly supposed any Parisian of her age could 
say. She will come and bring some lady whose name I don't recol- 
lect. She told me it was well I had not made the proposition to 
Mde. de la f ayette; her piety would have been shocked and there- 
fore I shall say nothing to her on the subject. She was a part of 
the evening at Mde. de Tessas. "When Mazzei arrived he ap- 
proached her and said whether from mechancetg or not I cannot 
say that he had that moment come from the Hdtel de la fayette 
where he had been to wait on her but that they told him, Madame 
la Marquise was gone to *v$pres. 

Mazzei tells me that the men of letters here think very poorly of 
Mr. Adams book. It is easy to see that these are the disciples of 
M. Turgot. Mazzei asked me what I thought of it, taking great 
pains to impress well on my mind that he had not yet read it and 
of course had not been able to form his opinion. I had just finished 
it and of course was able to give him mine, which is that it shews 
Mr. Adams's profound researches on the subject he treats, that 
there are a great many valuable ideas developped in the work, and 
that it puts the reader in the plain way of developping others; but 

{239 ] 

26 MARCH 1787 

that it has neither order in its matter or taste in its style. He de- 
sired to know if I thought the translation would succeed here. Of 
that I have my doubts; but should rather suppose it would not as 
an article of Librairie. It is not the kind of work that would be 
generally read in Paris I should imagine, A few men of learning no 
doubt would be pleased with it; but most of that class would prefer 
the original. His translator has read it. I inferred from what Maz- 
zei said that his opinion was not the most favorable. Yet I take 
it for granted that the translation is going on. 

The Maps are all delivered, and I gave notice to the Abb 
Morellet two days ago that the plate was at present at his disposal, 
begging him at the same time to return it as soon as he possibly 
could as I wished to send it immediately to London. 

General Gates's medal is at length advanced to that point at 
which by the contract the engraver is entitled to recieve 12OO ft . 
I have told him I would write to you on the subject. He promises 
to finish it 3 without fail, in time to go by the May Packet. I think the 
likeness is very good considering the manner in which it has been 

On my way to dinner yesterday I called on Miss Patsy to re- 
cieve her commands for you. She gave me the inclosed letter; telling 
me one of her companions had made her a defi to put the address as 
you will observe it. I can join my testimony to her's that she is 
perfectly well. She seems resigned to faire ses paques, and e suivre 
les offices' de la semaine sainte au con-vent. 

You will see that a packet has arrived and among the letters 
brought for you I recognise one with the hand and seal of Mr. 
Wythe. Will you be so good as to let me know Sir, if he mentions 
the arrival of Majr. Martin, who carried the Arms of Taliaferro. I 
wrote by him, and therefore am interested in his safe arrival. A 
bundle of newspapers came addressed to you by post from Mr. Jay. 
Within it were two letters for you which I inclose, a letter from 
Congress to His Most Christian Majesty, one for Mr. Dumas and 
another for M. Carmichael and a third for Mr. Lamb. I will en- 
deavour to find some private hand to whom I can commit a letter 
for Mr. Carmichael inclosing that for Lamb. "With respect to that for 
the King I shall await your instructions. Lest Mr. Jay should 

have omitted particular facts with respect to the eastern disturb- 
ances it may be well to mention to you that, from the Papers sent, 
it appears by Genl. Lincoln's letter to Govr. Bowdoin of the 4th. 
of Febry. that he had come up by surprize with the main body of 


2 6 MARCH 1787 

the insurgents under Shays, had made 15O prisoners with little 
or no bloodshed and dispersed the rest so effectually as to advise 
the Governor to countermand his orders for re-inforcing him -with 
other militia. Govr. Bowdoin in his speech to the house convened 
the 3d. of Febry. advises vigorous measures, although there was 
nothing in fact to be apprehended; he founds his advice on the in- 
surgents having treated with contempt the late mild offer held out 
to them by the acts of the former session. It appears on the whole 
that if Government will only be mild and at the same time firm, 
the whole affair is at an end. I am more certain of their firmness 
than their mildness. I observe by GenL Lincoln's letter that Wheeler 
had desired an interview with Genl. Putnam, that they had accord- 
ingly met, that 'Wheeler's principal object seeming to be to provide 
for his personal safety and no encouragement on this head being 
given him, he retired.' "Would it not have been wise to have given 
him every encouragement on this head? A letter from Shays to 
Genl. Lincoln without date also appears in the latest paper that 
has arrived Febry. 16. It is not published officially. He offers to 
lay down his arms as well as those of his followers on the condi- 
tion of a general pardon. He begs Genl. Lincoln to desist from 
hostilities until an answer can be given by the General Court 
to their petition for that purpose. 

The same papers shew that Pennsylvania and N. Carolina have 
acceded to the plan of Virginia by appointing commissioners to 
meet at Philadelphia in May. 

I have lately recieved a letter from an American Merchant at 
Nantes just on his return from Virginia. He tells me the Assembly 
have annulled the duties on Brandies shipped in American or 
French bottoms and doubled those on rum and all liquors imported 
by British Subjects. I suppose it is in consequence of M. de 
Calonne's letter to you* 

The Assembles des notables have not yet put the finishing hand 
to any of the great works they have begun- This is all that is as 
yet known with certainty in public of their proceedings. Accept 
my best & sincerest wishes my dear Sir & believe me your most 
faithful & affectionate friend, W SHORT 

RC (DLC); endorsed. PrC (DLC: 1787. (5) Grand to TJ, undated. 
Short Papers). Recorded in SJL as re- 
ceived 6 Apr. 1787 at Marseilles. En- TJ did not write Short a LETTER 
closures: (1) Martha Jefferson to TJ, FROM ATX until 27 Mch*; in that from 
25 Mch. 1787, (2) Wythe to TJ, 13 Lyons of 15 Mch. 1787 TJ had said: 
Dec. 1786. (3) Jay to TJ, 9 and 14 "You shall hear from me from Aix 
Feb. 1787. (4) Otto to TJ, 14 Feb. where I hope to meet letters from you." 

241 1 

From Edward Bancroft 

Charlotte Street Rathbone Place. 
DEAR SIR London March 27th. 1787 

I have been deprived much longer than I expected of the Pleasure 
of seeing you in Paris, and I am afraid my business here will not 
permit my return to that Capital until the middle or latter End of 
may. It is however at the desire of Mr. Paradise that I now address 
myself to you, as the present State of his mind (from the recent 
Elopement and marriage of his eldest Daughter to Count Barziza a 
Venetian Nobleman) joined to his general ill health renders him 
unable to write to you himself. Both Mr. and Mrs. Paradise seem 
convinced from past experience and the present contrariety of their 
tempers and dispositions that it will be impossible for them to 
Live happily together; and it is therefore agreed that the Lady 
shall return to Virginia and be allowed a House in Williamsburgh, 
and three hundred Pounds sterling ^ An. for her Separate main- 
tenance, whilst Mr. Paradise will probably fix himself in some more 
retired and Cheap situation than his present, perhaps at Oxford, 
or someplace in France. But as this Plan precludes all probability 
of his going to America, at least for some years, he is Sollicitous 
to Commit the Superintendance of his Affairs, and of his Stewards 
Conduct, to one or two Gentlemen, whose Situations are not too 
far removed from his Estate, and who are properly qualified, and 
may be induced, by their Care of his intrests to prevent the ill 
Consequences which might otherwise arise from his Absence. And 
as Mr. Paradise has the utmost Confidence in your friendship, 
as well as in your Judgment of men and things in that Country, 
he earnestly intreats, as a favour of the highest importance that 
you will be so kind as to point out one or two Persons to whom 
he may with Propriety send a Power of Attorney for these Pur- 
poses, and that you would at the same time by Letter employ your 
good offices, to induce these persons to undertake the trust which 
he wishes to place in them. You are sensible that Mr. Paradise is 
very much disinclined towards the Lee's and those who may be 
particularly Connected with them, and as Mrs. Paradise is to 
receive her separate allowance without having any Concern in the 
Managment of her Husbands affairs, he much wishes that the pro- 
posed powers should be sent to persons out of this Connection. 
Mr. Paradise requests me to assure you of the high esteem and 
sincere respect which he entertains for you and of his grateful sense 

[242 ] 

2 7 MARCH 1787 

of your former favours. Permit me also to join the like assurance 
respecting myself, and beleive me to be with the greatest truth 
Dear Sir Your most affectionate & faithful Humble Servant, 


RC (DLC); addressed and endorsed. Recorded in SJL, as received 3 May 1787 
at Aix-en-Provence. 

From Buffon 

IJardin du Roi, Paris, 27 Mch. 1787. Recorded in SJL as received 
3 May 1787 at Aix-en-Provence. Not found.] 

To Adrien Petit 

[Aix] en Provence. 27me. Mars. 1787. 

Je vous ai ecrit. Monsieur Petit, de Lyons pour vous prevenir 
que j'avois achetg des vins de [Mon]rachet, que le nomm6 Monsr. 
Parrain, de la ville de Beaune devoit faire passer a Paris, en vous 
en avertissant. Comme Poccasion sera bonne pour faire mon ap- 
provisionnement de vin en passant a Marseille a Lunel et a Bour- 
deaux, je vous prie de m'envoyer a Aix tout de suite Tetat actuel de 
tous les vins que vous avez dans la cave, fin que je puisse decider 
de la quantit6 dont j'aurai besoin. JPai regu en arrivant ici votre 
lettre du 17me. Je me porte bien, mais jusques ici pas mieux pour 
les eaux, dont j'ai pris onze douches. Faites passer la lettre a ma 
fille et soyez assure de mon amiti. TH: JEFFERSON 

PrC (MHi); sligrhtly mutUated. En- to have been sent through MONSR. PAR- 

closure: TJ to Martha Jefferson, 28 RAIN (see TJ to Parent, 13 Mch. 

Mch. 1787. 1787). Petit's HETTRE DU 17ME. has 

TJ's letter to Petit from LYONS was not been found, though it is recorded 

evidently that of 15 Mch. which appears in SJL. 

C. W. F. Dumas to William Short 

MONSIEUR Paris 1 27e. Mars 1787 

Je vous suis bien oblig de la bontg avec laquelle vous avez pris 

la peine de m'instruire du sort de mes Lettres, et de ma Traite. 
Voici une autre Lettre pour le Congrfcs, qui partira quand elle 

pourra: ce sera du moins le 1O de May prochain, s'il ne se 

pr6sente pas d'occasion plus prompte et aussi sure. Vous aurez le 


27 MARCH 1787 

temps tTen noter a loisir ce que vous jugerez digne de Mr. Jefferson. 
Le contenu vous fera voir avec combien de raison je dois 6viter Ie 
passage par PAngleterre. 

Je crois que dor6navant il faudra laisser dormir Faff aire que 
vous savez, sans en plus parler, jusqu'a la r6ponse que Mr. Jefferson 
attend dans 4 mois. Dites-mol, Mon cher Monsieur, si vous devinez 
le personnage dont je parle a Mr. Jay, qui voudroit qu'on Penvoyat 
Ministre ici. Si vous Pavez devin6, je compte absolument sur le 
plus grand secret de votre part. Ce que fen ai dit, est par devoir 
indispensable: on m'en a prie fortement. II ne pourroit tre d'aucune 
utilite aux Etats-Unis ici, et ne donneroit que de Pombrage a nos 
republicans et & la France, cause de ses liaisons eclatantes avec 

le Chev. H s; on travailleroit a le faire rappeller, comme on a 

fait tout recemment quant a un autre Ministre, dont je parle dans 
cette mme Lettre. De mon c6t6 je ne pourrois rien avoir de cotn- 
mun avec lui, sans perdre la confiance de mes meilleurs amis. 
J'aimerois autant perdre la vie. Ce n'est pas tout; il gateroit aussi 
Paffaire de PEmprunt, par ses liaisons avec une maison de Com- 
merce avec laquelle mes Proposants ne veulent point Pentreprendre 
par des raisons personnelles, outre que la partie est dja Ii6e avec 
d'autres. Je pourrois en dire bien d'Avantage, si je voulois r6peter 
la Chronique scandaleuse. Mais a Dieu ne plaise. II seroit vu de 
trds-mauvais oeil: Cela suffit, et rend tout le reste superfhi. Je serois 
bien aise seulement de savoir si vous le devinez. II vient lui-m^me 
de m^crire une Lettre, et Duplicat, out je vois clairement que mes 
amis ici sont bien informSs de ses desseins. Je suis dans le plus 
grand embarras que lui r6pondre. Je ne puis ni lui dire la vrit 
ni le tromper. On croit ici que c'est sa moiti6, a qui les Bals, festins, 

&c. du Ch. H s, &c. ont tourn la t^te, qui le talonne pour 

venir s'etaler sur ce theatre diplomatique, ou il ne pourroit se 
soutenir d'une maniere qui fut vraiment honorable et avantageuse 
a PAmrique. 

Mon Epouse et ma fille, sensibles a votre obligeant souvenir, 
vous prient d'agreer leurs sinceres complimens. 

J'ai Phonneur d'etre parfaitement Monsieur Votre trs humble et 
tr^s-ob6issant serviteur C W F DUMAS 

J*espere que vous avez de bonnes nouvelles de la sante de Mr. 

RC (DLC: Short Papers). Enclosure: Jay of SO Mch. 1787 and its enclosures 

cS?"fw?M ^ M ^;^ 87 r, (Z) ^ (same - m ' 571 - 6 )- Bott f these 

Corr., 1783-89, m, 567-70). Dumas were forwarded by Short in his to Jay 
may also have enclosed his letter to of 4 May 1787, q.v. 


2 7 MARCH 1787 


JAY: This was William Bingham, 
who Dumas feared would be appointed 
minister to Holland from the United 
States (see TJ to Jay, 22 May 1786). 
In Ills enclosed letter to Jay, Dumas 
warned again that Bingham's appoint- 
ment "would give pleasure neither here 
nor in France," and in his letter to Jay 
of 27 Feb. 2 Men. he had inserted a 
private "Note, which I beseech you, 
sir, to keep for yourself alone, -without 
letting any one else see It, or know 
that I wrote it." In this note he said: 
"Under the present circumstances, and 
certainly for a long time to come, as it 
is my duty to repeat, it is worse than 
useless to send any one here as Minister, 
who, by consorting with the Anglo- 
manes and idle, sensual, gaming diplo- 
matists, who are always to be found 

at Sir J H 's, would only give 

umbrage to the party of the Patriots, 
and of France, which is fortunately the 
superior here. I am authorized, nay, 
entreated, sir, to impress this upon you, 
and to assure you that the party I 
have mentioned do not wish Congress 
to send them a mere Minister of eti- 
quette and ostentation. In the present 
state of affairs, political as well as 
financial, being is better than seeming 
(Dipl. Corr., 1783-89, m, 567, 570). 

UE CHEV. H S was Sir James Harris 

( 1746-1 82O), British minister to Hol- 
land who so well understood the intri- 
cacies of parties in that country that he 
resorted not only to BALS, ITESTINS, &c. 
but also to bribery, intrigue, and all the 
other arts of diplomacy of -which he was 
master. "Hospitality," he reported to 
Carmarthen 3 Jan. 1787, "is the life 
and soul of a party here, and an able 
cook goes as far, if not further, than an 
able secretary" (Diaries and Corre- 
spondence of James Harris, Pirst Earl 
of Malmesbury, London, 184*5, H, 222). 
Harris' grandson, in a single compre- 
hensive paragraph and without too 
gross an exaggeration, set forth the 
important role played by this able 
diplomat in Holland: * e The Bourbons 
had been and were still playing the 
blind and desperate game against us 
in Holland, which they had successfully 
used in America; and encouraged the 
Dutch Democrats with money, and 
promises to establish a pure Republic 
independent of the Stadtholder. THEY 
hoped thus to render the States a 
French province. OXJR object was to 
fortify the national independence of 
Holland under its ancient constitution, 
and recover her friendship and alliance. 

In this trial of skill we were completely 
victorious, mainly owing to the boldness 
and ability of Sir J. Harris, who may 
be said to have created, fostered, and 
matured a counter-revolution in the 
States, which restored to the Stadtholder 
his power, to England her ally, and 
left nothing for the King of France 
but the deeper infection of those dan- 
gerous doctrines, which his Ministers, 
in their eagerness to spread them 
amongst his enemies, received into the 
vitals of his kingdom, to burst forth 
for its destruction in 1789. History 
affords no instance of a political retribu- 
tion so rapid and so crushing" (same, 
n, 9). Harris was considerably aided 
in his plan of an alliance between 
England and Prussia to support the 
Stadtholder's party when, in May 1787, 
the British ministry made available to 
him 20,OOO sterling 1 of secret service 
money. Even before this Dumas re- 
ported that Harris "is employing every 
means to increase the Anglomania. 
Pleasures, fetes, play, intrigue, espio- 
nage, and corruptions of every kind are 
set at work, and with but too much 
success. The representatives of all the 
other Powers, except France and Spain, 
have fallen into the snare, and become 
devoted slaves" (Dumas to Jay, 27 
Feb. 1787; Dipl. Corr., 1783-89, m, 
566). But Harris' success was even 
more insured by the factor that caused 
TJ such disturbed reflections that is, 
the failure of France to give firm and 
decisive support to the republican cause. 
Soon after the signing of the treaty 
between Prussia and England in 1788 
Harris was created Earl of Malmesbury 
and was invested with the Prussian 
Order of the Black Eagle. In these 
interventions by the great powers in 
Holland's internal struggles it is not 
likely that either B ing-ham's appoint- 
ment or Dumas* continuance would 
have affected the outcome, though 
Dumas was undoubtedly correct in 
thinking that Bingham would have been 
drawn into the British ambassador's 
orbit (see TJ to Anne Willing: Bingham, 
7 Feb. 1787; TJ to Madison, SO Jan. 
1787). For the principal comments by 
TJ on the civil conflict in Holland, see 
Autobiography, Ford, i, 101-7; TJ to 
Jay, 6 Aug 1 ., 22 and 24 Sep., and 3 
Nov. 1787; 16 Mclu 1788; TJ to 
Adams, 13 Nov. 1787. 

i Dumas erroneously wrote "Paris'"; 
this was corrected by Short, who wrote 
"La Haye" above it. 


To William Short 

DEAR SIR &** en Provence March. 27. 1787. 

I wrote to you on the 15th. from Lyons, and on my arrival here 
had the pleasure to find your favors of the 12th. and 14th. with 
the letters accompanying them* In the hurry of my departure from 
Paris I omitted to explain myself to you on the subject of the map. 
The kind of paper on which they are struck is not very material. I 
had intended 50 on such paper as the proof was, and 200 on a 
thinner paper, more proper to fold into a book. If the plate is not 
gone, I would still wish to have the latter parcel struck to give to 
those who have my book. The 250 which you may have had struck 
on thick paper will in that case be proper for sale. I would also be 
glad to have a dozen on bank paper, on account of it's thinness and 
not breaking on the folds. These may be put conveniently into a 
traveller's pocket book. But if the plate be gone, no matter, I can 
have all this done in England. As to the price of the corrections it 
was impossible for me to settle that, as it would depend on the time 
employed. A workman of that kind works in England I believe for 
about two guineas a week, and I conjectured he would be employed 
two or three weeks: but the real time he was employed, and the 
value of his time in France, I know not. I will be obliged to you if 
you will arrange it with him as well as you can, and draw the money 
on my account from Mr. Grand. You did perfectly right with M. 
Desmaretz: I will only beg you to present him two copies instead of 
one, with my compliments and thanks. The magnets and Lack- 
ington's catalogue may await my return to Paris, as I would wish 
generally all printed papers to do, except where from their nature 
and importance, you judge it necessary for me to receive them 
here. Have you ever had an answer from Mr. Ogilvie on the subject 
of the seeds sent by Mr. Eppes? If not, I will beg of you to write 
again, as they may be rotting in Mr. Skipwith's magazine. I thank 
you for the list of Virginia acts. Does not the adjournment to the 
last of March shew they are not to meet again? That was the day 
formerly which preceded the expiration of their appointment. 
With respect to the ultimate act necessary to enforce the new com- 
mercial arrangements promised by M. de Calonnes, you will cer- 
tainly be received and considered in the bureaux, not as a common 
messenger, but as speaking in my name; the only difference between 
yourself and a Secretary of legation, in this particular, being that 
the latter speaks in the name of his state. But the only bureaux to 


27 MARCH 1787 

which we can apply with propriety, or without offence, are those of 
M. de Calonne, or M. de Montmorin, and applications to these 
should only be so made as to prevent the objects being forgotten, 
and not so as to produce any soreness, or to revolt them against us. 
We have the promise that the regulation shall be retrospective to 
the date of M. de Calonne's letter to me, and that if any duties are 
paid in the mean time, they shall be refunded. On a question there- 
fore whether temporary advancements by individuals, or an irrita- 
tion of the minister, will produce the greatest ill to the public, there 
can be no hesitation. Mr. Barrett's good sense in particular will 
relieve you from all difficulty in this matter, and the easiest way 
to get out of every difficulty, invariably, is to do what is right. The 
M. de la fayette, seeing M. de Calonnes every day, will be able 
perhaps to obtain his order for expediting it. I do not know whether 
to condole with, or to congratulate the Marquis on the death of M. 
de [Simiane]. The man who shoots himself in the climate of Aix 
must be a bloody minded fellow indeed. I am now in the land of 
corn, wine, oil, and sunshine. What more can man ask of heaven? If 
I should happen to die at Paris I will beg of you to send me here, 
and have me exposed to the sun. I am sure it will bring me to life 
again. It is wonderful to me that every free being who possesses cent 
ecus de rente, does not remove to the Southward of the Loire. It is 
true that money will carry to Paris most of the good things of this 
canton. But it cannot carry thither it's sunshine, nor procure any 
equivalent for it. This city is one of the cleanest and neatest I have 
ever seen in any country. The streets are straight, from 20. to 100 
feet wide, and as clean as a parlour floor. Where they are of width 
sufficient they have 1. 2. or 4. rows of elms from 10O to 150 years 
old, which make delicious walks. There are no portes-cocheres, so 
that the buildings shew themselves advantageously on the streets. 
It is in a valley just where it begins to open towards the mouth of 
the Rhone, forming in that direction a boundless plain which is 
an entire 1 grove of olive trees, and is moreover in corn, lucerne, or 
vines, for the happiness of the olive tree is that it interferes with no 
superficial production. Probably it draws it's nourishment from 
parts out of the reach of any other plant. It takes well in every soil, 
but best where it is poorest, or where there is none. Comparing 
the Beaujolois with Provence, the former is of the richest soil, the 
latter richest in it's productions. But the climate of Beaujolois can- 
not be compared with this. I expect to find the situation of Mar- 
seilles still pleasanter: business will carry me thither soon, for a 


2 8 MARCH 1787 

pleasure in. shewing every attention which can contribute to make 
the passage more comfortable. At the request of this lady I am to 
sollicit your favour, in a matter, which is not in your official line 
(in that indeed I could have nothing to say to you) but in which, 
as justice is concerned in it, you probably will think it not an un- 
pleasant business to interfere, only so far as she requests. This 
return to her country is designed as a separation from Mr. Oster, 
being the effect of an inveterate connubial disagreement. She thinks 
that she has reason to believe, that he has writen to the Minister, 
to have her confined in a convent, where she might be kept at less 
cost to him than in any other way. He charges her with extrava- 
gance and insanity, of neither of which have I, or those who are more 
intimate with her than my self, been able to discover the smallest 
sign. Those who have had the best opportunity of knowing her are 
impressed with sentiments much in her favour; and altho I am free 
to confess, that in disputes of this sort I am apt to suspect that there 
are some faults perhaps on both sides, yet it seems very probable 
that Mr. Oster's aversion discolours in his eyes her whole conduct, 
and makes him see faults where others can find none. It is by no 
means my wish to raise any prejudice against Mr. Oster; to me 
he has been uniformly polite, nor am I acquainted with any thing 
in his character, which can be the subject of reprehension, except 
in the single instance of his behaviour to his wife. My only wish is 
to guard against prejudice, and to prevent the condemnation of a 
lady unheard. Mrs. Oster only requests, that [no] measures may be 
taken against her, without gtiving her a]n opportunity of] pro- 
ducing such satisfactory vouchers res[pecting her character?] as 
she thinks she can at any time procure. If [those immediately?] 
connected with it, were to come on before a public tribunal of 
justice, it would be proper to leave it there, upon the proofs adduced 
on each side. But if, as Mrs. Oster fears, the shorter method should 
be taken, her friends here have no opportunity of informing the 
mind of the Minister, unless you, Sir, should see nothing amiss in 
using the access which your public character gives you, to lay be- 
fore him a caveat in her behalf. I request the favour that your 
Excellency would present my very respectful compliments to Mr. 
Short, and Mr. Mazzei; tell the latter that I have in vain en- 
deavoured to procure some money for him, but I believe Mr. Mattw. 
Anderson will makq him a remitance shortly, if he have not done 
it already. If I were writing to him now, I would ask him, if he 
did not think it possible for wives to be less in the wrong than their 


28 MARCH 1787 

husbands, I have the pleasure to acquaint you, that all your friends 
this way are well, except that Mr. Wythe seems to have much un- 
easiness on account of his lady's ill state of health. Yet this is not 
likely to hinder his going to Philadelphia in May, in order to attend 
the convention, which is to take under consideration the amend- 
ments necessary to be made in the American Confederation. 

With the greatest respect, I have the honour to be, Your Ex- 
cellency's most obedient & affectionate servant, JOHN BLAIR 

RC (DLC); endorsed. MS is slightly June 1787. 

torn at both edges of text; the words in TJ's YOUNGER DAUGHTER (Mary) 

brackets have been supplied conjectur- did not accompany Mrs. Oster (see 

ally. Recorded in SJL as received 22 Banister to TJ, 6 May 1787). 

To Martha Jefferson 

Aix en Provence March. 28. 1787. 

I was happy, my dear Patsy, to receive, on my arrival here, your 
letter informing me of your health and occupations. I have not writ- 
ten to you sooner because I have been almost constantly on the 
road* My journey hitherto has been a very pleasing one. It was 
undertaken with the hope that the mineral waters of this place 
might restore strength to my wrist. Other considerations also con- 
curred. Instruction, amusement, and abstraction from business, of 
which I had too much at Paris. I am glad to learn that you are 
employed in things new and good in your music and drawing 1 . You 
know what have been my fears for some time past; that you do not 
employ yourself so closely as I could wish. You have promised me 
a more assiduous attention, and I have great confidence in what 
you promise. It is your future happiness which interests me, and 
nothing can contribute more to it (moral rectitude always excepted ) 
than the contracting a habit of industry and activity. Of all the 
cankers of human happiness, none corrodes it with so silent, yet 
so baneful a tooth, as indolence. Body and mind both unemployed, 
our being becomes a burthen, and every object about us loathsome, 
even the dearest. Idleness begets ennui, ennui the hypochrondria, 
and that a diseased body. No laborious person was ever yet hys- 
tericaL Exercise and application produce order in our affairs, health 
of body, chearfulness of mind, and these make us precious to our 
friends. It is while we are young that the habit of industry is 
formed. If not then, it never is afterwards. The fortune of our lives 
therefore depends on employing well the short period of youth. If 


2 8 MARCH 1787 

at any moment, my dear, you catch yourself in idleness, start from 
it as you would from the precipice of a gulph. You are not however 
to consider yourself as unemployed while taking exercise. That is 
necessary for your health, and health is the first of all objects. For 
this reason if you leave your dancing master for the summer, you 
must increase your other exercise. I do not like your saying that 
you are unable to read the antient print of your Livy, but with the 
aid of your master. We are always equal to what we undertake with 
resolution. A little degree of this will enable you to decypher your 
Livy. If you always lean on your master, you will never be able to 
proceed without him. It is a part of the American character to 
consider nothing as desperate; to surmount every difficulty by res- 
olution and contrivance. In Europe there are shops for every want- 
It's inhabitants therefore have no idea that their wants can be 
furnished otherwise. Remote from all other aid, we are obliged to 
invent and to execute; to find means within ourselves, and not to 
lean on others. Consider therefore the conquering your Livy as an 
exercise in the habit of surmounting difficulties, a habit which will 
be necessary to you in the country where you are to live, and with- 
out which you will be thought a very helpless animal, and less 
esteemed. Music, drawing, books, invention and exercise will be 
so many resources to you against ennui. But there are others which 
to this object add that of utility. These axe the needle, and do- 
mestic oeconomy. The latter you cannot learn here, but the former 
you may. In the country life of America there are many moments 
when a woman can have recourse to nothing but her needle for 
employment. In a dull company and in dull weather for instance. 
It is ill manners to read; it is ill manners to leave them; no card- 
playing there among genteel people; that is abandoned to black- 
guards. The needle is then a valuable resource. Besides without 
knowing to use it herself, how can the mistress of a family direct 
the works of her servants? You ask me to write you long letters. 
I will do it my dear, on condition you will read them from time to 
time, and practice what they will inculcate. Their precepts will 
be dictated by experience, by a perfect knowlege of the situation 
in which you will be placed, and by the fondest love for you. This 
it is which makes me wish to see you more qualified than common. 
My expectations from you are high: yet not higher than you may 
attain. Industry and resolution are all that are wanting. No body 
in this world can make me so happy, or so miserable as you. Re- 
tirement from public life will ere long become necessary for me. 


28 MARCH 1787 

To your sister and yourself I look to render the evening of my life 
serene and contented. It's morning has been clouded by loss after 
loss till I have nothing- left but you. I do not doubt either your 
affection or dispositions. But great exertions are necessary, and 
you have little time left to make them. Be industrious then, my dear 
child. Think nothing unsurmountable by resolution and applica- 
tion, and you will be all that I wish you to be. You ask me if it is 
my desire you should dine at the abbess's table? It is. Propose it 
as such to Madame de Traubenheim with my respectful compli- 
ments and thanks for her care of you. Continue to love me with 
all the warmth with which you are beloved by, my dear Patsy, 
yours affectionately, TH: JEFFERSON 

RC (NNP). PrC (MHi). 

From the Rev. James Madison 

DEAR SIR Cca. 28 Mch. 1787] 

Mrs. Oster, an agreable and amiable, but unfortunate French 
Lady will deliver this. And tho' I have Nothing worth communicat- 
ing, I could not refrain, on so favourable an opportunity, of once 
more testifying the sincere Wishes I always entertain for your 
Happiness whilst so remote from your native land, and also Ac- 
knowledgments which are due for past Favours. 

I sent, some Time past, a small Collection of Marine Produc- 
tions, which I hope arrived safe. I wish however I had reserved 
them for this opportunity, as you may probably think them not 
unworthy of attention. 

In this State we enjoy a perfect Tranquility. It could be wished 
the situation was the same to the North of us. The Beginnings of a 
civil war there, appear to some as Proofs of the Instability and 
misery inseperable from a Republican Government. But to others, 
who I trust judge better, they appear only as the Symptoms of a 
strong and healthy Constitution, which, after discharging a few 
peccant Humours, will be restored to new Vigour. 

All the States except Connecticut have agreed to send Deputies 
to the Convention which is to meet at Phila. in May for the 
Purpose of strengthening the Confederacy. And it is supposed that 
Connecticut will finally come into the Plan, from which the good 
Patriots expect permanent Advantages. 

Believe me to be, Dr. Sir, with the most sincere Esteem Yr. 
Friend & Servt., j MADISON 

2 9 MARCH 1787 

I have just been honoured by Genl. Chastellux with a Copy 
of his Travels thro N. America. I find It is but little relished by 
most here. 

RC (DLC); endorsed: "Madison letter from Madison that TJ recorded 

James (Coll[ege])"; without date, but in SJTL as received 522 June 1787, alon# 

written before 29 Mch. (see Blair to with Blair's and a (missing-) letter 

TJ, 28 Mch. 1787; Gary to TJ, 21 Mch, from Wilson Miles Gary of 28 Mch. 

1787). This is evidently the undated 1787. 

To William Short 

DEAR SIR Aix Mar. 29. 1787. 

Mine of the 27th. acknowleged the receipt of your favors of the 
12th. and 14th. to which I must now add that of the 22d. which 
came to hand yesterday. Be so good as to give M. de Crevecoeur 
two maps and a copy of my book which I promised him. I am not 
certain whether I left the new leaves so that you can find them. If 
I did, I wish them to accompany the book. I think the engraver's 
charges reasonable. The packet from the Swedish Ambassador is 
too large to come on by post and probably not of pressing im- 
portance. With respect to the seeds from London, that Mde. de 
Tess6 may not form high expectations from them it is necessary 
to observe to her that they are only of three or four kinds. There 
is a great quantity of each, having been written for on the request 
of M. de Malesherbes, who plants whole forests of every kind. Mde, 
de Tesse will be so good as to take of each as much as she pleases, 
and the residue after she is supplied I directed Petit to send to M. de 
Malesherbe's hotel. It was proper to accompany the medals with 
a letter to Mr. Jay, and I think it would be of advantage to you to 
write to him on any other good occasions. With respect to the 
partition of your time bet-ween Paris and St. Germain's, I should 
suppose it controuled by no circumstance but your own inclination. 
If you take the trouble once a week to see whether any thing has 
arisen which you can dispatch yourself, or which would require 
a communication to me, it will certainly suf&ce. If Colo. Smith 
comes to Paris, tell him. how much I shall accuse fortune for having 
so illy timed my absence from thence, and that this is spoken from 
the sincerity of my heart. I regret the loss of any opportunity of 
discharging some of the debts of gratitude and inclination which 
I owe him. I did not see Mount Cenis. My plan was to have gone 
to Montbard which was on the left of my road, and then to have 
crossed again to the right to Mount Cenis. But there were no posts 

C 253 ] 

29 MARCH 1787 

on these roads, the obtaining horses was difficult and precarious, 
and a constant storm of wind, hail, snow, and rain offered me little 
occasion of seeing any thing. I referred it therefore to some future 
excursion from Fontainebleau. The groupe of which M. de Laye 
spoke to you carries the perfection of the chissel to a degree of 
which I had no conception. It is the only thing in sculpture which 
I have seen on my journey worthy of notice. In painting I have seen 
good things at Lyons only. In Architecture nothing any where ex- 
cept the remains of antiquity. These are more in number, and less 
injured by time than I expected, and have been to me a great treat. 
Those at Nismes, both in dignity and preservation, stand first. 
There is however at Aries an Amphitheatre as large as that of 
Nismes, the external walls of which from the top of the arches down- 
wards is well preserved. Another circumstance contrary to my 
expectation is the change of language. I had thought the Provengale 
only a dialect of the French; on the contrary the French may rather 
be considered as a dialect of the Provengale. That is to say, the 
Latin is the original. Tuscan 1 and Spanish are degeneracies in the 
first degree. Piedmontese (as I suppose) in the 2d. Provengale in 
the 3d. and Parisian French in the 4th. But the Provengale stands 
nearer to the Tuscan than it does to the French, and it is my Italian 
which enables me to understand the people here, more than my 
French. This language, in different shades occupies all the country 
South of the Loire. Formerly it took precedence of the French 
under the name of la langue Romans. The ballads of it's Trouba- 
dours were the delight of the several courts of Europe, and it is 
from thence that the novels of the English are called Romances. 
Every letter is pronounced, the articulation is distinct, no nasal 
sounds disfigure it, and on the whole it stands close to the Italian 
and Spanish in point of beauty. I think it a general misfortune that 
historical circumstances gave a final prevalence to the French in- 
stead of the Provengale language. It loses it's ground slowly, and 
will ultimately disappear because there are few books written in it, 
and because it is thought more polite to speak the language of the 
Capital. Yet those who learn that language here, pronounce it as 
the Italians do. We were last night treated with Alexis and Justine, 
and Mazet, in which the most celebrated actress from Marseilles 
caine to bear a part for the advantage of her friend whose benefit 
night it was. She is in the stile of Mde. Dugazon, has ear, voice, 
taste and action. She is moreover young and handsome: and has 
an advantage over Mde. Dugazon and some other of the cele- 


SO MARCH 1787 

brated ones of Paris, in being clear of that dreadful wheeze or 
rather whistle in respiration which resembles the agonizing strug- 
gles for breath in a dying person. I thank you for your information 
of the health of my daughter* My respects to the family of Chaville 
are always to be understood if not expressed. To Mr. and Mde. de 
la Fayette also, Messrs. Mazzei, Pio and Crevecoeur, I wish to be 
presented. Be assured as to yourself that no person can more sin- 
cerely wish your prosperity and happiness, nor entertain warmer 
sentiments of esteem than Dear Sir your affectionate humble 

RC (ViW); TPs signature has been jolois, a delicious morsel of sculpture, 

cut away; endorsed: * Jefferson March 29 by Michael Ang^elo Slodtz" (TJ to 

[received] April 5 1787." Madame de Tesse*, 2O Mch. 1787), 

The GROUPE OF WHICH M. DE LAYE which evidently has disappeared. 
SPOKE (see Short to TJ, 22 Mch. 1787) 

was the Diana and Endymion **at the 1 This word interlined in substitution 

Chateau de Laye Epinaye in the Beau- for "Italian," deleted. 

From John Bondfield 

SIR Bordeaux 30 March 1787 

I have the honor to transmit you inclosed Bill of Loading for 
Sixty three Cases of Arms shipt on board the Sally Captain Gilkin- 
son for Virginia. The Ship sails to morrow and is a good Vessel 
and will I hope arrive safe. 

By the Ship I transmit the Inspectors Certificate with the In- 
voices received from, the Manufactory and the Bill of Loading to 
His Excellency the Governor of Virginia. I shall have a reimburs- 
ment to make to you as the Duties inward will be repaid me in 
Virtue of the Passport on their Shipment. 

I have been some Days in expectation of seeing you at Bordeaux, 
Mr, Grand having wrote Mr. feger of your intentions to pay us a 
Visit. With due Respect I have the honor to be Sir your most 
obedient Humble servant, JOHN BONDFIELD 

RC (DLC); endorsed. Recorded in SJL as received 3 May 1787 at Aix-en- 
Provence. The copy of the bill of lading- sent to TJ has not been found, but that 
sent to the governor of Virginia and Bondfield's letter in which it was enclosed 
are in "VI. 

From Francis Eppes 

DR. SIR Eppington March 3O. 1787. 

I wrote you last fall and sent to the care of Messrs. Fulwer 

[255 ] 

30 MARCH 1787 

Skipwith and Co. a box containing about a bushel of the cones and 
berries of the Holly. The Ceeder berries accompanies this which 
will be convey'd in a vessle belonging to Messrs. Shore & McCon- 
nico of Petersburg bound to Havedegrass. Every method in my 
power has been tryd to procure the Murtle berries. Many Gentle- 
men in the lower country have promis'd to send me about a bushel, 
however as yet none have arrivd. As soon as they do they shall be 
forwarded by the first safe opportunity. I was at Monticello in 
September. It was then too early to determin with certainty what 
quantity of Tobacco woud be made, however I think the crop will 
not exceed fifty hhds. including what will be made in Bedford. I 
have not herd from the plantations or Colo. Lewis since I left them 
in September for which reason its out of my power to give you any 
satisfaction respecting them, tho' supose Colo. Lewis has given you 
every information you wish as well as transmitted you the accounts 
for the last year, as he at present has the whole management of 
your affairs. You may assure your self my not acting does not 
proceed from any disrespect to you or an inclination to save my 
self trouble but from a thorow conviction that a business like yours 
can be managed to much greater advantage by one person on the 
spot than by any two men in this country seperated as far as Colo. 
Lewis and my self. Added to this I know you as well my self have 
full confidence in Colo. Lewis's integrity and good management. 

Polly is very well and will sail by the first good opportunity. We 
have some expectations that she will go under the protection of 
the French Consol and his Lady who we hear intend for Europe 
this Spring. A Friend of Mine has Writen to the Consol on the 
subject and I expect an answer every moment. She is in high health 
and I hope will be able to bare the Fatigues of the voyage very 
well. We are all well and unite in our wishes for your health and 
happyness. I have inclosd you a letter from Mr. Beall of Wmburg. 
which will inform you of the fate of the claret you were so obliging 
as to send us. The two boxes shipped by Mr. Bondfield are arrived. 
One we have got at home, the other we shall shortly have as its in 
possession of a Friend of mine. I am Dr. Sir with much esteem 
Your Friend & Sevt, FRANS. EPPES 

RC (ViU); addressed and endorsed, to Mr. Jno. Bondfield of Bordeaux and 

Recorded in SJL as received 27 May the goods were stored with Messrs. Coop- 

1787 at Bordeaux. Enclosure: Samuel ers of Portsmouth"; that some of the 

Beall to Daniel McCullum, Williams- cargo had been sent from Portsmouth by 

burg, 3 Dec. 1786, informing him that Bondfield for him to sell; and that he 

the "Vessel that is said to have brought would write at once to obtain informa- 

the Claret for Mr. Eppes, discharged tion about the claret (MHi). 
omder the care of Mr. Bonfield, Nephew The FRIEND who wrote to the French 


30 MARCH 1787 

CONSOL (Martin Oster) evidently did an intentional separation from Oster 
not know that Mrs. Oster was g-oing- to (see Blair to TJ, 28 Mch. 1787; Ban- 
France alone and that her voyage -was ister to TJ, 6 May 1787). 

From Ferdinand Grand 

MONSIEUR [ca. 30 Mch. 1787] 

JPai a repondre aux lettres que vous m'av6z fait Phonneur de 
m'ecrire le 28 du pass6 et le 15 du courant. J'ai pris notte des dis- 
positions dont vous me chargez par la premiere, en consequence de 
laquelle j'ai deja accepte la traitte de 550O. que M. Carmichael 
a fait sur moi pour compte des Etats unis. 

Tai rembourse Messrs. Finguerlin et Scherer des 1500. que 
vous en avez recues. Je n'ai pas encore avis du payement de 4OO 
dont vous les avez prie"s. 

Quant a Messrs. Vandenyver freres & Ce. sur la demande que 
je leur ai f aite et de la somme que vous nVaviez charg6 de recevoir 
d'eux et qui est de 17500. a ce quails m'ont dit, ils desirent d'en 
avoir un ordre de votre part pour me livrer cet argent. Veuillez 
done me le transmettre, et j 7 y joindrai mon regu de la somme. 

Les Stances des Bureaux de la grande assemblee continuent. Ils 
s'occupent maintenant de la troisieme section qui a pour objet les 
Domaines et les forests du Roy. La 4e. et dernier e concernera Tad- 
ministration des finances et le credit. Les Memoires remis de la 
part du Roy aux Notables seront publics aujourdhui. 

JPespere, Monsieur, que vous tes toujours ^galement content 
de votre sante, et que vous le serez des Douches d'Aix, ainsi que 
du progrfcs de votre voyage. Si je puis en aucune manidre contribuer 
a son agr^ment, je vous reitSre ma priere de vouloir bien disposer 
librement de tout ce qui peut d^pendre de moi a cet 6gard. 

Je suis avec respect Monsieur Votre tres humble et trs obeissant- 
Serviteur, GRAND 

RC (DLC); undated; at foot of first evidently a letter notifying- him that he 

page: "Monsieur Th. Jefferson a Mar- had on that day drawn on Grand in the 

seilles"; endorsed. Recorded in SJL as amount of 1,5OO livres in favor of 

received 6 Apr. 1787 at Marseilles. JVTESSRS. FIMGUERLIN ET SCHERER (Ac- 

TJPs letter to Grand of LE 15 r>u count Book under 15 Mch. 1787). 
COURANT has not been found, but it was 

From Madame de Tesse 

a Paris ce 3O mars. 

Vous m'aves fait parcourir hier bien des siScles, Monsieur, par 
la peinture des differ ens rnouvemens qui vous agitent & la vue des 


3 MARCH 1787 

antiques Romaines du midi de la France. Elles^ m'ont semblg 
d6crites pour la premiere fois parcequ'elles m'inspiroient une im- 
pression nouvelle. Je me suis trouvge en Socigtg avec hom&re, 
Licurgue et Solon, parcourant les vestiges de la grandeur Egyp- 
tienne, j'ai vft Cicron s'indigner de ce que le tombeau d'archimfede 
6toit ignor^ a Syracuse, je me suis 6lance dans les sifccles k venir, 
et j'ai distingu^ la jeunesse am6ricaine lisant avec ardeur et 
admiration tout ce qu'on aura Recueilli de vos voyages. Lorsque 
la Richesse de son sol et Pexcellence de son gouvernement auront 
portg PAm6rique Septentrionale au plus haut d&gr& de Splendeur, 
que le midi suivra son xemple, que vous aurs donn6 des soins & 
la moitig du globe, on cherchera peutgtre les vestiges de Paris 
comme on fait aujourdlmy ceux de Pantique Babylone, et les 
memoires de Mr. Jefferson conduiront les voyageurs avides des 
antiquites Romaines et Francoises qui se confondront alors. Telles 
sont, Monsieur, les penses qui m'ont remplie toute la soir6e dliier. 
Mr. Mazzi m'6tant venu voir, je lui ai lu votre lettre comme on 
lisoit sans doute celle des apdtres dans Passemble des premiers 
Chretiens, pour m'assurer que je sentois la valeur de chacune de 
vos impressions. Tout ce qui porte une petite empreinte de culte 
apelle naturellement Mr. Mazz6i. 

Mr. Short passe beaucoup de terns St. Germain, mais il fait 
des courses Paris et ne manque pas de me venir voir pour me 
persuader qu'il y demeure. Je lui ai caus il y a trois jours une 
plaisante importunity. II y a SL peu prds quinze jours que, d6sirant 
quelque chose d'angleterre, j'gcrivis k Mr. barthelemi, charge des 
affaires de France. Le douzifcme jour apr^s je Regus par la diligence 
la chose demande. Cela me fit nattre Tidge de m'adresser il Mr. 
barthelemi pour vaincre, pardonns moi 1'expression, 1'indolence 
de votre correspondant am^ricain ^L Londres. Ses yeux tou jours 
fixes sur la Tamise ne peuvent s'en detacher un instant, c'est en 
vain que Mr. Short Pa pri6 de mettre ^. la diligence la caisse de 
graines arriv6es de la Virginie. Cette malheureuse caisse attend 
toujours qu'on exp6die un vaisseau pour le Havre. J'ai demands 
Mr, Short une lettre pour ce digne commergant et Pai adresse a 
Mr. barthelemi qui ira le trouver et le d^terminera It prendre la 
voie de terre. J*espere que vous ne taxer^s point ma d6marche 
d'indiscr^tion, parcequ'elle est sans inconvenient et qu'en attendant 
votre Rgponse pour la faire, les graines huileuses souffriroient 
davantage et nous perdrions quinze jours trs pr^cieux au printems. 

Les discussions continuent dans Passemblee des Notables, mais 
il n'y a Rien encore d'arr^tg. Les gabelles ont occupg longtems et 

T258 1 

30 MARCH 1787 

s6rieusement ces messieurs. L'int6r6t du peuple, et celui des finances 
du Roy, est difficile et important k concilier dans un objet qui com- 
pose une masse de Revemi aussi considerable. On a propos6 hier 
Falination des doniaines et des Reformes sur la Regie des bois 
appartenant la couronne. L'impdt territorial et Fexamen de F6tat 
Rel des Finances sont Remis la quatriSme section et nous com- 
mengons seulement la troisiSme, Je me Reconnois trs incapable 
de decider quel est le genre d'assembl^e le plus propre discuter 
les int6rts du Roy et du peuple, mais je prononce hardiment qu'il 
faudroit que celle c'y prouva au Roy Pidentit6 de ses interts, car 
c'est sans contredit le bien le plus utile qu'on puisse se proposer 
pour le present et pour Favenir. Au Reste, Monsieur, vous m'auris 
vue tout coup d6sintressee sur les objets qui fixent Pattention 
du public si vous eti6s Restg Paris, La poitrine de Mr. de la 
Fayette a ete menace et Pest encore un peu. Tai d6vin qu'il tra- 
vailloit trop et je m'en suis assur^e. JPai craint qu'on ne put le 
soumettre au R6gime convenable. J'ai craint que ce printems ne 
d6cida en lui une maladie bien dangereuse & son tge. Je suis femme 
et en consequence Tint^r^t public s'est affaiss^, accabl^ devant 
Pinteret particulier. Je n'ai plus vu dans Passemble qu'une source 
de calamit6s, et pendant huit jours je n'ai form6 d'autre voeu que 
de la voir finir. Mr. de la Fayette a consent! de prendre le sommeil 
qui lui est n6cessaire, il ne maigrit plus, tousse peu et la douleur 
de poitrine est fort affaiblie. J'ai done Repris courage et je suis 
Redevenue citoienne, mesure que mes allarmes se sont dissip^es. 
L'application que Mr. de la Fayette donne aux affaires lui a fait 
Retrancher toute correspondence de soci6te. II ne m'crit pas meme 
de ses nouvelles. Je n'en Regois que de son secretaire. II est bon 
que vous en soi6s instruit pour ne pas Paccuser d'une negligence 
dont il sera incapable envers vous dans tous les tems de sa vie. 
Les marseillois vous rapelleront plustdt les troubadours que les 
Phocens, et je doute qu'une seule femme dans cette ville de com- 
merce et de dissipations vous RamSne & Pid6e de Me. de Tott. 
Elle vous a rendu compte de Pimpression qu'elle avoit Regue par 
le tableau de marius; je n'ai point lu sa lettre, mais je sais qu'elle 
exprime mal sa pens6e si elle ne porte pas Pempreinte d'un attache- 
ment sincere et d'une tendre Reconnoissance pour vos bont6s. Mr. 
de Tesse me charge de vous presenter ses hommages. Recev6s avec 
votre bienveillance ordinaire celui de la vn6ration profonde, de 
tous les sentimens avec lesquels j'ai Phonneur d'etre, Monsieur, 
votre trs humble et tr^s obissante servante, 



31 MARCH 1787 

Je soigne moi m&ne dans ma chambre deux Dionea qui poussent 
& merveille. Les autres sont I Chlville sous la conduite de mon 

RC (DLC); endorsed. Recorded in ing Short to allow his time between 

SJL as received 3 May 1787 at Aix-en- Paris and St. Germain to be "controuled 

Provence. by no circumstance but your own ia- 

Almost at the moment Madame de clination" and he was also anticipating: 

TessS wrote her amused comment about Madame de TessS about the TROUBA- 

Short's spending BEAUCOUP DE -raMS A DOURS (TJ to Short, 29 Mch. 1787; for 

ST. GERMAIN that is, near the young a note on Short's love affair, see Malone, 

Duchesse de la Rochefoucauld with Jefferson and the Rights of Afan, p, 149- 

whom he had a love affair that became 50). 
serious around 1790-1792 TJ was tell- 

From Elizabeth Wayles Eppes 

[31 March 1787] 

I never was more anxious to hear from you than at present, in 
hopes of your countermanding your orders with regard to dear 
Polly. We have made use of every stratagem to prevail on her to 
consent to visit you without effect. She is more averse to it than 
I could have supposed; either of my children would with pleasure 
take her place for the number of good things she is promised. 
However, Mr. Eppes has two or three different prospects of con- 
veying her, to your satisfaction, I hope, if we do not hear from you. 

MS not found; tert is from the extract be a part of the letter from Mrs. Eppes 

printed in Randolph, Domestic Life, p. dated 31 Mch. 1787 which TJ recorded 

124, which is cited there as having been in SJL as received 27 May at Bordeaux, 

written "Towards the close of the month along with the letter from her husband 

of March, 1787." This must, however, of SO Mch. 1787. 

From Mary Jefferson 

DEAR PAPA [ca. 31 Mch. 1787] 

I should be very happy to see you, but I can not go to France, 
and hope that you and sister Patsy are well. Your affectionate 
daughter. Adieu. MARY JEFFERSON 

MS not found. Text is from Randolph, proved, it is probable that the present 

Domestic Life, p. 104, where it is letter is the one which TJ recorded in 

printed as one of three undated letters SJL without date as received 27 May 

f rom Mary Jefferson (see also Mary Jef- 1787 at Bordeaux with letters from 

ferson to TJ, ca. 13 Sep. 1785 and ca. Francis Eppes, 30 Mch. 1787, and Eliza- 

22 May 1786). Though it cannot be beth Wayles Eppes, 31 Mch. 1787. 


From Andre Limozin 

Le Havre , 31 Mch. 1787. Encloses Captain Joshua Oldner's bill of 
lading for the ct twelve Cases Catridge Boxes . . . consigned me for the 
use of the State of Virginia" and shipped on the Portsmouth bound for 
Norfolk. She is ready to sail with the <6 very First Fair wind," and Limo- 
zin is sending another bill of lading by her to the governor of Virginia. 
His next letter will bring the note of expenses for these cases. "Captn. 
Oldner Seems [to] me to be a very cleaver man; he intends to continue 
Havre de Grace treade." Limozin recommends him to TJ and if he has 
anything to send to Norfolk, it "must be ready against the month of 
July. . . . His Ship [is] a good Strong new fast sailing Vessell, which 
as well as the Master deserves all preference and incouragement." If 
TJ is surprised because he speaks so much in behalf of a master not 
consigned to Limozin's house, it is because "it is our duty to do Justice 
to every Body." Encloses also a letter from Mr. Oster. 

RC (MHi); 4 p.; endorsed. Recorded (2) The letter from Oster has not been 

in SJL as received 3 May 1787 at Aix- found and is not recorded in SJL among: 

en-Provence. Enclosures: ( 1 ) Bill of the letters received 3 May at Aix-en-Pro- 

lading, dated 31 Mch. 1787 and signed vence; it may have been only a covering 

by Joshua Oldner, for "Twelve Cases address under Oster's frank for one or 

Merchandize," at the foot of which Old- more of the letters from Virginia re- 

ner wrote: "Contents unKnown" (Vi). ceived on that date. 

From Adrien Petit 

^ 31 Mch. 1787. Recorded in SJL as received 3 May 1787 at 
Aix-en-Provence. Not found.] 

To Chastellux 

Marseilles Apr. 4. 1787. 

I must return you many thanks, my dear friend, for your kind 
attention in procuring me the acquaintance of Monsr. Bergasse, 
from whom I have received many civilities, and, what is more 
precious, abundance of information. To you and to him also I am 
indebted for an introduction to Monsr. Audibert, in whom I saw 
enough to make me regret that I could not see more of him. My 
journey from Paris to this place has been a continued feast of new 
objects, and new ideas. To make the most of the little time I have 
for so long a circuit, I have been obliged to keep myself rather 
out of the way of good dinners and good company. Had they been 
my objects, I should not have quitted Paris. I have courted the 
society of gardeners, vignerons, coopers, farmers &c. and have 


4 APRIL 1787 

devoted every moment of every day almost, to the ^ business of 
enquiry. M. de Bergasse however united for me all objects, a good 
dinner, good company, and information. I was unlucky in not 
having called on you before you went into the country, as I should 
have derived from you much useful counsel for my journey. I have 
still a favor to ask of you, which is, a letter to some one good person 
at Tours in Touraine, where I shall make a short stay of a day or 
two on my return about the latter part of May or beginning of June. 
The article Coquilles in the Questions Encyclopediques de Voltaire 
will inform you what is my object there. I have found the AbbSs 
in general most useful acquaintances. They are unembarrassed 
with families, uninvolved in form and etiquette, frequently learned, 
and always obliging. If you know such a one at Tours you will 
oblige me infinitely by a letter to him: or if you know none your- 
self, perhaps some of your friends may. I will only beg to be 
announced but as a voyageur etranger simplement, and that it be 
addressed & Monsr. Jefferson & Tours, poste restante. This de- 
ception keeps me clear of those polite obligations to which I might 
otherwise be engaged, and leaves me the whole of the little time 
I have to pursue the objects that always delight me. I have been 
concerned with the country I have passed thro hitherto. I could 
not help comparing it, en passant, with England, and found the 
comparison much more disadvantageous to the latter than I had 
expected. I shall have many interrogations to ask of you. These 
being too many for a letter, they shall therefore be reserved to some 
future conversation, when I can have the pleasure of returning you 
thanks in person for the multiplied instances of your goodness and 
partiality to me, and of assuring you how sincere are those senti- 
ments of esteem and friendship with which I have the honor to 
be Dear Sir, your affectionate friend & humble servant, 


PrC (MHi); at foot of first page: "M. le Marq. de Chastellux"; MS faded. 
On MONSR. BERGASSE and TJ's interest in COQXTDLIJES, see his journal of his trip 
through Southern France, printed tinder date of 1O June 1787, 

From Ralph Izard 

DEAR SIR Charleston 4th, April 1787. 

I have lately been favoured with your Letter of 18th. Novr. 
which went to New York, and from thence came to me here by the 
Post. You mention the Hague, and are so obliging as to wish me 


4 APRIL 1787 

there: for this mark of your friendship, be pleased to accept of my 
thanks. Had the funds of the United States allowed them to make 
the appointment you allude to last year, I would have accepted 
of it, and devoted three years of my life to their service. At present 
I feel much disinclined to it, and most heartily wish that Mr. 
Madison may be elected whenever the Finances of Congress will 
admit of it. He is a Member of the Continental Convention which is 
to meet in Philadelphia next Month for the purpose of revising the 
articles of Confederation. If the powers of Congress can be so far 
extended as to give efficacy to the decisions of that body, the meas- 
ure will assuredly contribute to the security, and happiness, of the 
Continent. At present our affairs are by no means in a desireable 
state. I agree with you perfectly in opinion respecting the propriety 
of our cultivating the closest, and most intimate connexion with 
France. We have already derived great benefits from her, and 
much greater may still be expected. We are under considerable 
obligations to you for your exertions respecting the Commerce of 
every part of the Continent, and I am confident that very beneficial 
consequences will result from a continuance of them. The copy of 
the Letter from M. de Calonne to you, which you enclosed me, 
shews the good disposition of the Ministry towards us. Much re- 
mains however yet to be done; and I am happy to think that what- 
ever extension is given to the Commerce of America may, by good 
management be made beneficial to France. I should be very glad 
if their Manufactories could supply us as well, and as cheap as 
those of England with the coarse articles which are absolutely 
necessary in this Country. I mean Negro Cloth, Blankets, and 
implements of Husbandry. When I was in Paris I procured from 
London a yard of Negro Cloth called there White Plains, and a 
broad Hoe, and gave them to M. Abeille, who was a Member of a 
Society for the promotion of Commerce. The Cloth is near a yard 
wide, perfectly white, very substantial, and comfortable wear for 
Negroes, and is from 12 to 14Vfc Pence Sterling pr. Yard by the 
Piece. The Broad Hoes are from 17 to 18 shillings, and 6 pence 
a Dozen, and very good. Blankets 4 Shillings, and 3 pence each. 
I have just copied these articles with their prices from an Invoice 
lately received from Messrs. Mannings & Vaughan in London, for 
the use of my Plantations: they were all remarkably good. M. 
Abeille told me that the Manufacturers of France would soon be 
able to supply us with the articles I have mentioned, as good, and 
as cheap. I wish this could be done; and if it could I am persuaded 


4 APRIL 1787 

that four fifths of the Planters in this State would deal with France 
in preference to England. You say that France could consume our 
whole Crop of Rice. This might easily be done if the matter were 
put in a proper train. It would give me much pleasure to see it, and 
returns made entirely in the Manufactures, "Wines &c. of France. 
It is supposed that France contains 24 Millions of Inhabitants. If 
each of them were to consume two pounds of Rice in a year, the 
amount would be 96,000 Barrels of 500 lb., which is more than 
our annual export of that article since the War. I have seen your 
Letter to Mr. Jay, in which you mention the comparative goodness 
of our Rice with that of Italy; and you think ours is not sent to 
Market in as good order as theirs. In this I am persuaded you are 
mistaken. When I was in Italy I visited some of the best Rice 
Plantations in that Country, and was surprized to find how inferior 
their management of the grain was to ours, after they had got it 
into the Barn Yard. You may observe how much whiter our Rice 
is than theirs, which must be owing to that circumstance. Our Rice 
is more broken than theirs, which is occasioned by two causes: 
they clean it less than we do, and their grain is thicker in propor- 
tion to its length, resembling Barley, which makes it less liable to 
be broken by the Pestle. I have seen the Grocers in Paris employed 
in picking out the whole grains from the broken ones. This is a 
needless trouble as one is just as good as the other. If you have 
observed the same thing perhaps that may have led you to think 
that our Rice was not in as good order as the Italian. I am desirous 
of trying how their Rice would succeed in this Country: and for 
that reason should be obliged to you if you could procure, and send 
me any quantity of the seed from one to ten Bushels. It might easily 
be shipped for this Place from Marseilles; and the best seeds should 
be chosen. I was in hopes that you might have been able to have 
induced the Portugueze to receive our Rice on the same terms they 
did before the "War. Lisbon used to take from us annually 2O,OOO 
Barrels, and now there is none sent there, which is a considerable 
disadvantage to us. If Honfleur is made a free Port, with proper 
management the greatest part of the Rice which would otherwise 
be sent to Cowes, might be drawn thither. It might be made a 
Depot for all the goods of Europe consumed by America, and the 
Ships of this Country, and of France, might return at once with 
whatever they wanted, without having the trouble of going farther 
up the Channel. This would be a stroke at the carrying Trade of 
England, and diminish in a considerable degree the Nursery of 


4 APRIL 1787 

their Seamen. France would unquestionably be benefitted by this. 
In my opinion a proper judgment of her prosperity can never be 
formed abstractedly. That of England must be her Scale. Upon this 
Idea my opinion was formed respecting the restrictions on our 
Trade to the West India Islands. If they were entirely removed 
from those of France, England would be under the necessity of 
following the example, and her Seamen would be diminished. Her 
strength, and prosperity depend entirely on the number of her 
Seamen; but France has internal resources; and a great Marine is 
only necessary to her, because her Rival is possessed of one. Mr. 
Barrett's proposals are not very tempting: any Merchant in France, 
Holland, or England will receive consignments upon terms more 
advantageous to the shipper in this Country. I am well acquainted 
with the character and solidity of Messrs, le Coulteux* House, 
and think they might be the means of establishing an intercourse 
very advantageous to the two Countries: but not by such proposals 
as are contained in Mr. Barrett's letter. Too strict an adherence 
to immediate profit will not effect a dissolution of old connexions, 
and long established prejudices. At the same time the present situa- 
tion of our affairs makes it necessary for an European Merchant 
to be very circumspect in his dealings with this Country. Though 
his profits may at first be small, his security ought to be good. 
The War bore particularly hard upon this State, most of us have 
been considerably injured, and I have had my share of the public 
calamity. I find myself about 8,000 Sterlg. in debt, with an 
Estate which ought not to feel any inconvenience from such a Sum. 
I wish however to pay it off, and to have but one Creditor. If 
Messrs. Le Couteulx, or any other substantial House in Paris 
would pay my Bills to that amount, I would engage to remit them 
annually 6OO Barrels of Rice of 500 French pounds weight neat 
each, till the whole debt should be paid, and 5 per Cent interest on 
each Balance. If the Bills could be made payable in London I 
should prefer it, because they always command a better price. I 
would give security to three times the amount of the sum borrowed, 
which should be satisfactory to the Agent of the Lender. I wish not 
to give you any trouble about this matter; but if you could effect 
it without much difficulty it would oblige me, and be of service 
to me. 

I am with great regard Dear Sir Your most obt. Servant, 


Have you received the Laws of this State, and the Newspapers 

4 APRIL 1787 

by M. Chatteaufort? The Printer has orders to send the Papers for 
you regularly to Mr. Jay as you desire, and he tells me it has 
been done. 

RC (DLC): marked "Copy" at head of text; endorsed. Recorded in SJL as 
received 27 June 1787. A Dupl was enclosed in Lanchon FreTes & Cie. to TJ of 
4 July 1787 and recorded in SJL as received 8 July 1787 (missing). 

From the Papal Nuncio 

Paris ce 4 Avril 1787 

L'ArchevSque de Rhodes a Fhonneur de faire part a Monsieur 
Jefferson qu'il a eu hier ses premieres Audiences du Roi, de la 
Reine, et de la Famille Royale en qualitg de Nonce Apostolique. 

RC (DLC) j addressed to TJ at "Rue neuve de Berri pre"s de la Grille de Chaillot 
en son H6tel"; endorsed by TJ: "Rome, Nuncio of." Recorded in SJL as received 
3 May 1787 at Aix-en-Provence. 

To Philip Mazzei 

DEAR SIR Marseilles Apr. 4. 1787. 

I have had the pleasure of finding your friend Soria alive and one 
of the most considerable merchants here. I delivered him your letter 
and he has shewn me all the attentions which the state of his mind 
would permit. A few days before my arrival his only son had 
eloped with jewels and money to the value of 40,000 livres, and 
I believe is not yet heard of. He speaks of you with friendship, and 
will be happy to see you on your way Southwardly. He has prom- 
ised to make me acquainted with a well informed gardener whom 
I expect to find among the most precious of my acquaintances. 
From men of that class I have derived the most satisfactory in- 
formation in the course of my journey and have sought their 
acquaintance with as much industry as I have avoided that of 
others who would have made me waste my time on good dinners 
and good society. For these objects one need not leave Paris. I 
find here several interesting articles of culture: the best figs, the 
best grape for drying, a smaller one for the same purpose without 
a seed, from Smyrna, Olives, capers, Pistachio nuts, almonds. All 
these articles may suceed on, or Southward of the Chesape[ake.] 
From hence my inclination would lead me no further Eastward as 
I am to see little more than a rocky coast. But I am encouraged 


4 APRIL 1787 

here with the hopes of finding something useful in the rice fields 
of Piedmont, which are said to be but a little way beyond the Alps. 
It will probably be the middle of June before I get back to Paris. 
In the mean time I wish to observe [to] you that if this absence, 
longer than you had calculate [d it], should render an earlier pe- 
cuniary supply necessary, lodge a line for me at Aix, poste restante, 
where I shall find it about the last of this month, and I shall with 
great pleasure do what may be needful for you. Be so good as to 
present me respectfully to the Maison de la Rochefoucault, and 
accept yourself very sincere assurances of esteem and regard from 
Dear Sir Your affectionate friend & humble servt, 


PrC (DLC). MS faded; illegible 
words have been supplied in brackets 
by the editors. 

YOUR FRIEND SORIAs In his list of 

names and addresses in the rough notes 
of expenses (CSmH) appears the fol- 
lowing: name: "Antonio Soria. Negociant 
a Marseilles]." In his of 6 May 1787 
TJ enclosed an order on Grand in Maz- 
zei's favor for a PECUNIARY SUPPLY; 
there is in DLC the following- statement 
of his account: 

"Philip Mazssei to Th:J. 

1785. Augr. 11 To cash 600* 

Oct. 22. To do. 600*t 12OO 

1786. Mar. 4. To cash SOO 
June 16. To do. 300^ 

Sep. 21. To do. 36*t 636 

1787 Feb. 9. To cash 48* 

18. To do. 552 
Apr. 4. [6 May] 

Order on Grand 6OO 

1785. Nov. 15. By cash in full 1200* 

1786. Oct. 4. By cash in full 636*" 

From William Short 

MY DEAR SIR Paris April 4. 1787 

I returned from the country the day before yesterday, and the 
evening of the same day brought here yours of the 27th. ulto. I 
need not tell you how much pleasure it gave me to see that you 
were in the midst of constant vivifying sunshine. Although I have 
little faith in the waters of Aix, I have a great deal in its climate. 
But provided you receive the benefit you wished for, I will not dis- 
pute about the cause which may produce so desirable an effect. I 
hope you will let me know in your next whether the one or the 
other has shewn any influence on your wrist. 

Your observations respecting Mr. de Calonne's letter, as well as 
the conduct to be pursued in that and every other case, I am sure 
are the most just that can be made. To do what is right, is the only 
means of extricating one's self from every difficulty but still there 
is a previous difficulty which sometimes occurs, and that is, to 


4 APRIL 1787 

know what Is right. In the case in question however that difficulty 
was not immense; and I am very happy to see that my idea of what 
was proper, corresponded perfectly with yours. I took no further 
step than writing the letter to M. de Colonia. M. de laf . took up 
the subject with new zeal. He was aided by M. M. and the Duke 
of Harcourt this together with M. de Calonne's dispositions, 
which are certainly favorable to commerce in general and that of 
America in particular, have advanced the matter so far, that M. 
de Lf . told me to day it might be considered as an affair finished. 

I shall attend punctually to the several instructions in your 
letter respecting the map. I have not yet been able to see the 
person who is striking the maps for the Abbe" Morellet, but there 
will be no difficulty in having the 200 additional struck on thinner 
paper. It will be necessary however to have two sheets pasted 
together, the map being too large for any single sheet except of 
the thick kind which you saw. Should the bank paper be of too 
small a format, I fear it will be difficult to paste two sheets of that 
thin kind. Of this however I shall make the proper enquiry* You 
desire me to write again to Mr. Ogilvy. You will have seen Sir by 
my letter of the 22d. in what situation that affair was. Since that 
Mde. de Tesse, who had lost all confidence in my London corre- 
spondent, insisted I should give her a letter for Mr. Ogilvy with 
an order to deliver the box to the Chargg des affaires of France at 
London to whom she inclosed it. I have this evening received a 
letter from Ogilvy which shews that my late letter to Mr. Carnes 
as well as that for him, were too late. He tells me that he has sent 
the box of seeds by a vessel bound to Dunkirk addressed to a 
merchant whose address he forwards to me. I shall write to the 
merchant on this subject by to-morrow's post. 

Mde. de Tesse was here this evening to see the procession. The 
day was very unfavorable and of course peu de monde. Mde. de 
Corny wrote me yesterday her intention of coming by your permis- 
sion les jours de Longchamp. I answered her that it was my inten- 
tion tTa-voir pass6 chez elle de lui f aire ma cour, et en mme terns 
de la rapeller qu'elle m'avoit fait esperer que j'aurais le plaisir de 
la voir ici les jours de Longchamps &c. &c. Yet she did not come, 
for what reason I cannot say. I shall call on her to morrow to en- 
quire about it. I received a message from M. de Langeac yester- 
day evening desiring to know if he might be allowed to come and 
bring his sister the Marchioness of Chambaraud to see the proces- 
sion. I was at a loss what answer to make, yet made such an one 


4 APRIL 1787 

as authorized his coming. On my return from Mde. de Tesse's, 
where I dined, I found him in one of the rooms above. His sister 
was not with him, but there were three other women whom I did 
not know. He told me his sister had understood there was to be 
company here to day and therefore did not come but desired she 
might be permitted to have that pleasure to morrow. Whether she 
will come or not I cannot say df she does I shall not know how 
to send her up stairs, and yet I know not how she and Mde. de 
Corny may be as to convenances. 

Mde. de Tess6 Insisted on my giving her your address that she 
might send you two pamphlets, which she intended to have coun- 
tersigned, I told her I would send them to you if she thought proper, 
but she would not hear of it; urging that she was dans Tetat de 
payer 8 ou tt and that the postage would be too considerable, for 
the value of the things sent. 

Lest you should not yet have found out who is President of 
Congress, it may not be improper to tell you that that body formed 
itself not till the early part of Febry. and chose Genl. St. Clair 
their President. I observe that Mr. Madison, and Hawkins of No. 
Carolina arrived at N. York and took their seats about the same 

The Assemblee des notables have separated for the Easter holi- 
days. The pamphlets which Mde. de Tesse sends you will let you 
see in what state matters are here, with respect to them. It is 
thought the result will be that the Controller general will have 
his 112 millions which he asks in addition, but that the nation at 
large will be indemnified for this additional burthen by the new 
regulations which will be established as to 1. provincial assemblies, 
2. public oeconomy, 3. more equal distribution of impositions, 4. 
the liberation of the commerce of grain, and the abolition of the 
shackles of internal commerce by the reculement des barrieres^ 
and 5thly. by other improvements, such as the abolition of the 
corvee, the checking of abuses in domanial administration &c. I 
send you inclosed seven letters being all that have arrived since the 
last which Petit forwarded to you. Before this reaches you, you 
will probably have seen Marseilles. I shall like much to see what 
you think of it, that I may know whether my predilection for it 
is well founded. Should you be at Montpelier I hope you will not 
find it as Rousseau. He says in one of his letters which has just 
fallen accidentally into my hands, 'on re garde les etrangers a 
Montpelier precisment comme une espece d'animaux faits exprs 


5 APRIL 1787 

most people think, that a person cannot be in two places at one 
time. Yet is there no error more palpable than this. You know, for 
example, that you have been in Paris and it's neighborhood, con- 
stantly since I had the pleasure of seeing you there: yet I declare 
you have been with me above half my journey. I could repeat to 
you long conversations, word for word, and on a variety of sub- 
jects. When I find you fatigued with conversation and sighing for 
your pallet and pencil, I permit you to return to Paris a while, 
and 3 amuse myself with philosophizing on the objects which occur. 
The plan of my journey, as well as of my life, being to take things 
by the smooth handle, few occur which have not something tolera- 
ble 4 to offer me. [The Auberge] for instance in which I am obliged 
to take refuge at night, presents in the first moment nothing but 
noise, dirt, and disorder. But the auberge is not to be 5 too much 
abused. True, it has not the charming gardens of Chaville with- 
out, nor it's decorations, nor it's charming society within. I do not 
seek therefore for the good things which it has not, but those which 
it has. *A traveller, sais I, retired at night to his chamber in an 
Inn, all his effects contained in a single trunk, 6 all his cares cir- 
cumscribed by the walls of his apartment, unknown to all, un- 
heeded, and undisturbed, writes, reads, thinks, sleeps, just in 
the moments when nature and the movements of his body and mind 
require. Charmed with the tranquillity of his little cell, 7 he finds 
how few are our real wants, how cheap a thing is happiness, how 
expensive a one pride. He views with pity the wretched rich, whom 
the laws of the world have submitted to the cumbrous trappings of 
rank: he sees him labouring through the journey of life like an 
ass oppressed 8 under ingots of gold, little of which goes to feed, 
to clothe, or to cover himself; the rest gobbled up by harpies of 
various description with which he has surrounded himself. These, 
and not himself, are it's real masters. He wonders that a think- 
ing mind can be so subdued by opinion, and that he does not 
run away from his own crouded house, and take refuge in the 
chamber of an Inn.' Indeed I wonder so too, unless he has a 
Chaville to retire to, and a family composed like that of Chaville, 
where quiet and friendship can both be indulged. 9 But between the 
society of real friends, and the tranquillity of solitude the mind 
finds no middle ground. Thus reconciled to my Auberge by night, 
I was still persecuted 10 by day with the cruel whip of the postillion. 
How to find a smooth handle to this tremendous instrument? At 
length however I found it in the callous nerves of the horse, to 


5 APRIL 1787 

which these terrible stripes may afford but a gentle and perhaps a 
pleasing irritation; like a pinch of 11 snuff to an old snuff-taker. 

Sometimes I amuse myself with physical researches. Those enor- 
mous boots, for instance, in which the postillion is incased like an 
Egyptian mummy, have cost me more pondering than the laws of 
planetary motion did to Newton. I have searched their solution 
in his physical, and in his moral constitution. I fancied myself in 
conversation with one of Newton's countrymen, and asked him 
what he thought could be the reason of their wearing those boots? 
'Sir, says he, it is because a Frenchman's heels are so light, that, 
without this ballast, he would turn keel up.* c lf so, Sir, sais I, it 
proves at least that he has more gravity in his head than your nation 
is generally willing to allow him.' I should go on, Madam, detailing 
to you my dreams and speculations; but that my present situation 
is most unfriendly to speculation. Four thousand three hundred 
and fifty market-women (I have counted them one by one) 12 
brawling, squabbling, and jabbering Patois, three hundred asses 
braying and bewailing to each other, and to the world, their cruel 
oppressions, four files of mule-carts passing in constant succession, 
with as many bells to every mule as can be hung about him, all 
this in the street under my window, and the weather too hot to 
shut it. Judge whether in such a situation it is easy to hang one's 
ideas together. Besides, writing from a colony of your own country, 
you would rather I should say less of myself and more of that. But, 
just dropped among them, how can I pretend to judge them with 
justice? 13 Of beauty, you will say, one may judge on a single coup 
d'oeil. Of beauty then, Madam, they have a good share, as far as 
the public walks, the Spectacles, and the assembled of Mademlle. 
Conil enable me to decide. But it is not a legitimate Graecian 
beauty. It is not such as yours. The reason I suppose is that yours 
is genuine, brought from the spot; [where] as theirs has been made 
here, and like all fabricated wares is sophisticated with foreign 
mixture. Perhaps you would rather I should write you news? Les 
Amandes sont de 22.*, Cacao 19s, Caff6 31., Cotton 130. tt , huile 
22. tt , riz 21.*, savon 42.*, terebenthine 17.s &c, &c. 14 This is not 
in the stile of Paris news; but I write from Marseilles, and it is 
the news of the place. I could continue it thro' the whole table of 
prices current; but that I am sure you have enough, and have 
already in your heart wished an end to my letter. I shall therefore 
annex but one preliminary condition; which is a permission to 
express here my respectful attachment to Madame and Monsieur 

[272 } 

6 APRIL 1787 

de Tess6, and to assure yourself of those sentiments of perfect 15 
friendship & affection with which I have the honor to be sincerely 
& constantly, Madam, your most obedient & most humble servant, 


PrC (MHi); MS faded. Tr (DLC); 
in TJ's hand, differing: somewhat in 
phraseology as Indicated below. The ex- 
act date at which TJ made this copy, or 
the purpose for which it was made, is 
not certain, but it is to be noted that the 
paper on which Tr is written bears the 
watermark "R BARNARD 1809" and 
that this paper is evidently the same as 
that on which TJ made a similar copy 
of his letter of 20 Mch. 1787 to Madame 
de Tesse. Both copies of these letters 
were therefore made sometime between 
1809 and 1826 for an undetermined 
purpose and both were evidently writ- 
ten at the same time. In both cases also 
TJ sougrht to improve" his text when 
he came to make the Tr, as the follow- 
ing- notes indicate, though the changes 
here are less extensive than the corre- 
sponding alterations in the letter to 
Madame de Tesse". 

i This word interlined in Tr in sub- 
stitution for a deleted name (it appears 
to read "David's") that TJ had erred 
in copying from PrC. 

2 MS faded; this and other words in 
brackets (supplied) have been taken 
from Tr. 

3 Tr adds at this points e *in the mean 

4 Tr reads instead: "good." 

5 Instead of preceding 1 four words, Tr 
reads: "has been." 

o Tr reads instead: ''portmanteau." 

7 Preceding four words are not in Tr. 

s The words "labouring through the 
journey of life like an ass oppressed" are 
not in Tr. 

s Tr reads instead: <c united." 

10 In making Tr, TJ erred at this 
point by first writing: "persuaded"; he 
then corrected this to read as above. 

11 Tr reads "Scotch snuff." 

12 Preceding three words are not in 

13 T r reads: ". . . to judge the legiti- 
macy of their descent?** 

14 This sentence is altered in Tr to 
read as follows: "Any thing to obey you 
Oil is 1O. sols the lb., almonds 2.^ [sic], 
Cacao 19 s., Caffe. 31.s, rice 21.*t & c ." 

is This word is not in Tr. 

From William Macarty 

SIR Lorient 6th. april 1787. 

Continual delays and disappointments in my Business and Re- 
mittances from america has Involved me in Difficulties with Some 
of my Creditors who harrass me continually to prevent the bad 
Consequences, that might attend their pursuit. Messrs. Girardot 
Haller & Ce. of Paris my principal Creditors, have made applica- 
tion to Monsieur Le Barron de Breteuil for an arret de Surseance 
for one year. 

Permit me, to request you, to represent my unhappy Situation, 
to the Minister. Your kind influence will be of great Service in 
obtaining the arret de Surseance which will enable me to do Justice 
to every one, and preserve me from Ruin. I am with great Respect 
Sir your most Humble and obedient Servant, 


RC (DLC); endorsed. Recorded in SJL as received 3 May 1787 at Aix-en- 

[273 ] 

From Rigoley d'Ogny 

MONSIEUR Paris 6 - Avril 178 ?- 

Cest avec grand plaisir, Monsieur, que je vous ai fait remettre 
en franchise du port maritime et de terre le paquet qui vous avait 
6t6 adressg de Newyorck par la voye des Paquebots frangais qui 
contenait principalement des Gazettes et que vous avi6s refuse 
comme trop taxe. Permett6s moi de projBter d'une occasion ou vous 
Sentgs vous mSme un des inconv&iiens qu'il y a que la France 
n'ait pas encore pft conclure aucun traitg relatif & Sa Correspond- 
ance avec les Etats unis de PAm6rique, pour vous engager a re- 
prendre la N6g6ciation que favais 6t6 autorisg & faire avec M, 
Francklin dfes 1784. 

Aprfcs plusieurs Conferences nous convinmes d'un Projet de 
traiti qu'il se chargea d'envoyer; depuis ce terns la, j'ai cherchg 
inutilement tous les moyens de suivre 1'effet de cette nggociation 
sans pouvoir y parvenir. 

La rgularit du d6part des Paquebots fran^ais par lesquels 
s'6coule beaucoup de lettres arrivantes en France des Pays Etrang- 
ers, que je laisse passer actuellement franches aux treize Etats 
unis, doit leur faire sentir la nScessitg d'un Trait6, parcequ'il ne 
serait pas juste que la France payt ces Sortes de lettres & TEtranger 
sans en gtre remboursg par les treize Etats unis. 

Dans le cas ou vous croiries pouvoir reprendre cette nggociation, 
j'aurai Thonneur de vous envoyer une Copie de ce Projet de trait6 
et de vous demander un moment de conversation pour en raisonner 
avec vous. JPen serai d'autant plus flatte que ce sera pour moi une 
occasion de vous offrir les assurances du Sincere et respectueux 
attachement avec lequel j'ai Thonneur d'etre, Monsieur, Votre trds 
humble et tres ob6issant serviteur, RIGOLEY D'OGNY 

RC (DLC); in a clerk's hand, signed TJ on 21 June 178 Y; see also Short to 

by D'Ogny; endorsed. Tr (DNA: PCC, TJ, 6 Apr. and TJ to D'Ogny, 3 May 

No. 1O7, n). Recorded in SJL as re- 1787. Rigoley, Baron d'Ogny, was In- 

ceived 3 May 1787 at Aix-en-Provence. tendant General des Postes aux Lettres. 

This letter was forwarded to Jay by 

From William Short 

DEAR SIR Paris April 6. 1787 

At length Longchamp is at an end. The company have just left 
me and I retire from the bustle of the procession to the calmer 
pleasure of writing to you. My apprehensions as to convenances 


6 APRIL 1787 

between some of the ladies were without ground. Mde. de Corny 
and the Marchioness de Chambaraud were previously acquainted. 
At least they had a great deal of conversation and talked of having 
met at some supper lately. I waited on Mde. de Corny yesterday. 
The bad weather prevented her coming the first day, some en- 
gagement yesterday, and thus she has only seen the procession 
to-day, although she seems to enjoy it in an eminent degree. Count 
Langeac brought only one of the three ladies of the first day, with 
him yesterday and to-day. It is the Countess de Neuilly and further 
I know not, The weather was more favorable yesterday than 
to-day and of course there was a more numerous concourse. The 
Alley of the procession was changed this year from the accustomed 
one to that which leads from Madrid to la Muette. This was oc- 
casioned by the advice of a writer in the journal of Paris. The 
public have been thus informed of the advantage of a change from 
a narrow sandy path to a wide avenue, and as the public when 
informed, do what is right, they have not failed in this instance. 
You see sir that the liberty of the press does good every where. It 
is true that here the liberty is quoad hoc. 

I have desired Barrois who superintends the striking of the 
map for the Abb Morellet to have struck for you 2OO, on the same 
kind of paper with that which he employs for the Abb6 Morellet. 
He thinks there will be difficulty as to the bank paper but will ex- 
amine into the matter. I have begged him to finish his use of the 
plate as soon as possible that I may send it to London. At the Abb 
Morellet's request I have sent him to-day two of your maps and by 
your order two to M. Desmarets and two to M. de Crdvecoeur. I 
should have sent him at the same time a copy of your book as you 
desire, but have not been able to find where you kept them. Will 
you be so good as let me know it that I may comply with your 
request, and thus oblige at the same time M. de Crevecoeur? 

I have recieved two letters from Mr. Dumas to be forwarded to 
Mr. Jay, inclosing a number of Leyden gazettes. He desires me 
to continue extracting from them such things as may be useful to 
you on your return. He says the affair at Amsterdam must rest 
In statu quo until you recieve your answer from America which 
you expected in four months. He is exceedingly alarmed at the 

apprehensions of B 's being sent to the Hague. He goes fully 

into the matter with Mr. Jay to shew him how impolitic it would 
be and how disagreeable to France. He declares that he could have 
nothing in common with him at the Hague, without losing the 


6 APRIL 1787 

confidence of his best friends. He does not mention his name in 
the letter to Mr. Jay, but alludes to what he had said of him on a 
former occasion. He begs I will let him know if I conjecture who 
the person is after leaving not the possibility of a doubt on the 
subject and desires the closest secrecy on my part. It appears clearly 
that he is really alarmed. 

Yours of the 29th. arrived here last evening. I was much pleased 
to see that you approved of my having written to Mr. Jay; as I had 
doubts on the subject myself, arising from my perfect unacquaint- 
ance with whatever relates to matter of rank or etiquette. I will 
make use of the medals to be sent by the May packet to write him 
again. Colo, Smith has not yet arrived, and I have heard nothing 
from him lately. 

You will recieve Sir with this letter two others, one of which you 
will be surprized to see opened. I will explain to you the cause of 
it. When the newspapers arrived by the late packet it was observed 
that the tax had been altered, but instead of a diminution they had 
struck out 40. ft and put in its room sixty odd. Petit before recieving 
them went to enquire into the reason of the augmentation. The 
Baron D'Oigny (from whom the letter is, which I have opened) 
with his usual civility and politeness, said he would have the affair 
regulated and immediately sent me the papers and letters, desiring 
only that he might retain for some days the enveloppe which had 
the post mark on it. When his letter arrived to-day Petit was so sure 
it was nothing but the enveloppe enclosed to you, that he insisted I 
would open the letter in order to avoid sending you an useless 
paper. On the contrary I find it is a letter which shews a continua- 
tion of those sentiments which the Baron D'Oigny expressed to 
me previous to your departure last year for England, and which 
make me regret again the delay with which the instructions from 
Congress on this subject are attended. 

There is also enclosed an announce of the presentation of the 
Pope's Nuncio. The porter tells me it was brought by his servant. 

Mrs. Barrett continues in a low state of health. Her spirits seem 
much affected. M. de Crevecoeur thinks her certainly in a con- 
sumption. I fear that the ennui of Paris may at length be attended 
with serious consequences for her she never moves out, sees no- 
body, and in fine leads a life proper to give a consumption were she 
clear of it. She desired some time ago I would let her know how she 
could have Miss Jefferson to see her; observing that you had prom- 
ised to mention to Mde. FAbbesse, that she had your permission 


7 APRIL 1787 

to recieve her. I told her that if you had done that I supposed there 
-would be no difficulty. When I was at the convent some time ago I 
mentioned this circumstance to Miss Patsy, who told me in answer 
that you had said nothing about it to the Abbesse. I never see Mr. 
or Mrs. Barrett without their bringing the affair on the tapis. Al- 
though I conjecture your failure to speak to the Abbess was in- 
tentional, yet I have supposed it as well not to tell them so. 

Blackden is still here he told me this morning he should stay 
about six weeks longer. The list of the Americans is as you left it, 
except Carnes gone to London and Smith to Toulouse. I know of 
no new ones arrived. A Mr. Garnett who brought some letters and 
left a card for you two or three weeks past, came here a day previ- 
ous to his departure for London and left a note for me expressing 
his mortification at not being able to see me, and desiring if there 
should be any commands for Mr. Vaughan, that they might be 
sent to his friend Mr. Milton, still at Paris. Be so good as let me 
know Sir if your wrist recieves any benefit from the waters or 
climate of Aix and rest assured of the warmest and sincerest senti- 
ments of friendship with which I am & ever shall be Your, &c., 


Petit who carried your letter to Miss Jefferson this morning tells 
me that she was in perfect health. 

RC (E>LC). PrC (DLCs Short Pa- May 1787; the latter may or may not 

pers). Recorded in SJL as received 3 have been enclosed in Dumas to Short, 

May 1787 at Aix-en-Provence. Only two 27 Mch. 1787, q.v. for a note on Dumas* 

of the enclosures have been identified: alarm at B 's (Bingham's) BEING 

(1) D'Ogny to TJ, 6 Apr* 1787 and SENT TO FRA.NCE. In referring to Du- 

(2) the Papal Nuncio's note of 4, Apr. mas* going- FUU-Y INTO THE MATTEH 
1787. TJ received thirty-six letters at WITH MR. JAY, Short is alluding to 
Aix-en-Provence on 3 May 1787, all of Dumas' letter to Jay of 27 Feb. 2 Mch. 
them having been forwarded by Short 1787 in which Dumas had inserted a 
or Petit at various times, private and confidential note concerning 

The TWO LETTERS FROM: DUMAS TO the likelihood that a person of Bing- 

BE FORWARDED TO JAY were evidently ham's character would come under the 

those of 23 Mch. and 30 Mch. 1787 influence of the British minister at The 

which were sent to Jay by Short on -4 Hague. 

To Martha Jefferson 

MY BEAR PATSY Toulon April 7. 1787. 

I received yesterday at Marseilles your letter of March 25* and 
I received it with pleasure because it announced to me that you were 
well. Experience learns us to be always anxious about the health 
of those whom we love. I have not been able to write to you so often 

{277 } 

7 APRIL 1787 

as I expected, because I am generally on the road; and when I stop 
any where, I am occupied in seeing what is to be seen. It will be 
some time now, perhaps three weeks before I shall be able to write 
to you again. But this need not slacken your writing to me, because 
you have leisure, and your letters come regularly to me. I have 
received letters which inform me that our dear Polly will certainly 
corne to us this summer. By the time I return It will be time to 
expect her* When she arrives, she will become a precious charge 
on your hands. The difference of your age, and your common loss 
of a mother, will put that office on you. Teach her above all things 
to be good: because without that we can neither be valued by 
others, nor set any value on ourselves. Teach her to be always 
true. No vice is so mean as the want of truth, and at the same time 
so useless. Teach her never to be angry. Anger only serves to 
torment ourselves, to divert others, and alienate their esteem. And 
teach her industry and application to useful pursuits. I will venture 
to assure you that if you inculcate this in her mind you will make 
her a happy being in herself, a most inestimable friend to you, and 
precious to all the world. In teaching her these dispositions of mind, 
you will be more fixed in them yourself, and render yourself dear 
to all your acquaintance. Practice them then, my dear, without 
ceasing. If ever you find yourself in difficulty and doubt how to 
extricate yourself, do what is right, and you will find it the easiest 
way of getting out of the difficulty. Do it for the additional incite- 
ment of increasing the happiness of him who loves you infinitely, 
and who is my dear Patsy your's affectionately, 


RC (NNP). PrC (ViU). The editors specimen of letter-writing style in 1876 

are indebted to John Cook Wyllie, Cu- in J. Willis Westlake's How to Write 

rator of Rare Books of the Alderman Letters, Philadelphia, Sower, Potts & 

Library, University of Virginia, for call- Co., 1876, pages 95-6" (communication 

ingr to their attention the fact that the to the editors, 8 July 1953), 
present letter "was still being used as a 

From Adrien Petit 

{Paris, 7 Apr. 1787. Recorded in SJL as received 3 May 1787 at 
Aix-en-Provence. Not found.] 


From David Ramsay 

DEAR SIR Charleston April 7th* 1787* 

Your favor of October last came to hand last February with the 
several samples of rice therein referred to. The time of its arrival 
was opportune. Our house of Assembly was then sitting. I produced 
the samples of rice on the table of the house for the inspection of 
the members who were planters. I shewed your letter privately to 
some of your friends who concurred with me in opinion that it 
would be beneficial to the public and not indelicate to you to have 
it inserted in our State gazette. This was accordingly done. If this 
does not meet your approbation I beg your pardon for making your 
letter public. It has been serviceable to our planters and I trust 
will produce no effects to your prejudice. Instead of this it has con- 
tributed to impress on our Country Gentlemen a very favorable 
opinion of you for your particular attention to their interest. 

Political necessity has once more compelled the Legislature of 
this State to enact an instalment law by which all debts contracted 
before Jany. 1787 (with a few exceptions) are only recoverable 
by three equal instalments in the years 1788 1789 and 1790. I 
fear the comments that will be made on this act in Europe. I do 
not pretend to justify it. I only say that the calamities of the war 
and the subsequent successive failure of crops for three years in 
some degree palliate this interference of the legislature. 

I hope the Dioneas and the Magnolias arrivd safe. They were 
lodged in New: York with Mr. Otto. The season was such as Mr. 
Watson chose but I fear it was too late. If any accident befel them 
I shall cheerfully replace them this ensuing season. 

Our governments in the Southern States are much more quiet 
than in the northern but much of our quiet arises from the temporis- 
ing of the legislatures in refusing legal protection to the prosecution 
of the just rights of creditors. Our eyes now are all fixed on the 
continental convention to be held in Philada. in May next. Unless 
they make an efficient federal government I fear that the end of the 
matter will be an American monarch or rather three or more con- 
federacies. In either case we have not labored in vain in effecting 
the late revolution for such arrangements might be made as would 
secure our happiness* 

I long to see a French copy of my book. I feel myself much 
honored by your correspondence and esteem every line from your 


7 APRIL 1787 

pen a real favor. With the most exalted sentiments of respect & 
esteem I am yours most truly, DAVID RAMSAY 

RC (DLC). Recorded in SJL as received 6 July 1787. 

For a note on Ramsay's publication in the South Carolina Gazette of TJ's letter 
OF OCTOBER LAST, see TJ to Ramsay, 27 Oct. 1786. 

To William Short 

DEAR SIR Toulon Apr. 7. 1787. 

I received yesterday at Marseilles your favor of Mar. 26. I was 
just then setting out for this place, and therefore deferred answer- 
ing you till my arrival here. I now inclose you a letter for the Count 
de Montmorin, which, with that to the King, be pleased to deliver 
to M. de Montmorin. Is the letter to the king sealed with the seal 
of Congress? If it is, nothing is necessary to be said on the subject, 
If it is not, it will be necessary to enter into this explanation: that 
some time ago I had occasion to deliver to C. de Vergennes a letter 
from Congress to the king, which was not sealed with the seal of 
Congress; that C. de Vergennes noticed it to me, and I wrote to Mr. 
Jay to inform him that hereafter the seal of Congress would be 
expected to such letters; but that I suppose my letter might not 
have got to hand when this one came away. The letter to the king 
is in answer to one he wrote Congress in July last on the birth of 
the princess. I have apologized in mine to M. de Montmorin for 
the delay of the answer, Congress not having assembled to do 
business till the beginning of February. General St. Clair is their 
president. I inclose you an order on Mr. Grand for 120O livres 
for the workman who makes Genl. Gates's medal. I received a 
letter from Mr. Wythe as you supposed. It was dated the 13th. 
Dec. He does not mention Martin's arrival. He had received the 
Tagliaferro arms; but as I had sent them by two or three oppor- 
tunities, it does not prove Martin's arrival. 

Having taken 40. douches, without any sensible benefit, I 
thought it useless to continue them. My wrist strengthens slowly: 
it is to time I look as the surest remedy, and that I believe will 
restore it at length. I set out tomorrow for Nice. The information 
received at Marseilles encourages me in my researches on the sub- 
ject of rice, and that I shall meet with rice fields and the machines 
for cleaning it just beyond the Alps. Unless they call me into the 
neighborhood of Turin I shall not go that far, having no object 
further eastward except the rice. Hitherto my journey has been 
a continued feast on objects of agriculture, new to me, and, some 

t 280] 

9 APRIL 1787 

of them at least, susceptible of adoption in America. Nothing can 
be ruder or more savage than the country I am in, as it must have 
come from the hands of nature; and nothing more rich and varie- 
gated in the productions with which art has covered it. Marseilles 
is a charming place. All life and activity, and a useful activity like 
London and Philadelphia. As I shall receive no more of your letters 
till I get back to Aix you will hear from me less often: probably not 
at all while beyond the Alps. When I get back to Nice I shall be 
able to calculate to a day my return to Aix, and of course the term 
after which it will be proper to send my letters to another stage. 
Remember me to enquiring friends, and be assured of the sincere 
esteem with which I am Dear Sir your affectionate friend & servant, 


ES. Not being sure of M. de Montmorin's address, I have left 
it blank. Be so good as to inform yourself of it, and to address the 

RC (Georg-e W, Glick, New York presentation of the report on the Con- 
City, 1948); endorsed: "Jefferson 1787 sular Convention. That letter was car- 
April 7, [received] 15.** PrC (DLC). ried to America by Randall, and TJ may 
Enclosures: (1) TJ to Montmorin, Tou- have suggested to Randall that he ex- 
Ion, 6 Apr. 1787 (missing-); see note to press to Jay the fact that VERGENNES 
Jay to TJ, 9 Feb. 1787. (52) Draft on NOTICED the omission of the seal and 
Grand (missing), that the seal would thenceforth be ex- 

I WROTE TO MR. JAY TO INFORM HTM pected. But TJ knew as early as 6 Dec. 

THAT HEREAFTER THE SEAL OF CON- 1786 that his letter of 8 July had been 

GRESS WOULD BE EXPECTED: No such received by Jay (see Vol. 1O: 455). 

letter has been found, and it is probable The inference to be drawn is that TJ's 

that none was written. The only letter remarks to Short on this matter consti- 

from TJ to Jay in the latter part of tute a diplomatic "explanation" and not 

1786 that mentions delivery of a docu- necessarily a recital of facts (the letter 

ment to Vergrennes is that of 8 July was actually sealed; see Short to TJ, 

1786, q.v., in which TJ discusses the 24 Apr. 1787). 

From Martha Jefferson 

MY DEAR PAPA Panthemont, April 9th, 1787. 

I am very glad that the beginning of your voyage has been so 
pleasing, and I hope that the rest will not be less so, as it is a great 
consolation for me, being deprived of the pleasure of seeing- you, 
to know at least that you are happy. I hope your resolution of re- 
turning in the end of April is always the same. I do not doubt but 
what Mr. Short has written you word that my sister sets off with 
Fulwar Skipwith in the month of May, and she will be here in 
July. Then, indeed, shall I be the happiest of mortals; united to 
what I have the dearest in the world, nothing more will be requisite 


9 APRIL 1787 

to render ray happiness complete. I am not so industrious as you or 
I would wish, but I hope that in taking pains I very soon shall be. 
I have already begun to study more* I have not heard any news of 
my harpsichord; it will be really very disagreeable if it is not here 
before your arrival. I am learning a very pretty thing now, but it is 
very hard. I have drawn several little flowers, all alone, that the 
master even has not seen; indeed, he advised me to draw as much 
alone as possible, for that is of more use than all I could do with 
him. I shall take up my Livy, as you desire it. I shall begin it again, 
as I have lost the thread of the history. As for the hysterics, you 
may be quiet on that head, as I am not lazy enough to fear them. 
Mrs. Barett has wanted me out, but Mr. Short told her that you 
had forgotten to tell Madame L'Abbesse to let me go out with her. 
There was a gentleman, a few days ago, that killed himself because 
he thought that his wife did not love him. They had been married 
ten years. I believe that if every husband in Paris was to do as 
much, there would be nothing but widows left. I shall speak to 
Madame Thaubeneu about dining at the Abbess's table. As for 
needlework, the only kind that I could learn here would be em- 
broidery, indeed netting also; but I could not do much of those in 
America, because of the impossibility of having proper silks; how- 
ever, they will not be totally useless. You say your expectations for 
me are high, yet not higher than I can attain. Then be assured, 
my dear papa, that you shall be satisfied in that, as well as in any 
thing else that lies in my power; for what I hold most precious is 
your satisfaction, indeed I should be miserable without it. You 
wrote me a long letter, as I asked you; however, it would have been 
much more so without so wide a margin. Adieu, my dear papa. 
Be assured of the tenderest affection of your loving daughter, 


Pray answer me very soon a long letter, without a margin. I will 
try to follow the advice they contain with the most scrupulous 

MS not found; text is from the printing: in Randolph, Domestic Life, p. 117-18* 
Recorded in SJL as received 3 May 1787 at Aix-en-Provence. Patsy's remark about 
THE HYSTEBICS alludes to a sentence of T*Ps letter of 28 Mch. 1787. 

From Jacques Nicolas Mayeux 

Rozoy-sur-Serre, 9 Apr. 1787. States that he had petitioned the 
Prince of Luxembourg on 15 Apr. 1783 to reimburse him for his 
services at sea; had no reply; on 15 Mch. last, he again applied to the 


1 1 APRIL 1787 

Prince* who replied that his claim for services on the ship, Ulndien, was 
not the Prince's responsibility; that he had paid for such services up to 
the time of sailing-; that the ship -was chartered by the state of South 
Carolina, Capt. Gillon being in full charge; that the claim should be 
presented to TJ; and that he had already urged TJ to pay the soldiers 
and sailors the wages due them and their shares of the prizes of which 
Capt. Gillon has given no account. The petitioner claims payment for 
3OO livres ( lOs, per day) for pay while he was at sea on the ship, 
Ulndien^ having received nothing for twenty months 7 service during 
1781 and 1782, together with his share of the prize money for three 
ships and their cargoes; begs TJ, in accordance with the King's proc- 
lamation of 4 Aug. 1786, to recover for him the money he won by en- 
dangering his life. 

RC (ViWC); 2 p.; in French; at head of text: "Prises et Captures sur mer." Tr 
(DNA: PCC, No. 107, n). Not recorded in SJL; copy enclosed in TJ to Jay, 21 
June 1787. 

From A. E. van Braam Houckgeest 

Charleston^ S. C., 10 Apr. 1787. In March of 1786, he sent from 
Charleston, on his brig, AmitiS^ Capt. Peray, among other things, three 
leather bundles and a small cask of snuff from Brazil which he bought 
in Charleston, not knowing that it was contraband in France; on arriving 
at Bordeaux the captain had all of the cargo unloaded, thereby proving 
that he had no intention of smuggling. The snuff was seized; efforts 
were made by his agents, without success, to recover it for re-export; 
but the farmers-general merely cancelled the fine and notified him that 
he could recover the snuff only through TJ's intervention; applies to 
TJ to recover the snuff or to see that he is reimbursed for his loss. 

RC (DLC); 2 p.; in French; endorsed. Recorded in SJL as received 6 July 1787. 
See David Ramsay to TJ, 16 Apr. 1787, in which this letter was enclosed; and 
TJ to Ramsay, 8 Aug. 1787. 

To Lafayette 

Nice, April 11, 1787. 

Your head, my dear friend, is full of Notable things; and being 
better employed, therefore, I do not expect letters from you. I am 
constantly roving about, to see what I have never seen before and 
shall never see again. In the great cities, I go to see what travellers 
think alone worthy of being seen; but I make a job of it, and gen- 
erally gulp it all down in a day. On the other hand, I am never 
satiated with rambling through the fields and farms, examining 
the culture and cultivators, with a degree of curiosity which makes 
some take me to be a fool, and others to be much wiser than I am. 

283 } 

1 1 APRIL 1787 

I have been pleased to find among the people a less degree of physi- 
cal misery than I had expected. They are generally well clothed, and 
have a plenty of food, not animal indeed, but vegetable, which is 
as wholesome. Perhaps they are over worked, the excess of the 
rent required by the landlord, obliging them to too many hours of 
labor, in order to produce that, and wherewith to feed and clothe 
themselves. The soil of Champagne and Burgundy I have found 
more universally good than I had expected, and as I could not help 
making a comparison with England, I found that comparison more 
unfavorable to the latter than is generally admitted. The soil, the 
climate, and the productions are superior to those of England, and 
the husbandry as good, except in one point; that of manure. In 
England, long leases for twenty-one years, or three lives, to wit, 
that of the farmer, his wife, and son, renewed by the son as soon 
as he comes to the possession, for his own life, his wife's and eldest 
child's, and so on, render the farms there almost hereditary, make 
it worth the farmer's while to manure the lands highly, and give the 
landlord an opportunity of occasionally making his rent keep pace 
with the improved state of the lands. Here the leases are either 
during pleasure, or for three, six, or nine years, which does not 
give the farmer time to repay himself for the expensive operation 
of well manuring, and therefore, he manures ill, or not at all. I 
suppose, that could the practice of leasing for three lives be intro- 
duced in the whole kingdom, it would, within the term of your life, 
increase agricultural productions fifty per cent; or -were any one 
proprietor to do it with his own lands, it would increase his rents 
fifty per cent, in the course of twenty-five years. But I am told the 
laws do not permit it. The laws then, in this particular, are unwise 
and unjust, and ought to give that permission. In the southern 
provinces, where the soil is poor, the climate hot and dry, and there 
are few animals, they would learn the art, found so precious in 
England, of making vegetable manure, and thus improving these 
provinces in the article in which nature has been least kind to 
them. Indeed, these provinces afford a singular spectacle. Calcu- 
lating on the poverty of their soil, and their climate by its latitude 
only, they should have been the poorest in France. On the contrary, 
they are the richest, from one fortuitous circumstance. Spurs or 
ramifications of high mountains, making down from the Alps, and 
as it were, reticulating these provinces, give to the vallies the pro- 
tection of a particular inclosure to each, and the benefit of a general 
stagnation of the northern winds produced by the whole of them, 


1 1 APRIL 1787 

and thus countervail the advantage of several degrees of latitude. 
From the first olive fields of Pierrelate, to the orangeries of Hieres, 
has been continued rapture to me. I have often wished for you. I 
think you have not made this journey. It is a pleasure yon have to 
come, and an improvement to be added to the many you have 
already made. It will be a great comfort to [you to know, from your 
own inspection, the condition of all the provinces of your own coun- 
try, and it will be interesting to them at some future day to be known 
to you. This is perhaps the only moment of your life in which you 
can acquire that knolege. And to do it most effectually you must be 
absolutely incognito, you must ferret the people out of their hovels 
as I have done, look into their kettles, eat their bread, loll on their 
beds under pretence of resting yourself, but in fact to find if they 
are soft. You will feel a sublime pleasure in the course of this in- 
vestigation, and a sublimer one hereafter when you shall be able 
to apply your knoiege to the softening of their beds, or the throwing 
a morsel of meat into the kettle of vegetables. You will not wonder 
at the subjects of my letter: they are the only ones which have been 
present to iny mind for some time past, and the waters must always 
be what are the fountain from which they flow. According to this 
indeed I should have intermixed from beginning to end warm ex- 
pressions of friendship to you: but according to the ideas of our 
country we do not permit ourselves to speak even truths when 
they may have the air of flattery. I content myself therefore with 
saying once for all that I love you, your wife and children. Tell 
them so and Adieu. Your's affectionately, TH: JEFFERSON] 1 

PrC (DLC); fragment, consisting of last pagre only, without indication of ad- 

i That part of the text within brackets (supplied) represents the whole of the 
fragmentary PrC; all of the remainder of the text is printed from TJR, n, 1O4-6. 

From Louis Guillaume Otto 

MONSIEUR A Newyork le 11 Avril 1787. 

J'ai reu la lettre que Vous m^aves fait Phonneur de m'ecrire le 
14. Janvr. dernier. Je desire plus que personne que le nouveau 
reglement pour les paquebots se soutienne; il me fournira sou vent 
Toccasion de m'entretenir avec Vous et de recevoir de Vos nouvelles. 

Le petit resum6 des nouvelles de PEurope, que Vous voules bien 
m'addresser, m'est infiniment precieux. II sert si fixer mes idees sur 
plusieurs objets, que les Gazetiers Anglois se plaisent a representer 

{285 } 

1 1 APRIL 1787 

sous un faux jour- Je suis egalement reconnoissant des brochures 
dont Vous avgs charg6 le Col. Franks; quoique ces sortes de pub- 
lications n'aient qu'un interet momentane, elles ont du prix pour 
un homme qui est loin de sa patrie. 

Vos Concitoyens, Monsieur, sont aussi sur le point d'avoir leur 
assemblee des notables. Elle doit se former en May prochain a 
Philade. Les yeux de toute PAmerique sont fix6s sur ce nouveau 
CongrSs, compost des homines les plus distingugs par leurs con- 
noissances politiques, leur poids et leur integrity. Les observateurs 
les moins prevenus n'esperent pas cependant de voir finir tous les 
emb arras, mais ils se flattent facilement que cette nouvelle as- 
semble gen6rale fournira une occasion de discuter fonds les 
inter^ts de Funion et d'examiner jusqu'S. quel point les peuples 
doivent se depouiller de leur Iibert6. Le sacrifice sera certainement 
trfcs grand, mais les circonstances le rendent indispensable. Vous 
connoisss mieux que moi, Monsieur, les avantages et les incon- 
veniens de la confederation actuelle et je me borne & Vous exposer 
1'opinion du public eclairg. 

L'assemblee de Newyork vient d'emanciper les Vermontois et 
Ton doit s'attendre & voir arriver bientdt en Congr^s les representans 
d'un quatorzieme Etat. Les anciens Proprietaires ont fait leur 
possible pour f aire echouer le Bill qui declare Tindependance de 
Vermont, mais on a cru devoir sacrifier leur inter&t au repos public. 
Vous trouver6s S. ce sujet dans les gazettes un discours du CoL 
Hamilton qui a et generalement approuv. 

Le Dr. Ramsay a public la lettre que Vous lui av6s ecrite au 
sujet des ris de la Caroline. Cette piece a fait beaucoup de sensation; 
le dernier paragraphe doit en faire surtout dans le coeur d'un 
Francois. Vous ne sauries prendre trop de peine, Monsieur, pour 
conserver parmi Vos Compatriotes le veritable esprit de Falliance. 

JPai Fhonneur d'etre avec un respectueux attachement Monsieur, 
de Votre Excellence, le trfcs humble et trs obeissant serviteur, 


RC (DLC); endorsed. Recorded In The DISGOTJBS DU COL. KLAJMILTON on 

SJL as received 11 June 1787. For a the independence of Vermont is to be 

note on Ramsay's publication of TJ's found in Hamilton, Works, ed. H. C. 

letter AU SUJET JDES RIS, see TJ to Ram- Lodge, vui, 42-62. 
say, 27 Oct. 1786. 


To William Short 

DEAR SIR Nice April 12. 1787. 

At Marseilles they told me I should encounter the ricefeilds of 
Piedmont soon after crossing the Alps. Here they tell me there are 
none nearer than Vercelli and Novarra, which is carrying me almost 
to Milan. I fear that this circumstance will occasion me a greater 
delay than I had calculated on. However I am embarked in the 
project and shall go through with it. Tomorrow I set out on my 
passage over the Alps, being to pursue it 93 miles to Coni on mules, 
as the snows are not yet enough melted to admit carriages to pass. 
I leave mine here therefore, proposing to return by water from 
Genoa. I think it will be three weeks before I get back to Nice. 
I find this climate quite as superb as it has been represented. 
Hieres is the only place in France which may be compared with it. 
The climates are equal. In favor of this place are the circumstances 
of gay and dissipated society, a handsome city, good accomodations 
and some commerce. In favor of Hieres are environs of delicious and 
extensive plains, a society more contracted and therefore more capa- 
ble of esteem, and the neighborhood of Toulon, Marseilles and 
other places to which excursions may be made. Placing Marseilles 
in comparison with Hieres, it has extensive society, a good theatre, 
freedom from military controul, and the most animated commerce. 
But it's winter climate far inferior. I am now in the act of putting 
my baggage into portable form for my bat-mule; after praying you 
therefore to let my daughter know I am well and that I shall not 
be heard of again in three weeks I take my leave of you for that 
time with assurances of the sincere esteem with which I am Dear 
Sir your friend & servt., TH: JEFFERSON 

RC (ViU); endorsed: "Jefferson April 12 [received] 21 1787." Not recorded in 


To the Abbes Arnoux and Chalut 

a Nice ce 12me. Avril 1787. 

C'est bien le terns, mes chers Messieurs, de vous faire mes re- 
mercimens pour toutes les honnetetes dont je vous suis redevable. 
A commencer par Madame de Laye, elle m'a comblg de bontes, de 
politesses, et de toutes sortes detentions. J'ai fait chez elle un 
sejour de trois jours, qui ont et6 remplis d'agremens et d'instruo 
tions. Monsieur Tournillon, Monsieur de Pizay, Monsieur le 


14 APRIL 1787 

Prevot d'Ainay se sent empresses de me montrer par toutes les 
honnetet^s possibles combien ils estiment tout ce qui vient de 
votre part. Monsieur Bernard de Marseilles etoit en campagne. 
I$i Monsieur Sasserno ne cesse de me donner des preuves de ses 
dispositions a m'etre utile. Enfin je vois par la que tout le monde 
vous aime, et que c'est moi qui en profite. Je vous en fais mille et 
mille remercimens, et c'est du fond de mon coeur que je vous 
les fais. Mon voyage a et6 jusqu'igi on ne peut plus interessant. 
Demain je partirai pour les rizieres de Piedmont. C'est par elles 
que je finirai mon voyage de ce cot6 ci. Je retournerai aprds par le 
canal de Languedoc, la Garonne, et la Loire & Paris, ou j'aurai 
rhonneur de vous revoir aux premiers jours de Juin, de vous dire 
combien je suis sensible vos amiti6s, combien elles m'ont et6 
utiles, et de vous prier de vouloir bien agreer tous les sentimens de 
reconnoissance, d'estime, et de respect, avec lesquels j'ai Fhonneur 
d'etre, mes chers Messieurs, votre tr6s humble et tres obeissant 
serviteur, TH: JEFFERSON 

PrC (DLC); endorsed. This letter, follows: "M. Tournillon Paine*. Conseil- 

written the day before TJ began his ler du roy. Notaire rue de la Barre. 

journey across the Alps into Italy, is M. TAbbe Charrier de la Roche, Prevot 

the last recorded in SJL until those writ- d'Ainay, vicaire general a Ainay & 

ten from Aix-en-Provence on 3 May. Lyons. M. de Pizay. en son hotel rue 

The Abbe's Arnoux and Chalut had Sala. 3. Lyons. . . . M. Bernard de 1'Acad, 

evidently given TJ letters of introduc- de Marseille, directeur joint de 1'Ob- 

tion to TOUBNILLON . . . FIZA.Y and servatoire. a I'Observatoire (de M. 

others named, all of whom appear in PAbbe" Papon). . . . Nice. M. [Andr61 

TTs list of names and addresses in his Sasserno. neg-ociant." See TJ to Short, 

rough notes of expenses (CSmH), as 15 Mch. 1787. 

From Francis Hopkinson 

DEAR SIR Philada. April 14th. 1787 

Your Favour of the 23d. Dec. came to Hand yesterday. I have 
but just Time to notice the several Articles you mention in the 
order they stand. The first respects Madame Champes. I have 
suffered much uneasiness about the first Packet to her, which I 
delivered to a Gentleman of Bucks County, her near Neighbour, 
upon his Promise to procure me her Receipt for the Packet. This 
however hath never been done. It has been often promised and as 
often forgot. I wrote yesterday to Madame Champes, informing 
her that I had another Packet for her, which I would deliver only to 
her written Order, accompanied with her Receipt for the first. 
The Manner of preserving the Essence L'Orient is the very method 
I tried; but I think it changes the Colour. If I had a Day or two's 


14 APRIL 1787 

Notice more than I have I would send you a Sample perhaps I shall 
as it is. I shall have the Experiment of my Spring-Block tried here 
this Summer and will inform you of the Result. The Gentleman I 
spoke to has not sent me the Nuts from Pittsburgh. Now I know 
that it is the Illinois nut you want, I shall exert myself to procure 
some for you. I sent you long since a Packet of News-Papers, in 
which I inclosed the foot and 2 or 3 of the long Feathers of the 
beautiful Bird I mentioned. I hope they got to hand. I shall soon 
begin again upon the Harmonica. From the Experiments I have 
made, I have no Doubt of the Success. I have already applied Keys 
to the Glasses, furnished with artificial Fingers, which answered 
perfectly, and most delightfully in a great Part of the Scale. Where 
they did not succeed so well -was owing to the Glass not being truly 
mounted. So that I must, I find, take off the Glasses from the 
Spindel and mount them anew. The Pedal to the Forte Piano is a 
good Thought. The Idea is taken from the Pedal Stop of a Church 
Organ. The mint is not yet established by Congress. Indeed their 
Situation is such, that they can establish nothing. The States begin 
to see the necessity of some alterations in the Terms of Confedera- 
tion, and a respectable Delegation from most of the States are to 
meet here next Month to prepare and recommend a new System of 
Foederal Union. I am sorry for the Misfortune of your Wrist. I 
hope it is recovered before this. The next Time you perform this 
Maneuvre I would recommend your left Wrist for the Experiment. 
You will find it much more convenient than the Right and it can 
be every bit as well strained. I am glad you approve of our 2d. 
Volume of Ph. Transactions. A Gentleman lately from Lon- 
don told me that he was present at the Royal Society when our 
Volume was the Subject of Notice. That particular attention was 
paid to my Optical Problem, and much Surprise exprest that the 
Circumstance should have never before been noticed. The Fact was 
at first doubted, but Lord Cavendish made the Experiment and 
declared it was truly stated. It may probably be the Subject of 
future Discussion. 

I cannot forward your News Papers now, they would be too 
bulky for Mr. Paine's Convenience. I send you however, our Maga- 
zines and Monthly Museum. The Proprietors of the Magazine, 
have engaged me to undertake the Management of the Work, to 
which they are by no Means Competent themselves. The month of 
March is my first Exhibition. In the Magazine of this Month, I 
shall take the Liberty of giving an Extract from your valuable 


14 APRIL 1787 

Notes on Virginia, respecting the Comparative Size of European 
and American Animals. I hope this will not displease you. I hope 
further that you will give me Assistance now and then. I have a 
very curious Drawing and account of the Remains of an ancient 
fortified Town on the Muskingum taken by an officer on the Spot 
It seems from many Circumstances to be the Vestiges of Art, before 
this Country was known to Europe. This is an interesting Circum- 
stance in the History of the World. It will be published in the May 
Magazine. I have invented this Winter a cheap, convenient and 
useful Appendage to a common Candlestick, which keeps the Flame 
from being flared by the Wind in Summer or the Fire in Winter, 
and makes it give a pleasant and steady Light to read or write by. 
I shall give a Description and Drawing in next month's Magazine. 

I have just come from Dr. Franklin. He is well. I saw Mr. Rit- 
tenhouse's Family yesterday all well Kitty much pleased with 
her little Book, but lamented that she had no Letter with it. My 
Mother desires to be affectionately remembered to Miss Jefferson. 

Adieu and believe ever sincerely your's, F. HOPKINSON 

Dr. Griffiths is well, but I have not yet had an opportunity of 
giving the Enquiries of Monr. Bidon and his able Friends. 

RC (DLC); endorsed. Recorded in Notes on Virginia* and in the March 

SJX as received 11 June 1787. 1787 issue of the American Museum, I, 

For a discussion of Hopkinson's OPTI- 206-8, he presented "Thoughts on 
CAL PROBLEM, see Hastings, Hopkin- American Genius" in which he stated 
son, p. 361-2. The inscription in Hop- that "The learned Jefferson, in his ex- 
fcinson's copy of Notes on Virginia cellent *notes on Virginia,' has refuted 
should have made him more sensitive to this thesis [of Buffon and other natural- 
TJ's probable attitude toward the pub- ists concerning- the degeneracy of life in 
lication of an EXTRACT . . . RESPECTING America], with the urbanity of a g-entle- 
THE COMPARATIVE SIZE OF EUROPEAN man, and the accuracy of a scholar, sup- 
AND AMERICAN ANIMALS; that inscrip- ported by the sound reasoning of a 
tion read, in part: "Unwilling- to expose philosopher. His observations, particu- 
them to the public eye, he asks the favor larly on the writing's of the abb6 Raynal, 
of Mr. Hopkinson to put them into the and the count de Buffon . . . deserve 
hands of no person on whose care and republic ation." This same issue con- 
fidelity he cannot rely, to guard them tained TJ's letter to Jay, 27 May 1786, 
against publication." Hopkinson did re- and Calonne's letter to TJ, 22 Oct. 
print the Virginia Act for Establishing 1786; same, p. 198-202. 
Religious Freedom, evidently from 

From Francis Hopkinson 

Philada. Apr. 14th 1787. 

The enclosed Phial contains some of my Essence L'Orient but 
very imperfectly prepared. I heard only this Morning that Mr. 


1 4 APRIL 1787 

Paine would set off Tomorrow. I had to buy the Fish and prepare 
the Essence. It should be three or four Days in settling and the 
water then poured off but I have had only as many Hours for the 
Purpose, so that great allowances must be made. I have put some 
volat Spt* Sal Ammoniac and some Spirit of Wine in, which will 
preserve it, I hope, till it gets to hand. All I want to know is whether 
the Sample I send is of the right kind. If it should be, I can procure 
any Quantity of it in the season that is April May and June. 


RC (DLC). This note was probably enclosed in the foregoing-. The entry in 
for 11 June 1787 mentions only one letter of 14 Apr. from Hopkinson. 

From Adrien Petit 

[Paris , 14 Apr. 1787. Recorded in SJL as received 3 May at Aix-en- 
Provence. Not found.] 

From Thomas Mann Randolph, Jr. 

DEAR SIR Edinburgh April 14th. 1787 

I received your letter containing advice with respect to my edu- 
cation, which I shall allways feel the advantage of having obtaind 
and which I shall express my gratitude for by the only method 
in my power, implicitly following it. I have allready attended a 
course of lectures on each of the sciences you mentioned except 
Botany and Anatomy, which are to engross the greater part of my 
time this summer. It was not without the greatest difficulty and 
agitation of mind, that I could select one to be the object of my 
future and allmost sole pursuit. Indeed as on it my success in life 
hereafter must entirely depend, to determine a matter of such im- 
portance without a struggle would argue a stupid carelessness and 
insensibility. I was long delighted with the charms of Natural 
History, but found at last that altho it was the most rational and 
agreeable amusement in which hours of relaxation could be em- 
ployed, yet it was too trivial to spend a whole life in the prosecution 
of. Natural Philosophy appeared more deserving of a particular 
attention, the exalted nature of its objects, and the utility which 
mankind in general derive from their investigation, seemed to offer 
a reward equal to the arduous undertaking. The sublime pleasure 
which the mind feels on the discovery of a Mathematical truth, 


14 APRIL 1787 

made it still more agreeable from its intimate connection with that 
delightful tho abstract science Ambition; perhaps I ought to be 
ashamed to confess it, as it must allways be mixed in some degree 
with vanity, hindered me from fixing on a knowledge of either of 
these, as the sole end to which I would wish to attain. Being cer- 
tain that Politics was a science which would lead to the highest 
honours in a free state, and the study of which by many of its 
members would be of the greatest utility to the community in an 
infant one, I resolved to apply chiefly to it. From this time Montes- 
quieu and Hume have been my principal study. The course of 
historical reading you advised, I am likewise pursuing. I am con- 
scious that youthful hopes may be too ardent, and that my ideas 
must be in a great measure visionary, but I am at the same time 
convinced that Eloquence even in a very middling degree is re- 
spectable. My desire to become acquainted with the political consti- 
tution and natural productions of my own country, must I am 
afraid remain some time unsatisfied, as I have yet heard of no 
author of note who has wrote on its history either natural or civil. 
I wait with impatience for the publication of the history of the last 
war by Mr. Gordon of Massachusets. By the perusal of it I hope 
to have my curiosity in some degree allayed. I must trouble you 
for your advice on a particular which you did not mention in your 
letter: I mean the propriety of studying living languages, which 
has been questioned by so many. The 2 dead languages were all 
I acquired the least idea of at school, except the French. Having 
met with many inaccurate translations from there, I began to be 
afraid that the like mistakes might be committed with respect to 
the meaning of the original author in others, and to conceive that 
it was an essential part of education to be qualified for the perusal 
of books in the principal languages of Europe. With this design 
I immediately applied to the Italian, encouraged much by the 
account of the elegance of the poetical compositions in it, I received 
from those who understood it. Finding even the rudiments of it 
not so difficult as I expected, I have determined as soon as I shall 
be capable of reading it with ease, to undertake the Spanish, pro- 
vided my plan meets with your approbation. This correspondence 
concerning myself entirely, must be so tedious and uninteresting 
to you, that was I not certain of your desire for the propagation 
of knowledge, nothing should induce me to trouble you. I have 
taken the liberty to procure the seat of an honorary member for you 
in a society instituted here for the encouragement of the study of 


14 APRIL 1787 

Natural history among the students at this university. I should not 
have thought the honor worth your acceptance, was not the list 
allready adorned wih the names of Black, Priestley and Pennant. 
Mr. Barton will deliver the Diploma. As my Father is very im- 
patient for my return, I shall probably spend this winter in Paris, 
and set out the next summer. 

Sir your much obliged humble Servt., 


RC (MHi); endorsed: "Randolph iNSTrruTED HERE [in 1782] FOR THE 

Thos. M. junr." Recorded in SJL as re- ENCOTJRAGEJVIENT OF THE STUDY OF 

ceived 25 May 1787 at Bordeaux. NATURAL HISTORY AMONG THE STXJ- 

The DIPLOMA delivered by M3i. BAR- DENTS, is in MHi; among: those who 

TON, dated at Edinburgh, 22 Feb. 1787, signed were Randolph himself and Ben- 

and signed by the officers of the SOCIETY jamin Smith Barton* 

From David Rittenhouse 

DEAR SIR Philadelphia April 14th. 1787 

About the latter end of June last I sent you the 2d. Vol. of our 
Transactions, directed to Mr, Adams at London. I afterwards 
found that Mr. Adams was at that time Absent; it is therefore 
probable that you have not yet recived it. Should it still come to 
hand it may give you an Opportunity of gratifying some freind. 
I have some hopes that the Society will publish a Small Volume 
next winter. I can't however pretend to contribute much towards it 
as the Business of my Office, continually encreasing, not only oc- 
cupies my time intirely at present, but is become almost insup- 
portable, We have abundance of projectors and pretendors to 
new Discoveries, and many applications to the Legislature for ex- 
clusive priviledges, some of them ridiculous enough. The self- 
moving Boat, the Steam Boat, the Mechanical Miller, the improved 
Ring Dial for finding the Variations of the Needle. The Surveying 
Compass to serve 20 other purposes, And a project for finding the 
Longitude by the Variation of the Magnetical Needle. Of this I 
shall give you a more particular Account, The Authors first scheme 
was this. He supposes two invisible Globes, appendages of the 
Earth, to Govern the Needle and likewise greatly to influence the 
Tides, one having 70 or 80 Degrees North Declination and the 
other almost as much South, and he has Assigned the periods of 
their revolutions. But being told that his Globes would infallibly 
fall to the Earth unless Supported by an Iron Spike or something 
of that nature, he has discharged them and contented himself with 

C293 ] 

15 APRIL 1787 

assigning two points, one near each pole. Thro' the Northern 
one, he says, pass all the Magnetical Meridians in the Northern 
Hemisphere, and thro' the other all those of the Southern Hemi- 
sphere. He has determined the present situation and periodical 
revolution of the North point with great precission, of the other 
he speaks more doubtfully. In a plausible publication he proposes 
on these principles to find the Longitude Generally and thinks him- 
self intitled to a public reward. I promised myself the pleasure of 
spending the ensuing Season at home, having' been absent three 
Summers past. My Blessing on Miss Patty. I hope the lameness of 
your wrist will not long make writing difficult. 

I am, dear Sir, with the greatest esteem Your affectionate friend 
& Humble Servant, DAVD. RITTEN HOUSE 

RC (DLC); endorsed. Recorded in SJL as received 11 June 1787. 
On tiie PROJECT FOR FINDING THE LONGITUDE, see John Churchman to TJ, 6 
June 1787. 

From Francis Hopkinson 

Philada. April 15th. 1787. 

Mr. Paine not setting off to Day, as 1 expected, gives me an 
Opportunity of sending another Phial of Essence L'Orient which 
has had the Advantage of standing all Night to depurate and is 
richer than that I gave Mr. Paine yesterday. Besides this, I put 
some Spirit of Wine in the Phial of yesterday, which I observe 
curdles and discolours the Essence. In this there is nothing but a 
little Volat. Spirit of Sal Ammoniac. It's Lustre is not abated. It 
looks at present most beautiful and will, I hope, arrive in good 
Order to your Hand. I have just heard of the Arrival of Captain 
Gilpin from some Port of France, and that there is a Packet on 
board for me. If so it is probably from you. But this is all I yet 
know about it. 

Yours ever, F. HOPKINSON 

RC (DLC). Not recorded in SJL, but probably received on 11 June 1787 with 
Hopkmson's of 14 Apr. 1787. 

From St. John de Crevecoeur 

SlR Paris le 16 Avril 1787 

As a feeble tho' sincere acknowledgement for your excellent 
notes on Virginia, as well as for your kindness, Permit me to offer 


1 6 APRIL 1787 

you The Second Edition of the Amer: Far. Letters. Spite of all my 
Care, a great number of Faults are to be found in it, for never before 
had I seen such Profligate careless Men as the Journeymen Printers 
I have had to do with. "With unfeigned Respect I remain Sir Your 
most humble Servant, ST. JOHN DE CREVECOEUR 

RC (DLC); endorsed. Recorded in SJL as received 3 May 1787 at Aix-en-Pro- 
vence. The three volumes that accompanied this letter (but probably were not 
forwarded by Short or Petit) were the Paris, 1787, edition of Crevecoeur's Les 
Lettres d*u?i Cultivateur Americain. 

From David Ramsay 

Charleston^ S.C., 16 Apr. 1787. Encloses a letter from A. E. Van 
Braam Houckgeest, formerly of the United Netherlands and now a citi- 
zen and "respectable Gentleman of this state." Urges TJ's assistance in 
his behalf, since he is a "Gentleman of reputation much esteemd by his 
lately adopted country." 

RC (DLC); 2 p.; endorsed. Recorded in SJL as received 6 July 1787. Enclosure: 
Houckgreest to TJ, 1O Apr. 1787. 

From John Sullivan 

DEAR SIR Durham in New Hampshire April 16th. 1787 

Upon the receipt of your favor of the 7th. of January 1786 I 
found that every thing I have done toward procuring for you the 
Skin and Skeleton of a moose would not answer your Expectations, 
the bones not being left in the skin or proper Care taken to preserve 
and dress the skin with the hair on so that no proper resemblance 
of the Animal could be had. But upon receiving your Letter I im- 
mediately applied to Capt. Colborn of Lebanon on Connecticut 
River to procure me one and Transport him to my House with 
only the skins opened and the Entrails taken out, and such thick 
parts of the flesh cut off as would not injure the skin or skeleton. 
The winter proved extraordinary, much snow but no Crust till 
the Last of March, at which time a Crust happening he sallied forth 
with his forces and with Difficulty killed one in Vermont State and 
transported his Carcass to my House agreable to orders. He was 
no less than 14 Days with a Team in The Transportation. I send 
you his Receipt inclosed for the Cash I paid him upon the Arrival 
of the Animal on the 3d. of this month. The remaining flesh began 
to be in a state of putrefaction. Every Engine was set at work to 
preserve the Bones and Cleanse them from the remaining flesh, 


16 APRIL 1787 

and to preserve the skins with the hair on, with the hoofs on and 
Bones of Legs and thighs in the skin without putrefaction, and 
the Jobb was both Expensive and Difficult, and such as was never 
before attempted, in this Quarter. But it was at Last Accomplished 
exactly agreable to Your Directions, except that the bones of the 
head are not Left in the skin agreably to your Directions, as it was 
not possible to preserve them in that Connection, but the head of 
the skin being whole and well dresst it may be Drawn on at pleas- 
ure. The Horns of the Deer, the Elk and the Caribou I also send. 
They are not the horns of this Moose but may be fixed on at 
pleasure. The horns of those animals are not in perfection at this 
season of the year. The skeleton of the other Animals I have not 
procured and am much mortifyed and no doubt you will be very 
greatly surprized at the Expence of what I now send, a particular 
Account of which will come by Capt. Saml. Pierce by whom I 
send the articles. I inclose you his note to me which will inform you 
of the time of his sailing and the manner in which he means to con- 
vey them to you, which being the best opportunity that offered I 
have adopted it. I have been oblidged to make a Draught on you in 
favor of my brother Judge Sullivan of Boston for forty five pounds 
sterling to reimburse the money I have advanced and will be the 
amount of the Expence attending this very troublesome affair. The 
Skeletons of the other Animals, though they might be procured 
with Less expence, I could not think of hazarding it "without your 
consent. These animals are generally taken far in the woods and 
very often, as was the Case with this, Twenty miles from any road. 
A way must of course be cleared through the wilderness to trans- 
port them whole and hailed by hand, to some common road. The 
flesh of them which is considered as of considerable value is mostly 
Lost. The meat of a moose is generally Esteemed equal in value 
to that of a Large ox. However if the present Expence is not dis- 
couraging I will endeavour to procure the others as Cheap as pos- 
sible, and although they must fall far short of this will be consid- 
erable. I am sorry that one branch of one of the Elks horns has been 
Cut, but it was the only pair I could procure and as one of them is 
entire I suppose it cannot be of much consequence. I am most re- 
spectfully Dr. Sir yr. very humble Servt., JNO. SULLIVAN 

RC (DLC). Recorded in SJL as re- he is not bound for France but will be 

ceived 26 Sep. 1787. Enclosures: (1) pleased to ship the box by packet from 

Captain Robert Colburn's receipt to Southampton to Le Havre, which he 

Sullivan, 3 Apr. 1787 (missing). (2) thinks is the "readiest and cheapest 

Samuel Pearce to Sullivan, 12 Apr. way"; that he would be glad to accept 

1787 (DLC), informing- Sullivan that the bill on TJ but "at present he is 


1 7 APRIL 1787 

quite out" of cash; and that if Sullivan enclosures were sent to TJ with Sulli- 

decides to send the box, he would like van's of 29 May 1787, q.v. See also 

to "have it the last of the ensuing week Sullivan to TJ, 17, 26, and 27 Apr,, SO 

as he expects to sail the beginning of Apr., and 9 May 1787. 
the week after." Covering 1 letter and its 

From Thomas Brand Hollis 

DEAR SIR Chesterfield Street April 17th. 1787. 

I request the favor of your benevolent acceptance of the memoirs 
of the late excellent Thomas Hollis, who was a friend to the rights 
of America and of mankind in general. How would he have re- 
joiced to have seen these days "Tyranny defeated and the seeds of 
freedom planted in another world for which he could scarcely have 
hoped," tho to which he was in no small degree instrumental by 
dispersing the best of books on the most interesting subjects. 

An encouragement for others to do the like. May they obtain a 
place in your library which I shall esteem an honor. 

A translation of the History of the Hospital of St. Elizabeth just 
published waits on you, in which are many singular notes and cir- 

I am Dear Sir with great esteem your most humble Sert., 


RC (DL.C); endorsed. Recorded in 1780, were not forwarded to Bordeaux 

SJL as received 25 May 1787 at Bor- by Short (or Petit), but were retained 

deaux. The two volumes of Memoirs of in Paris (see TJ to Hollis, 2 July 1787; 

Thomas Hollis, edited by Francis Black- Sowerby, No. 389). 
burne, and privately printed, London, 

From Philip Mazzei 

Paris, 17 Apr. 1787. Mazzei here acknowledges TPs letter of 4 Apr. 
and thanks him for offering to supply him with money; by exercising 
rigid economy he can subsist until TJ returns; however, if TJ wishes to 
give him an order for a small sum he will hold it in reserve and give it 
back to TJ on his return. The Prince of Cond6 7 s cook, during the 
Prince's absence, took James [Hemings] as a pupil; instructed him 
for one day in town, five days in the country, and four after their 
return to town. James says that he learned when they were in the coun- 
try that the cost, including maintenance, was 12 francs a day; the cook 
says he told him this before they left town; Mazzei knew nothing of the 
arrangement until later. Has told James that even if he were informed 
of the price after they went to the country, he is not to be excused for 
continuing the four days after their return. The new cook will take 
James on at 10O francs a month if the arrangement is by the year or 


17 APRIL 1787 

at 200 francs by the month. The Prince's cook is willing to con- 
tinue on the old basis when the Prince is in Paris, and will arrange to 
take him to Burgundy during the session of Parliament there. It is 
Mazzei's opinion that it would be best to conclude arrangements with 
the Prince's cook by paying him the five louis for which James' unwari- 
ness or indiscretion has obligated him. Asks TJ's decision on the matter. 
Mazzei went to TJ's house some time ago and, as a result of the conduct 
of the servants who had been given notice, he ordered them all to be 
turned out at the end of the month, even though TJ had permitted 
them to stay until they found other employment; suggests that TJ write 
Petit to send them away at once if he has not already done so. Is sorry 
to learn of the knavery of young Soria. Even though TJ finds satis- 
factory gardeners and farmers in Provence, he will find better ones 
around Genoa or in Tuscany. They will talk of this in the future. The 
Marquis (Lafayette) has a chest ailment which causes Mazzei con- 
cern; begs TJ to write him seriously not to neglect his health, his life 
is too precious, Mazzei has finally begun to print; will be satisfied if he 
is finished in August. Asks for news when time permits. 

RC (DLC); % p.; in Italian; endorsed. Recorded in SJTL as received 3 May 1787 
at Air-en-Provence. See Partout to TJ, Jan. 1787; TJ to Mazzei, 6 May 1787. 

From John Sullivan 

[Durham, N.H., 17 Apr. 1787. Recorded in SJL as received 26 Sep. 
1787 (not found); enclosed in Sullivan to TJ, 29 May 1787. See 
Sullivan to TJ, 16 Apr. 1787; TJ to Sullivan, 5 Oct. 1787.] 

From John Adams 

DEAR SIR London 18 Apr. 1787 

Mr. Mortimer the Bearer of this Letter, is a Gentleman of 
Letters, and although little known to me, is recommended by some 
of my Friends as a worthy, though unfortunate Man. He is repre- 
sented to be a Friend to Liberty, and Humanity, and as such I beg 
leave to introduce him to you, and to ask for him any friendly 
Advice or Aid you may be able to afford him in his Views, of 
litterary Employment as a Teacher of Languages, or otherwise, 
With great Regard I am, my dear Sir always yours, 


- RC i, iP^F^ endoraedi "Adams John reed, at Nantes." Recorded in SJTL as re- 
ceived 31 May 1787. 


From Peter Carr 

DEAR UNCLE Williamsburg, April 18th. '87 

Your daughter being about to sail to France gives me an oppor- 
tunity of informing you of my situation and studies since I wrote 
last. I am still at the university attending the professors of Nat. and 
Mor. philosophy, Mathematicks and modern languages; and Mr. 
Wythe has given me a very friendly invitation to his lectures on 
law. I have likewise the good fortune to be a private pupil, and am 
now reading with him, Herodotus, Sophocles, Cicero and some 
particular parts of Horace. Beside the advantage of his literary 
instructions he adds advice and lessons of morality, which are not 
only pleasing and instructive now, but will be (I hope) of real 
utility in future. He is said to be without religion, but to me he 
appears to possess the most rational part of it, and fulfills that 
great command, Do unto all men as thou wouldst they should do 
unto thee. And now Sir I should be glad of your advice on the 
subject of religion; as I think it time to be fixed on a point which 
has had so many advocates and opponents, and still seems to be 
dubious. I should wish your advice as to the books I should read, 
and in what order. Mr. Wythe has just put Lucretius into my 
hands, whose sect and opinions, men generally think dangerous, 
but under so good a guide I fear not his opinions whatever they be, 
and hope rather to be benefited, than as some scrupulous people 
think, contaminated by him. I find nothing as disadvantageous and 
troublesome as attending too many things at once; I have unfortu- 
nately attempted it this year, and am apprehensive I shall have a 
perfect knowledge of none. I wish for a plan and order of study 
from you. I have the satisfaction to inform you that my brothers 
Sam and Dabney are in good situations, the first in Maryland and 
the second at an accademy in P. Edward under the direction of a 
Mr. Smith. I was very sorry to hear from Mr. Maury that you 
thought no American should go to Europe under thirty; I have, 
and ever had an invincible inclination to see the world, and am 
perfectly convinced (though my situation is as good as any in this 
country) that to see something of the world, get the polish of 
Europe, and mix the knowledge of books with that of men must 
be infinitely superior to any advantages enjoyed here. My health 
has been much injured by the air here. I never pass a summer or 
fall without a severe bilious fever. Present my compliments to my 

[ 299 ] 

19 APRIL 1787 

Cousin Patsy and believe me to be with due respect and affection 
your nephew, PETER CARR 

RC (ViU); endorsed. Recorded in SJL as received 3O June 1787. 

From Castries 

A Versailles le 19. Avril 1787 

II fut arme" a Amsterdam, Monsieur, vers la fin de Pannee 1780, 
une frgate nomme L'Indien commande par le Capitaine John 
Joyner au service des Etats de la Caroline du Sud, destin^e & coure 
sur les 6nemis des Etats Unis de TAmerique Septentrionale, et sous 
la conduite du Commodore Gillon. II paroit que PEquipage de ce 
Bitiment fut engage* a Dunkerque; II existe en effet au Bureau des 
classes de ce Port une Liste de 188. homines entr'autres Matelots, 
Novices et Volontaires, qui tous obtinrent le 17. Aoftt de ladlte 
annSe des permissions pour se rendre . Amsterdam et 6tre em- 
barque's sur ladite frigate. On trouve dans ce mSme Bureau un 
avis aux Volontaires dont je joins ici copie, qui est une espece de 
convention arr6te"e par le Capitaine Joyner avec ces Volontaires 
engage's. II y a tout lieu de croire que Pexp^dition eftt lieu. 

Quelques gens de cet Equipage rgclament le payement des 
Salaires qu'ils ont gagne"s a bord de ladite frigate L'Indien. Un 
nomm6 Nicolas Valentin Fontaine, entr'autres, rpete ceux de 21 
mois de services sur ce B&timent. Je me persuade que si le paye- 
ment des gens de cet Equipage a e*te" differe* jusqu'a present, ce n : a 
pft tre que par la difficulte* de les retrouver, ou peut tre parce 
que ceux cy n'auront pas scQ comment et par qui se le procurer. 
Je vous prie, Monsieur, de vouloir bien faire prendre des ren- 
seignemens a ce sujet, a TeflFet de faire rendre ces malheureux 
la justice quails peuvent avoir droit de rclamer et qu'ils ont tout 
lieu d'attendre par votre entremise. 

J'ai Phonneur d'etre tres parfaitement, Monsieur, votre tr^s 
humble et tr&s ob^issant serviteur, LE MAL. DE CASTRIES 

RC (DLC)j in a clerk's hand, signed at 3 sterling 1 per sailor; to give officers 

by Castries; endorsed. Tr (DNA: PCC, and sailors to the number of 5OO half 

No, 1O7, n). Recorded in SJL as re- the value of prizes taken; and to show 

ceived 3 May 1787 at Aix-en-Provence. good treatment to those behaving as 

Enclosure: "Avis aux Volontaires," un- true Americans; in return for which the 

dated but evidently issued shortly be- signatories to the "Avis" acknowledge 

fore or soon after 17 Augr, 178O, by themselves to be volunteers in the serv- 

which Captain Joyner of ISlndien prom- ice of South Carolina for twelve months 

ised to pay each man his road expenses and promise to reach Amsterdam as 

to Amsterdam where wagres would start speedily as possible (DLC: TJ Papers, 

{ 300 ] 

1 9 APRIL 1787 

13 s 2312-3; Tr in DNA: PCC, No. 1O7, frigates and military and naval stores, 
n; containing 1 the names of 24 persons, arrived in France in 1779. In May 178O 
beginning* "Grinnell, Lieutt. Alexander he secured the frig-ate through the Che- 
MooreJames Hogan," &c.)- Copies of valier de Luxembourg-; assembled a 
Castries 7 letter and its enclosure were crew; bought, on credit for the state, a 
forwarded in TJ's to Jay of 21 June quantity of clothing and ammunition; 
1787. and after innumerable delays, which in- 
TJ was never directly concerned with curred further financial complications, 
the prolonged negotiations for the settle- the ship left the Texel in August 1781. 
ment of claims against and by the state Later, Gillon joined the governor of 
of South Carolina in connection with Cuba in an expedition against the Ba- 
the frigate L'INTHEN, renamed the South hamas, for which he never received the 
Carolina* but during his residence in sum promised Mm. In December 1782 
France he did at various times, as in the ship was captured by the British, 
this instance, transmit papers relating The claims against the state of South 
to the case and answered queries occa- Carolina occasioned by this disastrous 
sioned by the negotiations. In 1778 the venture were a matter of litigation until 
state of South Carolina made Alexander 1854 (DAB, under Gillon; IX E. H. 
Gillon a commodore in the state navy Smith, "Commodore Alexander Gillon 
and elected Joseph Joyner, William an d the Frigate South Carolina," S.C. 
Robertson, and John McQueen captains Hist, and Geneal. Mag.^ ix [19O8], 189- 
of frigates. Gillon, duly authorized by 219; D. E. H. Smith, "The Luxembourg 
the state to sell products and borrow Claims," same, x [19O9], 92-115). 
money abroad for the purchase of three 

From Benjamin Franklin 

DEAR SIR Philada. April 19. 1787 

I have lately received your Favour of Dec. 23. The Diplomas I 
hope are got to hand before this time. I am much obliged by your 
taking care of my Encyclopedic. Mr. Hopkinson will account with 
you for it. 

I am glad to learn that every thing is quiet in Europe, and like to 
continue so. I hope the same will be the case here; tho' Boutdefeus 
are not wanting among us, who by inflammatory Writings in the 
Papers are perpetually endeavouring to set us together by the Ears 
about Taxes, and Certificates, &c. The Insurgents in the Massa- 
chusets are quelled: and I believe a great Majority of that People 
approve the Measures of Government in reducing them. Yet I see 
that in the late Election they have left out the late Governor and 
chosen Mr. Hancock. But he was always more popular than Mr. 
Bowdoin, had resign'd on Account of his Infirmities, and his 
Health being mended, his Friends have taken Advantage of the 
Offence given by Mr. Bowdoin to the Malcontents, to encrease the 
Number of Votes against him. His refusing the Bill for reducing 
the Governor's Salary, has also, I imagine hurt his Interest at this 
Election. So that upon the whole I do not think his not being chosen 
any Proof of general Dissatisfaction with the Measures taken to 
suppress the Rebellion, or with the Constitution. 


19 APRIL 1787 

Our Federal Constitution is generally thought defective and a 
Convention, first proposed by Virginia, and since recommended by 
Congress, is to assemble here next Month, to revise it and propose 
Amendments. The Delegates generally appointed as far as I have 
heard of them are Men of Character for Prudence and Ability, so 
that I hope Good from their Meeting. Indeed, if it does not do Good 
it must do Harm, as it will show that we have not Wisdom enough 
among us to govern ourselves; and will strengthen the Opinion of 
some Political Writers, that popular Governments cannot long sup- 
port themselves. 

I am sorry for the Death of M. Peyronet on Account of Mr. 
Paine, who would have been pleas'd and instructed by conferring 
with that ingenious and skilful Artist on the Subject of his Bridge, 
and it was my Intention to introduce him to Mr. Peyronet's Ac- 
quaintance. I have requested the Duke de Rochefoucauld to procure 
him a Sight of the Models and Drafts in the Repository of the Ponts 
et Chauss^es. You are well acquainted with Mr. Paine's Merit, 
and need no Request of mine to serve him in his Views, and in- 
troduce him where it may be proper, and of Advantage to him. 

With great and sincere Esteem I have the honour to be Your 
Excellency's most obedient & most humble Servant, 


RC (DLC). PrC (DLC: Franklin Papers). Recorded in SJL as received 11 June 

From St. Victour 

[Paris, 19 Apr. 1787. Recorded in SJL as received 3 May 1787 at 
Aix-en-Provence. Not found; but see TJ to St. Victour, & May 1787.] 

From Bellon 

Dieppe, 21 Apr. 1787. Encloses a letter just received from Captain 
Thomson, an Englishman, commanding the Mercury 'Venant de Rich- 
mond en Virginia, avec une cargaison de tabac pour la ferme." 

RC (DLC); 2 p.; below signature: ably one of the Virginia letters received 

Interprete Royal, cy devant Employe on 3 Maythe missing letter from 

dans L-armee de Rochambeau, od J'ai Banister of 25 Dec. 1786, one of Ran- 

Eu L'Honneur de Connoitre Son Excel- dolph's two letters of 28 Jan. 1787, or 

lency a Baltimore in Maryland"; en- one of the letters from Francis and 

dorsed. Recorded in SJL as received 3 Elizabeth Wayles Eppes or Mary Jeffer- 

May 1787 at Aix-en-Provence. En- son (see tinder 22 and 23 May 1786). 
closure not identified, but it was prob- 

C 302 } 

From the Abbes Arnoux and Chalut 

Paris 23. avril 1787. 

C'est aux sentiments que vous inspirez Monsieur, que vous devez 
le bon accuil dont nous remerciez. L'estime et Pattachement que 
nous avons pour vous nous fera saisir toutes les occasions qui se 
presenteront pour faire des choses qui vous soient agreables. 

Si vous ne connoissiez la france que par les provinces que vous 
avez parcourues, vous auriez une meilleure opinion des moeurs 
franoises; vous 6tes trop eclair^ pour attribuer & d'autres causes 
qu'au Gouvernement les vices qui vous ont choque. Nous sommes 
ce que les loix nous ont faits. Plaignez notre vieille nation et 
elicitez-vous de la vertu, de la jeunesse de la vStre. Nous n'esperons 
pas de vous ressembler jamais, Phistoire de tous les terns nous ote 
cet espoir. Nulle nation n'a passS de la corruption a la vertu et a 
la Iibert6. Telle est notre destinge. 

Nous attendons avec impatience votre retour. Vous viendrez 
charge de bien des Connoissances dans les arts utiles, que vous 
enverrez dans votre patrie comme un hommage de votre amour 
pour elle. Gardez-vous bien de lui donner le gout des arts agreables. 
Laissez-nous cet aliment de corruption, et conservez une vertu qui 
fera seule votre bonheur. 

Quand vous serez Paris nous causerons de La retraite de M. 
de Calonne, de I'assembl^e des notables et nous vous renouvellerons 
les assurances de notre estime et de notre amiti6 avec Lesquelles 
nous avons 1'honneur d'Stre Monsieur vos tres humbles et trfes 
obeissants Serviteurs, L*ABB ARNOUX 


RC (DLC); endorsed. Recorded in which TJ compiled himself, has an 

SJL as received 3 May 1787 at Aix-en- occasional error in it, and the present 

Provence. In TJ's Alphabetical Index entry may be one. There is no entry in 

to SJL there is an entry for a letter SJL itself for a letter from Arnoux of 3 

from the AbbS Arnoux to TJ, dated 3 May 1787; in the Index TJ probably 

May 1787. It is possible that Arnoux did transposed the date of receipt for the 

write such a letter, but none of that date present letter. 
has been found. The Alphabetical Index, 

From John Banister, Jr. 

DEAR SIR New-York Apl. 23d. 1787 

Since my arrival here I have been unable to pursue my journey 
to Virginia on account of a very severe indisposition for which I 
am in a great measure indebted to the Captn. of the packet. The 

[ 303 ] 

23 APRIL 1787 

people here like the rest of mankind are discontented with, and cry 
out against the Government, whilst it only rests with them to form 
such a one as may render them respectable and happy. No farther 
powers are as yet given to Congress, nor is their a prospect that 
they will be granted soon. Many complaints in Virginia of the 
poverty of the people, and to render the evil still greater they have 
laid duties on the exportation of those articles which are most likely 
to bring money into the State. In consequence of this the Tobacco 
from Carolina no longer comes to Virginia for exportation. There 
is a heavy tonage on all foreign Shipping. The price of Tobacco 
is from twenty to twenty two and six pence, the prospects for crops 
are at present very good. 

Colo. Archd. Gary dead, this is all the news I have been able to 
collect from Virginia. In the course of next month there will be a 
meeting at Philadelphia of deputies sent by the several states for 
the purpose of forming some plan by which the chain of Union 
may be drawn more close and rendered more adequate to the 
purposes of federal Government. What will be their success can- 
not as yet be determined, but every person who wishes well to his 
country must be interested in the occasion. The prospect which 
lies before us is perhaps the fairest which has been ever spread 
before any set of men; could they be only persuaded to adapt their 
ideas to their situation and not think it really worse than it is. 

Your seeds have been delivered to the members of Congress, but 
they have never had it in their power to send them on; they are now 
under my care and as I set out tomorrow will not be delayed much 
longer. The seeds being sealed up I shall take none of the Sulla 
seed but must beg the favor of you to send me some when it will 
be most convenient to you. Those for South Carolina have been 
sent to their directions. 

I am requested by Mr. Hilegas who lives in the house with me 
to present you with his best wishes. As soon as I arrive in Virginia 
I will write you fully on every subject which I think may interest 
you. In the mean time I am with the greatest respect your obliged 
friend and humble Servt., Jisro. BANISTER Junr. 

RC (MHI), Recorded in SJL as received 11 June 1787. 


From David S. Franks 

DEAR SIR New York 23d. Apl. 1787 

After a very disagreable Passage of 50 days we arrived in this 
City and I take the earliest Opportunity of informing you that I have 
delivered the Dispatches entrusted to my Care to Mr. Jay and have 
also acquitted myself of the Little Commissions and orders Your 
Excellency honored me with at my departure from Paris. The 
Packages and Letters are all forwarded to their addresses and those 
recommended to my particular Attention for Philadelphia I sent on 
by a Colo. Melcher who has promised to deliver them with his own 

Our Voyage from Havre was of itself tedious and rendered still 
more so by the inconvenience of the Ship and the unkind manner 
with which we were treated; the Provisions of meat were good but 
the wine was execrable and not a single thing of those refreshments 
so necessary to People who are sick at Sea, but two loaves of white 
Sugar and not a drop of white or sweet wines on board. Mr. B. 
and myself suffered more for the want of them than ever we did 
for the want of any thing before. Even our eggs, Raisins &c. were 
expended before we were three weeks out. I mention these things 
as they appear to me to be impediments to that decided preference 
which it is wished the French Packets may have over the English; 
the Lieutenants eat in the Cabin at the first table and think they 
ought to have the Power of commanding every thing in it, but also 
over the Persons of the Passengers. This occasions continual dis- 
putes and makes the time pass extreamlly irksome to those who are 
already worn down with fatigue and sickness. There is a second 
table on Board at which ( as on board the f rench frigates ) the Lieu- 
tenants might preside and the Captain by that means have it in his 
Power to furnish his Passengers more abundantly. At present he is 
only allowed 4 Livres pr. day for his Lieutenants for which he can- 
not afford to give them such things as he ought to furnish to People 
who pay him twenty five Louis for the Passage. In short Sir the 
Affair of living, on board the french packets, is so badly arranged 
that I am fully convinced that no 1 man who has once crossed the water 
in the way we have will rather than do it again, give Fifty Louis 
to go in any other ship. There are two English Packet boats now 
in this Harbor, and sorry I am to say that they not only merit a 
Preference but that they will have it too. I wish a change might be 
effected, and this may be easily done by seperating the Lieutenants 
from the Passengers. 

C 305} 

23 APRIL 1787 

Mr. Banister has been very unwell since his arrival and I am con- 
vinced his disorder was chiefly owing to the bad wine he was 
obliged to drink on board. He will set out in a day or two for 

I can write you nothing new except the arrival yesterday of an 
Eastindia Vessell which sail'd from this about 16 months since. 
She will make a very great Voyage. She brings an Account of the 
death of the famous Colonel Sears of this City of a fever at Canton. 
I suppose Mr. Maddesson will write you on the political situation 
of America. I shall therefore only say that every body here seems 
much displeased with it, and not much expected from the Conven- 
tion which is to meet at Philadelphia the 12th. of next month. 

I take the Liberty of requesting your Excellency to deliver the 
inclosed Letter and at the same time to present my most affectionate 
Regards to all the Passy family and to Mr. Short with my respect- 
ful Compliments to Miss Jefferson and to believe me Dear Sir 
Your most obedient and obliged humble Servt., 


RC (DLC). Recorded in SJL as re- 28 Apr., quoting a New York paper of 

ceived 11 June 1787. Enclosure not 12 Apr., reported on the packet's arrival 

identified. and added: "Colonel Franks the Ameri- 

The difficulties that Franks had ex- can consul came passenger in the 

perienced on embarking" at Le Havre packet. He informs us of the death of 

( see Franks to TJ, 11 Feb. 1787) were that eminent and patriotic statesman 

not calculated to soothe his feelings or the Count de Vergennes, prime minister 

prepare him for the difficulties of a of France. America has truly lost a 

long voyag-e. The packet had left Le disinterested friend by this sad event." 
Havre on 17 Feb. and arrived in New 

York on Monday morning, 9 Apr. 1787; * Thus in MS. 

the Pa. Journ. and Weekly Adv. for 

From David Hartley 

MY DEAR SIR Golden Square April 23 1787 

By the favour of Coll. Smith I trouble you with this line of 
which the purpose and contents are only to entitle me to your re- 
membrance. I sincerely regret when I had first the pleasure of your 
acquaintance that the time allowed me to profit by your friendship 
was so short. This, for private and personal reasons of respect and 
friendship to you and for public reasons, because I know your 
candour and good dispositions to cultivate friendship and union 
between our two countries. I beg of you to believe of me the same 
dispositions and that I shall constantly persevere in them thro all 
changes and chances. I beg to have the pleasure of hearing from 


23 APRIL 1787 

you. I wish very much that I could receive by any channel of com- 
munication any sort of news and particular Congress journals from 
america. Could you be so good as to put [me] into some way of af- 
fecting this. I am anxious for the state of public transactions which 
may interest our two Countries. I am Dear Sir Your much obliged 
friend & most obedt. Sert., D HARTLEY 

RC (DLC); endorsed. Recorded in SJL as received 25 May 1787 at Bordeaux. 

From James Madison 

DEAR SIR April 23. 1787. 

Since my last which was of March 19. I have had the pleasure 
of yours of Deer. 16. Jany. 30. and Feby. 7. which were handed 
to me by CoL Franks. Along with them were received the copying 
machine and other articles referred to in them. You will accept my 
warmest thanks for all these favors. The packet for the Governor 
of Virginia under the same cover with your letter of Feby. 7. has 
been forwarded. The accident to your wrist was first made known 
to me by these communications, I learnt with satisfaction from 
Col. Franks that the pain and weakness was apparently going off, 
and ardently wish that your projected trip to the South of France 
may produce a radical cure. 

The vigorous measures finally pursued by the Government of 
Massachusetts against the insurgents > had the intended effect of 
dispersing them. By some it was feared that they would re-embody 
on the return of favorable weather. As yet no symptom of such a 
design has appeared. It would seem that they mean to try their 
strength in another way; that is, by endeavoring to give the elec- 
tions such a turn as may promote their views under the auspices of 
Constitutional forms. How far they may succeed is not yet reducible 
to certainty. That a great change will be effected in the component 
members of the government is certain, but the degree of influence 
imputable to the malcontents can not be well known till some 
specimen shall be given of the temper of the new rulers. Mr. 
Hancock takes the place of Mr. Bowdoin. His general character 
forbids a suspicion of his patriotic principles; but as he is an 
idolater of popularity, it is to be feared that he may be seduced 
by this foible into dishonorable compliances. A great proportion 
of the Senate is also changed, and a greater proportion of the other 
branch it is expected will be changed. A paper emission at least is 
apprehended from this revolution in their councils. 

{307 J 

23 APRIL 1787 

Congress have agreed to Mr. Jays report on the treaty of peace 
and to an address which accompanies it. Copies of both will no 
doubt be sent you from his department. The Legislature of this 
State which was sitting at the time and on whose account the acts 
of Congress were hurried through, has adjourned till Jany. next 
without deciding on them. This is an ominous example to the 
other states, and must weaken much the claim on Great Britain 
of an execution of the Treaty on her part as promised in case of 
proper steps being taken on ours. Virginia we foresee will be 
among the foremost in seizing pretexts for evading the injunctions 
of Congress. S. Carolina is not less infected with the same spirit. 
The present deliberations of Congress turn on 1. the sale of the 
western lands, 2. the Government of the Western settlements 
within the federal domain, 3. the final settlement of the Accounts 
between the Union and its members, 4. the treaty* [with] 2 Spain. 

1. Between six and seven hundred thousand acres have been 
surveyed in townships under the land ordinance, and are to be 
sold forthwith. The place where Congress sit is fixed for the sale. 
Its excentricity and remoteness from the premises will I apprehend 
give disgust. On the most eligible plan of selling the unsurveyed 
residue Congress are much divided; the Eastern States being 
strongly attached to that of townships, notwithstanding the ex- 
pence incident to it; the Southern being equally biassed in favor 
of indiscriminate locations, notwithstanding the many objections 
against that mode. The dispute will probably terminate in some 
kind of compromise, if one can be hit upon. 

2. The Government of the settlements on the Illinois and Wa- 
bash is a subject very perplexing in itself; and rendered more so by 
our ignorance of many circumstances on which a right judgment 
depends. The inhabitants at those places, claim protection against 
the savages, and some provision for both criminal and Civil justice. 
It appears also that land jobbers are among them who are likely to 
multiply litigations among individuals, and by collusive purchases 
of spurious titles, to defraud the United States, 

3. The settlement of the public accounts has long been pursued 
in varied shapes, and with little prospect of success. The idea which 
has long been urged by some of us, seems now to be seriously 
embraced, of establishing a plenipotentiary tribunal for the final 
adjustment of the mutual claims on the great and simple principle 
of equity. An ordinance for this purpose has been reported by the 
Treasury board and has made some progress through Congress, 


2 3 APRIL 1787 

It is likely to be much retarded by the thinness of Congress, as 
indeed is almost every other matter of importance. 

4. The Spanish negotiation is in a very ticklish situation. You 
have been already apprized of the vote of seven states last fall for 
ceding the Mississipi for a term of years. From sundry circum- 
stances it was inferred that Jay -was not proceeding under this 
usurped authority. A late instruction to him to lay the state of the 
negociation before Congress has discovered that he has adjusted 
with Guardoqui an article for suspending the use of the Mississipi 
by the citizens of U.S. The report however leaves it sometvhat 
doubtful horv far U.S. are commited by this step and a subsequent 
[Report] 2 of the secretary on the seisure of Spanish property in the 
western country and on information of discontents, touching the 
occlusion of the Mississipi shews that the probable consequences 
of the measure perplex him extremely. It was nevertheless conceived 
by the instructed delegations to be their duty to press a revocation 
of the step taken in some form -which -would least offend Spain and 
least irritate the patrons of the -vote [of] 2 seven states. Accordingly 
a motion was made to the folio-wing effect that the present state 
of the negociation -with Spain and of the affairs of U.S. rendered it 
expedient that you should proceed under a special commission to 
Madrid for the purpose of making such representations as might 
at once impress on that court our friendly disposition and induce it 
to relax on the contested points, and that the proper communica- 
tions and explanations should be made to Guardoqui relative to 
this change in the mode of conducting the negociation. This motion 
zuas referred to Mr. Jay whose report disapproves of it. In this state 
the matter lies. Eight states only being present no effective -vote is 
to be expected. It may notwithstanding be incumbent on us to try 
some question which will at least mark the paucity of states -who 
abet the obnoxious project. Massachusets and Nexu York alone of 
the present states are under that description; and Connecticut and 
New Hampshire alone of the absent. Maryland and S. Carolina 
have heretofore been on the right side. Their future conduct is 
somewhat problematical. The opinion of Ne-w Hampshire is only 
conjectured. The con-version of Rhode Island countenances a hope 
that she too may in this instance desert the New England standard. 

The prospect of a full and respectable convention grows stronger 
every day. Rho. Island alone has refused to send deputies. Mary- 
land has probably appointed by this time. Of Connecticut alone 
doubts are entertained. The antifederal party in that State is 
numerous and persevering. It is said that the elections which are 


2 4 APRIL 1787 

now going on, are rather discouraging to the advocates of the 
Convention. Pennsylvania has added Doctor Franklin to her depu- 
tation. There is some ground to calculate on the attendance of 
Genl. Washington. Our Governor, Mr. Wythe, Mr. Blair, and 
CoL Mason will pretty certainly attend. The last I am informed is 
renouncing his errors on the subject of the Confederation, and 
means to take an active part in the amendment of it. Mr. Henry 
pretty soon resigned the undertaking. GenL Nelson was put into 
his place, who has also declined. He was succeeded by R. H. Lee 
who followed his example. Doer. McClurg has been since ap- 
pointed, and as he was on the spot must have been previously 

Considerable changes are taking place I hear in the County 
elections in Virginia, and a strong itch beginning to return for 
paper money. Mr. Henry is said to have the measure in contempla- 
tion, and to be laying his train for it already. He will however be 
powerfully opposed by Col. Mason, if he should be elected and be 
able to serve, by Monroe and Marshal, and Ludwel Lee (son of 
R. H. L.) who are already elected, and sundry others of inferior 
rank. Mr. Harrison the late Governor, has so far regained the favor 
of Charles City as to be reinstated a representative. The part which 
he will take is uncertain. From his repeated declarations he ought 
to be adverse to a paper emission. My next will probably be from 
Philada. In the mean time with my fervent wishes for your happi- 
ness I remain Yr. affecte. friend, Js. MADISON Jr. 

Deaths. Archibald Gary Esqr. 

Jno. Augustine Washington, brother of Genl. W. 

RC (DLC: Madison Papers); partly are written in code and were decoded 

in code; endorsed. Recorded in SJL as interlineally by TJ; his text has been 

received 11 June 1787; entry in SJL verified by the editors, employing Code 

has the following notation: "(seems No. 9. 

from N.Y.). 2 This word was not in Madison's 

-. rrn-- j -L. , . co<ie or text as originally written, but 

i This and subsequent words in italics was interlined by him late in life. 

From Edward Carrington 

DR * SlR New York April 24. 1787 

I had the honor to receive your favor of the 16th. of Jan. by 
Colo. Franks, and thank you sincerely as well for the confidence 
with which you claim my services, as for your friendly communica- 
tions. The former you may at all times command: the latter will 


24 APRIL 1787 

not only be gratefully received, but repaid as far as my attempts 
to do so can go. The letters to your freinds were immediately for- 
warded under cover to Doctor Curry. The packages are committed 
to the care of Mr. Banister, who goes off this day by stage to 
Richmond. No gentleman before him has been travelling thither 
by this mode since the arrival of the packet, and to have committed 
them to the stage without the immediate Care of a person who was 
to go the whole way would have amounted to no more than a 
consignment to the first stage office in which they might have been 
deposited for a night, or perhaps to be thrown into the high way 
by the first traveller who might conceive himself incommoded by 
them. There is scarsely circumstance of any thing going safely that 
is casually committed to the stage. Mr. Banister intends to go im- 
mediately on, but should he, by any accident be delayed, he will 
more readily meet with a hand who is going to Richmond further 
on the way than I shall here, and is apprised of the dispatch which 
is necessary in the case. 

You have doubtless been informed of the measure of a general 
Convention which was proposed by Virginia in the fall Session, 
for revising and thoroughly amending the Confederation. Some of 
the States hesitated upon the adoption of the measure as being 
unauthorised by Congress, and, of course, improper. To remove 
every possible difficulty, Congress came to a resolution in February, 
recommending its adoption; all the states have appointed deputies 
except Maryland, Connecticut and Rhode Island. Maryland is now 
in session, and that she will appoint, is not doubted. Connecticut 
is also in session, and it is believed will appoint. Rhode Island is 
at all points so anti-federal, and contemptible, that her neglecting 
the invitation, will probably occasion no demur whatever in the 
proceedings. The meeting is to take place in Philada. on the second 
Monday in May. Various are the conjectures as to the issue of this 
meeting, and still more various are the suggested remedies to the 
defects of our system. I am rather a zealot in the measure, because 
it will operate, at least as an alarm, but whether it will be pro- 
ductive of any immediate effects, may be doubtful. Perhaps that 
experiment has not yet been made of the present system, which 
could discover its defects, or point to their remedies; I am certain 
it is very imperfect, but at the same time there are evident causes 
for its failure, other than those of defectiveness in the constructure. 
The best of Governments, like other things, can prosper alone by 
due attention. America was placed in possession of peace and in- 
dependence under circumstances which have not only deprived her 


24 APRIL 1787 

political systems of the necessary care of her Citizens, but exposed 
her to the injurious designs of men, whose interest it has been to 
destroy the efficiency of Government. A great proportion of the 
people, being loaded with debt, have found an interest in promot- 
ing measures directly opposed to good government, and have been 
solicitous to direct the public affairs, whilst better men have been 
inactive, or engrossed by the alluring invitation of ease and plenty 
in our vast western and southern Regions. 

The deputies to the convention for Virginia are Genl. Washing- 
ton, E. Randolph, G. Wythe, John Blair, Geo. Mason, J. Madison 
and Jas. McClurg. Mr. Henry, Mr. R. H. Lee and Genl. Nelson 
have declined appointments which were offered them. Genl. "Wash- 
ington it is hoped will attend but there is some reason to apprehend 
the contrary his state of health is not a good one. 

I ana pleased to hear of the impressions which have been received 
in Europe with respect to the late commotions in Massachusetts. 
A perfect quiet prevails there now, but it is said the elections for 
the ensuing year are not free of the influence of the Malcontents. 

The Convention will be productive of things worth communicat- 
ing to you, and I will do myself the pleasure to write by the first 
opportunity that offers after its commencement. 

Be good enough to present me to Mr. Short, to whom I will write 
by the next packet. 

I have the Honour to be with great respect & Esteem Dr. Sir 
Your Most obt. Servt., ED. CARRINGTON 

RC (DLC); endorsed. Recorded in SJL as received 11 June 1787. 
For a note on Short's influence in initiating: TJ's FRIENDLY COM2siiJN'iCATiONS 
with Carrington, see TJ to Carrington, 16 Jan. 1787. 

From John Jay 

I>R- SIR New York 24th- April 1787 

Since my last to you of the 9th. February I have been honored 
with yours of the 27th. October, 12th. November, 31st. December, 
9th. January and 1st. and 8th. February last, all of which together 
with the Papers that accompanied them have been communicated 
to Congress; but neither on them nor your preceding ones have 
any Instructions been as yet ordered, so that this Letter like many 
others will not be very interesting. 

It is greatly to be regretted that Communications to Congress 
are not kept more private. A Variety of Reasons which must be 


24 APRIL 1787 

obvious to you oppose it; and while the f oederal Sovereignty remains 
just as it is little Secrecy is to be expected. This Circumstance must 
undoubtedly be a great Restraint on those public and private Char- 
acters from -whom you would otherwise obtain useful Hints and 
Information. I for my part have long experienced the Inconven- 
ience of it, and in some Instances very sensibly. 

The Death of Count De Vergennes, of which Major Franks 
informs us, is to be lamented; and the more so as the Talents, 
Industry and Disposition towards us of his Successor are uncertain. 
Who will take his place is an important Question to us as well as 
to France. 

The Convention of which you have been informed will convene 
next Month at Philadelphia. It is said that General Washington 
accepts his Appointment to it and will attend. I wish their Counsels 
may better our Situation; but I am not sanguine in my Expecta- 
tions. There is Reason to fear that our Errors do not proceed from 
Want of Knowledge, and therefore that Reason and public Spirit 
will require the Aid of Calamity to render their Dictates effectual. 
The Insurrection in Massachusetts is suppressed, but the Spirit 
of it exists and has operated powerfully in the late Election. Gov- 
ernor Bowdoin whose Conduct was upright and received the Appro- 
bation of the Legislature, is turned out, and Mr. Hancock is elected. 
Many respectable Characters in both Houses are displaced and 
Men of other Principles and Views elected. Perhaps the Accounts 
are exagerated perhaps Mr. Hancock will support his former 
Character, and that the present Legislature will be zealous to main- 
tain the Rights of Government as well as respect the Wish of the 
People. Time alone can ascertain these Matters the Language 
however of such Changes is not pleasant or promising. 

For your information I enclose a Copy of certain Resolutions of 
Congress relative to Infractions of the Treaty of Peace. How they 
will be received, or what Effect they will have I know not. Some 
of the States have gone so far in their Deviations from the Treaty, 
that I fear they will not easily be persuaded to tread back their 
Steps, especially as the Recommendations of Congress like most 
other Recommendations are seldom efficient when opposed by In- 
terest. A mere Government of Reason and Persuasion is little 
adapted to the actual State of human Nature in any Age or Country. 
One of our five Indiamen, Vizt. an Albany Sloop, returned a few 
Days ago in four Months from Canton; and I heard last Evening 
that one or two Vessels are preparing at Boston for a Voyage to the 
Isle of France. The Enterprize of our Countrymen is inconceivable, 


24 APRIL 1787 

and the Number of young Swarms daily going down to settle in 
the Western Country is a further Proof of it. I fear that Western 
Country will one Day give us Trouble to govern them will not 
be easy, and whether after two or three Generations they will be 
fit to govern themselves is a Question that merits Consideration. 
The Progress of Civilization and the Means of Information is very 
tardy in sparse and separate Settlements. I wish our Differences 
with Spain in that Quarter were well settled; but the Maxim of 
festina lente does not suit our southern sanguine Politicians. 

The English are making some important Settlements on the 
River St. Lawrence &c. Many of our People go there; and it is said 
that Vermont is not greatly inclined to be the fourteenth State. 
Taxes and relaxed Governments agree but ill. 

I have the Honor to be &ca., JOHN JAY 

FC (DNA: PCC, No. 121). Dft (NK- 
Iselin). Recorded in SJL as received 11 
June 1787. 

Jay did not enclose merely a copy of 


they were adopted on 21 Mch. 1787 but 
the printed circular to the states that 
Madison had supposed he -would send 
(Madison to TJ, 23 Apr. 1787; TJ to 
Carmichael, 14 June 1787). The latter, 
-which was an argument calculated to 
justify the position that "treaties and 
every Article in them . . . are and 
ought to be ... binding- on the whole 
Nation," was submitted to Congress 
on 6 Apr. and adopted on 13 Apr. ( JCC, 
xxxn, 177-84). An edition of 2O copies 
of this Address, with the text of the 
resolutions embedded in Jay's explana- 
tory comment, was printed. On the 
proposition that treaties were the su- 
preme law of the land, TJ was more 
closely in agreement with Jay's report 
than he was with the dictum that A 

ANY AGE OR COUNTRY. The first of the 

resolutions reported by Jay faced the 
constitutional issue squarely. By it 
Congress declared "That the Legisla- 
tures of the several States cannot of 
right pass any Act or Acts for inter- 
preting-, explaining or construing a na- 

tional treaty or any part or clause of it, 
nor for restraining, limiting or in any 
manner impeding, retarding, or counter- 
acting the operation and execution of 
the same; for that on being- constitu- 
tionally made, ratified and published 
they become hi virtue of the confedera- 
tion part of the Law of the Land, and 
are not only independent of the will 
and power of such Legislatures, but 
also binding and obligatory on them" 
(JCG, xxxn, 124-5, 181). This was a 
position that TJ and others had con- 
sistently supported; in the debate in 
Congress on 21 Mch., Madison noted 
that the resolution "declaring the Treaty 
to have the force of a law and denying 
the Right of any State to contravene it, 
was agreed to without dissent and al- 
most without observation" (Madison's 
"Notes of Debates," JCC, xxxm, 727). 
But Congress could only recommend, 
and Jay's able argument demonstrating 
the consequences that would ensue if 
the states continued to construe and 
contravene treaties by legislation was 
deprived of its full force by the tide of 
events: even as he wrote, delegates were 
preparing to assemble at Philadelphia 
for the Convention that wrote into the 
Federal Constitution the clinching words 
of Article VI which gave permanent 
force to the validity of his words. 


From William Short 

MY DEAR SIR Paris April 24. 1787. 

Although my two last letters are still at Aix, and although this 
will arrive there before you I cannot forbear longer the pleasure of 
writing to you. I will begin by acknowleging the reciept of your 
two last, one from Toulon and the other from Nice. In consequence 
of the first I have been to-day to Versailles to see M. de Montmorin, 
it being the first Versailles-day since its arrival, and I did not sup- 
pose I ought to trouble him on any other. As ill fortune would 
have it M. de Montmorin gave audience at Paris. As it was impos- 
sible for me to be acquainted with that circumstance, I suppose I 
am equally authorized to charge the hire of horses &c. for this trip, 
and the more so as I had no business at Versailles, et rri?y suis tres 
ennuye, during the little time I was obliged to stay there. Of this 
however I leave you to be the judge at your return. On my way 
back I passed by M. de Montmorin's hotel in Paris. He was gone 
out, so that I could not see him, but was told by the Swiss that 
I could have that honor to-morrow morning. The letter for the 
King is sealed with the seal of the United States. 

I have recieved and paid the 1200* you inclosed me, to the en- 
graver of Genl. Gates's medal. I hope to be able to send it by the 
May packet, 

I went to Panthemont yesterday and informed Miss Jefferson 
of your intended silence for three weeks at least; and I comforted 
her at the same time by adding that you were well. 

Some time ago Mr. Barrett told me that it was desired the 
Americans who were here should sign a petition to the minister for 
the rendering Honfleur a free port. I declined it and gave him for 
reason that although I had in fact no public character, yet as I 
lived with you and acted under your authority, I was afraid my 
signing a paper might have some effect in compromitting you in 
the eyes of those ill-informed, and as I did not suppose you would 
chuse to be signing petitions, I must beg to be excused from it, 
notwithstanding my earnest desire to see the success of such a 
petition. Whether M. de Crevecoeur was acquainted with this cir- 
cumstance I cannot say, but a few days ago he shewed me as a 
very meritorious thing, a most humble petition to the Duke d'Har- 
court, M. Montmorin &c. which he had drawn and had had signed 
by all the Americans here, and among the rest he had added, W. 
Short for Th. Jefferson? I was sincerely mortified at this step of 


24 APRIL 1787 

M. de Crevecoeur, and observed to him that I did not know how far 
you would approve of it. He added that there was nothing to be 
feared and that he had acted entirely by the advice of the Duke 
D'Harcourt. I did not let him see how much I was displeased with 
what he had done, for two reasons first, because it could have 
produced no change, and secondly because I was sure whatever he 
did in this affair, was from pure zeal, and with the best intentions 
in the world. I have thought it necessary to explain this circum- 
stance to you in order that you may direct what you chuse to be 
done, or let it rest unnoticed as you please. 

Mazzei desires me to mention to you that the price of 15. tt which 
you fixed on Ramsay's history is too high and will prevent the sale. 
He thinks for Ramsay's interest you had better reduce it to 12. tt 

I have forborne saying much to you on the Assemblee des 
notables, for several reasons, and among others because there was 
so little certainty in any thing I could say on that subject. Yet at 
present there are circumstances of great importance and of public 
notoriety, such as the dismission of M. de Calonne and the Garde 
des sceaux, and the putting in their places M. de Fourqueux, and 
M. de Lamoignon. The causes of this change are variously reported 
in public. Many people have foreseen for some time the necessary 
approach of M. de Calonne's downfall, although there was no 
apparent loss of esteem in the King's mind towards him. A circum- 
stance which it is believed in Paris, first destroyed the equilibrium 
of the Comptroller and hastened his precipitation was, the firm 
conduct of the Bishop of Langres and the Mquis. de la fayette. 
The latter insisted on an examination into certain abuses which had 
taken place in the alienation and purchase of the royal domains 
the former particularised the abuses and the persons concerned. 
They were informed the day after by the President of their bureau 
that if they expected any notice should be taken of their assertions, 
they must sign them. The Marquis particularized certain facts and 
signed them to be delivered to the King, by which he estimated 
these abuses at 45. millions the bishop asked eight days in order 
to collect the proofs of what he had advanced and promised to sign 
them at the expiration of that term. This reduced the Comptroller 
to bring his matters to a crisis, and either put these gentlemen and 
others out of the way or yield all hopes of success. In the attempt 
he fell. I give you that as the popular opinion of the Parisians, 
for you know I have no other chanel of learning what passes at 

The King assembled all the bureaux the day before yesterday 


2 4 APRI L 1787 

and made them a speech which does him really infinite honor. You 
will see it in the public papers, before you get this letter and conse- 
quently it is useless that I send it to you: from it you will be able 
to learn the present situation of affairs in the Assembly. 

I shall have a new subject for my letter to Mr. Jay. An Arrt of 
the council of February last has just made its appearance here, 
which raises the duty on foreign stock fish imported into their 
islands and increases the premium on French importations of that 
article. I intend to send him the Arrt; although he will probably 
first recieve information of it by way of the West Indies. 

I recieved a few days ago a letter from Smith, desiring I would 
give Mm a bed here for one night says he shall follow immediately 
that letter and is on his way to Madrid and Lisbon. I don't know 

April 25th. I have been this morning to M. de Montmorin's 
and delivered him your letter, with that for the King, which he 
promised to dispose of properly. He told me he had recieved your's 
from Marseilles, and that he had just recieved a letter also from 
Mr. Otto. It must have come by a merchant vessel. 

I inclose you nine letters, one of which I took the liberty of open- 
ing; because being from the Mai. de Castries, I supposed it might 
contain something relative to commerce which you would chuse 
should be immediately forwarded to America. 

Messrs. Fox and Norris have lately passed through Paris on 
their way to London and America. Mr. de Crevecoeur sets out for 
Havre and New York the 7th. of next month. He is accompanied 
by a young gentleman the son of Mr. Brick of Boston, who was 
brought from thence to this country under the care of the Mquis. 
de Vaudreuil. He has been constantly since in a college in Langue- 
doc. I hope you are as much pleased with your transalpine as 
cisalpine trip, and that you will find on both sides improvements, 
in the most noble and useful of all arts, capable of being trans- 
planted in America. Adieu, my dear Sir and be assured of the best 
and most fervent wishes, for your health and happiness, of your 
friend & servant, W. SHORT 

RC (DL.C); endorsed. PrC (DLC: Short, 7 Apr. 1787; it was evidently 

Short Papers). Recorded in SJL as re- only a covering letter for Congress' 

ceived 3 May 1787 at Aix-en-Provence. letter FOR THE KING. The letter FROM 

Of the enclosures, only that of Castries OTTO was one of Otto's dispatches to 

to TJ, 19 Apr. 1787, has been identi- Vergennes, for the news of Vergennes' 

fied. death only arrived in America with the 

TJ's letter to Montmorin FROM MAR- French packet on 9 Apr. Otto's dispatch 
SEDLLES was that of 6 Apr. 1787 (miss- No. 8O was dated 17 Feb. and was re- 
ing), which was enclosed in TJ to ceived on 23 Mch. 1787; it discussed 


2 6 APRIL 1787 

the "tres secrete" proposal to transfer in 1792 his father left Boston, partly 

the American debt to France to a gproup because of a throat affliction and partly 

of Holland bankers. This was probably because of his opposition to what he 

the dispatch that Montmorin had in deemed the iniquitous system of taxa- 

mind, for Otto's No. 81 to Vergennes, tion of Massachusetts, and took up 

dated 28 Feb., was not received until residence in Philadelphia, where young 

28 May 1787 (Arch. Aff. Etr., Corr. Breck became a prominent citizen and 

PoL, E.-U., Vol. xxxn$ Tr in DL.C). wrote a highly interesting autobiog- 

MR. BRICK OF BOSTON was Samuel raphy (Recollections of Samuel Breck, 

Breck, who had become the protggg of Philadelphia, 1877, ed. H. E. Scudder). 

the MQUIS DE VAITDREUIJL and who was The King-'s SPEECH and the ARRT were 

just completing, under Vaudreuil's pa- both enclosed in Short's letter to Jay, 

tronage, four years of study at the mili- 4 May 1787. 
tary school for the nobility at Soreze; 

From William Hay 

SIR Richmond Apl. 26th. 1787 

Doctr. Currie our mutual Friend, has been so obliging as to 
give up to me the new Edition of the Encyclopedic Methodique of 
Paris, for which I am to furnish him such standard Books in the 
English Language, to its Value, as he shall approve of. I have 
therefore to request you to forward to me the remaining Part of 
that excellent Work, so soon as the Editors complete it. The very 
small Portion of Time, which a Man of Business in this Country, 
can devote to literary Pursuits, has only enabled me to satisfy 
my Curiosity, but from what I have read, and from the pleasing 
Prospect I have of soon being free from the Bustle of active Busi- 
ness, I promise myself much Happiness and Improvement in the 
perusal of so various and complete a System of the Arts and 
Sciences. I am also indebted to Doctr. Currie for several Valuable 
Essays on Air, which you was so obliging as to forward to him. I 
have read that of M. Sigaud de la Fond on fixed Air, and am 
extreemly pleased with his accurate Experiments and useful Re- 
flections thereon. The Want of the Apparatus that is necessary to 
make Experiments in the various Branches of Natural Philosophy 
Deprives me of that Delight which is derived from a critical Ex- 
amination of the works of Nature. For the present therefore I must 
be satisfyed to read the Experiments of others more happily cir- 
cumstanced than myself. 

Your Native Country exibits at present a very gloomy Picture, 
the most striking Traits of which are a Degeneracy of Manners 
and an unequal and slow Administration of Justice. The People 
are greatly in Debt, and the Cry is, Paper Money; Punctuality is 
gone, and all Faith and Credit in Individuals are lost. The Prudent 


2 6 APRIL 1787 

Measures of last Assembly respecting Paper Money and the public 
Securities, gained them immortal Honour, and had their other Pro- 
ceedings been dictated by the same wisdom we should ere this 
Moment have heartily begun a Series of Reformation. The Means, 
which, since the Peace, have fostered Luxury and Extravagance, 
are now withheld from the Bulk of the People, the Staple Com- 
modity of the Country is fallen, and Goods are now and will be 
more and more scarce. Necessity therefore will teach us Frugality 
and Temperance. Indeed the Culture of Cotton, Flax and Hemp is 
taken up again, and as if awoke from a Dream, the People wonder 
how they could lay asside manufacturing the coarse Articles which 
their Families stood in need of, and of which Experience during the 
war, taught them the Advantages. Farming and Gardning are 
more general and the Culture of Grapes is now become fashionable. 
The Farmer however has seen with Sorrow his Crops of small 
grain, particularly the wheat and frequently the Corn almost totally 
destroyed, for some years past, by a pernicious Insect. The Damage 
is done, while it is yet in its first Stage of Existence; the little 
Enemy dwells in safety between the outer Leaves which cover the 
Joints, and the Stalk. In this State they appear not unlike a young 
Bed Bug and smell exactly as they do, they differ in Colour only 
by a duskish black Streak across the Neck; when they have acquired 
wings, they are all over of that dusky Colour, except a very large 
one which you will find now and then of the same Colour of the 
Young Brood, whether Male or Female I have not been able to 
determine. No Remedy has been found out for them. Their Prog- 
ress is from South to North, and such Havock have they made, 
that Many Farmers have been obliged to leave off the Culture of 
wheat, and by that Means, they have left their Farms. The same 
Bug is known to the Northward and is there denominated the 
Hessian Fly. 

I fear I have intruded too much on your Time, and therefore 
beg Leave to conclude by recommending to you the Bearer Mr. 
John Ammonett; he is an honest unsuspicious young Man, and 
will be obliged to you for your Assistance in the prosecution of a 
Claim he has in France in Right of his Father who was a Hugenot. 
I have the Honour to be very respectfully Sir your most Obt. 
Sert., WM. HAY 

Doctr. Currie wishes in Case an Exchange coulde be made, to 
have the Dictionary of the Arts & Sciences in English which you 
esteem the best and the Balance in approved Histories in the Eng- 


26 APRIL 1787 

lish Language. He does not write himself, and requested I would 
intimate the above to you. WM. HAY 

RC (DLC). The postscript has become separated from the text of the letter 
and is now in MHL Recorded in SJL as received 30 June 1787. 

From John Sullivan, with Account of 
Expenses for Obtaining Moose Skeleton 

DEAR SIR Durham April 26th. 1787 

This Letter comes by my good friend Captain Samuel Pierce 
on board of whose vessel I send a Large Box containing the Articles 
mentioned in the Inclosed Account, which will show you the amount 
of Expences. A copy of my directions to him which I also inclose 
will show the means used by me to forward those expensive Curi- 
osities to you. Capt. Pierce from motives of friendship for me has 
engaged to transport it to England and forward it to havre De 
Grace without any Expence except what may be Demanded for 
the Conveyance from England to France. And from motives of 
friendship for you I only Charge for the expences I have paid in 
Cash without any thing for my own Trouble which has been very 
considerable. I wish them safe to hand and am very respectfully 
sir Your most obedt. Servt., JNO. SULLIVAN 


His Excellency Thos. Jefferson Esqr. To Jno. Sullivan Dr. 


s d 

To paid Capt. Robert Colburn for the Skeleton 

of a moose and Transporting to Durham 28 13 2 

To a pair of moose horns and Expence of 

procuring them 3 15 

To a pair of Elks horns & expence of procuring 2 10 

To a pair of Deers horns & expence of procuring 1 10 

To a pair of Carribous Horns & Expence of procuring 3 15 
To expence of cleansing the Skeleton from flesh 

and salting and tending the same to prevent 

putrefaction 2 14 o 

To paid a Tanner for fleshing the Skins 12 

To paid Expence of Dressing the Skins to preserve 

it with the hair on, free from worms &c with 

expence of Allum brick Dust & Tobacco 2 18 

To paid Expence of a Box and putting up the skeleton &c 16 
To expence of sending the Box to Portsmouth 12 


2 8 APRIL, 1787 

To paid for horns of the Spike hornd Buck 18 O 

To paid Expence of 3 times sending to Effingham 

Connecticut River and the province of Main, to 

procure the skeleton 12 O 

To Truckage and Storage paid at Durham, and 

Portsmouth 1 4 O 

Errors Excepted Lawful money 61 17 

Equal in Sterlg. to 46 7 1OJ 

To Jno. Sullivan 

RC (DL.C). Recorded in SJi, as re- and the spike horn'd Buck"; also re- 
ceived 1 Sep. 1787 (TJ did not receive questing him to keep the box right side 
Sullivan's letters of 16 and 17 Apr. and up as directed; to "preserve it from 
29 May until 26 Sep. 1787). Enclo- -wet, and give it as much air as possible, 
sures: (1) Account of expenses, as -without exposing: it to heat"; and to 
above (DLC). (SS) Sullivan to Samuel send it to the American consul at Le 
Pearce, 26 Apr. 1787, informing 1 him Havre "with my letter to him and the 
that the box in his custody "contains other to Governor Jefferson" (DLC). 
the skin, horns and skeleton of a Moose; This letter and enclosure -were sent to 
the horns of the Carribou, Elk, Deer TJ with Sullivan's of 9 May 1787, q.v. 

From John Sullivan 

DEAR SIR Durham April 27th. 1787 

By my Last I informed you that I had drawn on you for forty 
five pounds sterling, but Bills on france not having a market here 
at this time the Bills are returned, and I now Draw on you in 
favor of Colo. William Smith Secretary to Mr. Adams for forty six 
pounds seventeen shillings and ten pence being the Ballance of 
my Account forwarded by Capt. Samuel Pierce, which Draught 
I doubt not you will honor by payment within the Ten Days Limited 
in the Bills. The Draught I have made on him is for the same sum 
at Thirty Days sight which I doubt not he will duly honor upon 
the Credit of my Draught on you in his favor. 

With great respect and Esteem I have the Honor to be sir Yr. 
Excellencys most obedt. Servt., JNO. SULLIVAN 

RC (DLC). Recorded in SJL as re- MY LAST: That is, Sullivan's of 17 

ceived 18 July 1787 from "Durham Apr. 1787, which bore the same rela- 

Works." The letter was sent under tion to the letter of 16 Apr. that the 

cover of Sullivan to William Stephens present bears to that of 26 Apr. that 

Smith, 27 Apr. 1787 (DLC), which is, to inform that a draft had been 

in turn enclosed the draft (see Abigail drawn. 
Adams Smith to TJ, 11 July 1787). 

From Richard O'Bryen 

Algiers, 28 Apr. 1787. Is afraid that, unless some speedy measures 
for redemption are adopted, his crew will be carried off by the plague 
which "rages so much," because they are "employed on the most labori- 


2 8 APRIL 1787 

ous work and so much exhausted"; 215 people died in Algiers on the 
22nd of April and 200 Christian slaves have died in the last three 
months. The Spaniards and Neapolitans having redeemed their slaves, 
there are about 800 slaves belonging to the government and 12O owned 
privately. Expects his crew to be called to marine duty. One of his 
crew died of the plague; another suffered from it for fourteen days 
but has recovered. Allowing the captives to remain in slavery serves no 
purpose in securing a peace; the redemption of captives and mating a 
peace are separate negotiations. Believes the Dey and his ministers 
"consider that they made a regular bargain with Mr. Lamb for our 
ransom"; that it is recorded "on the public books'"; and that in any 
future negotiations the Dey would maintain that the Americans had 
made a bargain and not fulfilled it. "It seems the Neapolitan Ambassador 
had obtained a truce with this Regency for three months, and the Am- 
bassador wrote his court of his success, but about the 1st. of April 
when the cruisers were fitting out, the Ambassador went to the Dey 
and hoped the Dey would give the necessary orders to the Captains of 
his cruisers not to take the Neapolitan vessels. The Dey said the mean- 
ing of the truce was for not to take the Neapolitan cruisers, but if his 
chebecs should meet the Neapolitan merchantmen to take them and 
send them for Algiers. The Ambassador said that the Neapolitan cruis- 
ers would not want a pass on those terms. The Dey said if his chebecks 
should meet either men of war or merchant vessels to take them, so gave 
orders accordingly. The Algerines sailed the 9th. inst. and are gone 
I believe ofT the coast of Italy. This shews there is very little confidence 
to be put in the royal word. No principal of national honor will bind 
those people and I believe not much confidence to be put in them in 
treaties. The Algerines are not inclinable to a peace, "with the Neapoli- 
tans. I hear of no negociation. When the two frigates arrive with the 
money for the ransom of the slaves I believe they are done with the 
Neapolitans. 971 It is not to the advantage of the Algerines to make 
peace with Naples because that country is situated so nearby that it 
is easy to capture its vessels; it would be much easier and cheaper for 

some and making peace on others. It is a great thing in a peace with 
Algiers to make the treaty with the Dey that has just got the govern- 
ment in his^hands as it may be more likely he might keep to the treaty 
he made himself and they generally do not mind what treaties the 
former Deys make." No agent of another nation can be trusted to lay 
the foundation for a peace for the United States because those nations 
which are at peace with Algiers do not want any others to secure a 
peace. "Before the war the Americans used to employ 2OO sail of mer- 
chantmen in the streights trade, and used to reap great advantages by 
it. But at present our trade is but small being cramped on all quarters." 
It is best to treat through those who are close to the Dey and money 
and presents are the only sure approach. "Mr. Woulf," an English 
merchant, and "Mr. Fauri," watchmaker to the Dey, are proper persons 
in Algiers to employ for preliminary negotiations. 


2 8 APRIL 1787 

Tr (DNA: RG 59, Consular Dis- Dec. 1790. Recorded in SJL as received 

patches); in the hand of William Short; 31 May 1787 at Nantes; copy sent to 

endorsed. Tr of extract (same, Misc. John Jay in TJPs letter of 21 June 1787. 

Letters Reed.); in - clerk's hand; at The greater part of this letter is printed 

head of text, in TJ's hand: "No. 4." in Barbary Wars, I 9 14-17. 
PrC of another Tr of extract (DL.C); 

also with "No. 4" in TJ's hand. Tr i The text enclosed in this set of 

(DNA: State Dept. Reports); incorpo- quotation marks constitutes the whole 

rated as document "No. 4" in TJ's of the extract used in TJ's 179O report 

report to the House of Representatives on Mediterranean trade, 
on U.S. trade in the Mediterranean, 28 

From Charles Thomson 

DEAR SIR New York April 28. 1787 

On the 30 July 1786 I acknowledged the receipt of your letter 
of the 1 May, wherein you informed me that a botanical friend of 
yours had written to Charleston for a number of plants and seeds 
which were to be sent to me and forwarded to you by the packet. 
I heard no more of this matter till yesterday when Capt. Lathim 
delivered me the letter and invoice of which I enclose a copy and 
informed me the boxes were on board ready to be delivered. I sent 
immediately to the french Consul to know if the packet was gone. 
Unfortunately she had sailed the day before. 1 As I was obliged to 
leave town in a day or two and expect to be some weeks absent I 
consulted Mr. Otto who was so obliging as to take charge of the 
boxes and promises to send them by the next packet. 2 And I have 
requested the favour of him in case the other box by Capt. Tinker 
arrives before the packet sails to receive and send it also. 

I have received your favour of the 17 Deer, last and am very 
sorry to hear of your misfortune. I hope before this time you have 
perfectly recovered the use of your wrist. 

In referring you to Mr. Whitehurst I did not mean to recom- 
mend him as an Author on which you were to build your faith. But 
I think you will give him credit for solving some of the objections 
started by other theorists against the universality of the deluge; 
and for accounting with a great deal of ingenuity for the present 
appearances and irregularities on the face of our globe. His erup- 
tion will tolerably well account for the oblique position of the 
strata of rocks which is observable in most parts of the world. But 
what are we to think of their horizontal position in our Western 
country? Mr. Hutchins the geographer general as well as every 
other intelligent observer who has been in that country assert this 
to be the case. Are we to suppose that the surface of the earth in 
that part of our globe was never broken up? 

t 323 } 

29 APRIL 1787 

A gentleman now in that country lately wrote to me and after 
mentioning the tradition, which, Doct. Robertson says prevailed 
among the old Mexicans, that their Ancestors came from the north- 
ward about the 10th. century, has endeavoured to shew from relicks 
still remaining that they went from the country bordering on the 
Ohio. For want of something more entertaining I send you an ex- 
tract of his letter and am with sincere esteem & affection Dr. Sir 
Your most obedient & humble Servt., CHAS. THOMSON 

The three Boxes 19. 16s. dollrs. @ 4/8 84.85 

freight 1 dollar 1.50 

86.35 Dollars 

RC (DLC). Dft (DLC: Thomson 
Papers). Recorded in SJL as received 
1 Sep. 1787. Enclosures: (1) Thom- 
son's phraseology suggests that he en- 
whereas the appended notation of cost 
and the absence of any record in SJL 
of receipt of such enclosures on 1 Sep. 
1787 suggest that he did neither. (2) 
Extract of a letter from **a gentleman 
now in that country": that is, an un- 
signed Tr (DLC) of a letter from John 
Cleves Symmes, dated Louisville, 4 Feb. 
1787, to Thomson, the -whole of which 
is printed in N.Y. Hist. Soc., Colls., xi 
(1878), 23 3-9; the extract consists of 
all save the opening and closing lines 
of Symmes* letter. 

Thomson wrote to Otto on 28 Apr. 
1787 (Dft in DLC: Thomson Papers) 
saying that the "three Boxes, which you 
were so obliging as to take charge of 
are to be forwarded in the first packet 
that sails for France, to Mr. Jefferson," 
and asking that the fourth by CAPT. 
TINKER be forwarded if it arrived in 
time; he listed the contents of the three 
boxes as follows: 
a Nl. 4 Olea Americana 


4 Magnolia tripetala 


4 Laurus Borbonia 


4 Prenos glabia 


4 Cyrella raseimefera 


4 Rosa Carolina 


4 Diosperis Verginica 


4 Cider ox alum ten ax 


4 Lycudamber styraceflua 


4 Calicarpia Americana 


4 Andromeda nova species 


4 Andromeda do do 


4 Larus do do 


4 Hhamnui do do 


4 Planta nova do do 


4 do do do 


4 Polyandria moniginia nov. 



4 Yucca nova species 


Gordonia lasiarithus 


Rhaxnnui pilubile 


Fothergilla gardini" 

* Opposite this word is a marginal 
note in TJ's hand, which reads: "viz 
Apr. 25." 

2 Opposite this word is the date of its 
scheduled sailing in TJ's hand: "June 

From Chastellux 

A Paris le 29 avril 1787 

J'ai et6 charme, mon cher et respectable ami, de recevoir de vos 
nouvelles, et j'ai vu aussi avec la plus grande satisfaction que vous 
etes content de votre voyage. Tout le patriotisme de mon coeur se 
rveille quand Monsieur Jefferson visite mon pais. Je voudrois 
faire comme les meres qui presentent leurs filles dans quelqu'as- 
sembl^e nombreuse et qui, tenant toujours les yeux fixes sur elles, 


29 APRIL 1787 

les avertissent par leurs regards de veiller sur leur maintien et sur 
leurs moindres gestes. Vous aurs trouv6, mon cher ami, que nous 
n'avons pas r6pondu partout aux bienfaits que la nature nous a 
prodigue, mais partout oil vous aurs reconnu le mal, vous aurs 
trouvS le remede possible, et meme aisg. Qu'il me tarde de causer 
avec vous de ce que vous aurs vd et remarqu6! Mais je crains que 
Tours ne reponde pas suffisamment & votre attente. Ce pais offre 
peu de curiosity d'histoire naturelle, et je crois que ce f ameux bane 
de coquille doit sa plus grande celebrity si Pauteur qui en a par!6. 
Monsieur Pintendant de Tours . qui je me suis adressg pour 
remplir vos intentions a ecrit ce matin Mr. Gentil? premier 
secretaire de Pintendance et Pa prevenu que vous desiri6s voir 
beaucoup de choses et tres peu d'honneurs, que vous voyagies 
comme simple particulier et non comme ministre des etats unis. 
Vous voudres bien, mon cher ami, a votre arriv6e & Tours, passer 
ch6s ce monsieur GentiL II vous donnera les personnes les plus 
propres S. vous conduire, suivant les objets que vous d6sirers de 
voir- Un inspecteur vous menera dans les Manufactures, un in- 
genieur des ponts et chauss6s aux [sabli&res?] et aux autres endroits 
qui seront dignes d'exciter votre curiosity. Je vous invite & voir 
Chanteloup en revenant ^t Paris, car selon toute apparence, vous 
prendr^s le chemin d*Orleans. Vous fer^s bien aussi de vous 
arretter une heure au chateau de M6nars. Vous changer^s de 
chevaux k cet endroit mgme et vous ne ser6s pas f^ch de voir le 
chateau qui a appartenu la celebre Madame de Pompadour. 

Comme je ne sais pas & quelle epoque vous recevrs ma lettre, 
je ne vous dirai pas beaucoup de nouvelles. L'assembl6e des notables 
est occup6e ^ examiner les comptes de recettes et de d6penses que 
le Roi lui a fait remettre. On discute aussi Pdit pour le timbre 
qui ne sera pas productif en France des mgmes 6fFets qu'il a eus en 
Amerique. Ce mot de timbre n'est jamais prononc6 sans exciter 
une vive 6motion dans mon ame; puisque sans lui, PAmerique 
n'auroit pas obtenu sa liberty et moi Pamiti6 de M. Jefferson. Tout 
est tranquille dans le levant. L'imperatrice de Russie ne sera que 
3 jours t chezon [Kerson] et retournera si Petersbourg, sans que 
son voyage ait trouble d'autres repos que celui des chevaux. 

Adieu, mon cher et excellent ami, arrives comme une abeille 
qui s'est charg^e de butin. Puissi^s vous n'avoir trouv6 que des 
fleurs sur votre chemin. L'amitie vous en prepare k votre retour 
qui sera une veritable f6te pour elle. 

RC (MoSHi); endorsed. 


From John Sullivan 

DEAR SIR Durham April 30th. 1787 

Capt. Pierce having been detained by Contrary winds I took an 
opportunity of sending to Barstead for a pair of Roe Bucks Horns. 
This Kind of Deer is very uncommon in America and his horns a 
very great Curiosity. The horns never grow Larger than those I 
send nor do those of the spike horned Buck ever exceed in size 
those I send you. These come free of Charge from your Excel- 
lenceys most obedt. servt., JNO. SULLIVAN 

RC (DLC). Recorded in SJX as received 1 Sep. 1787; enclosed in Sullivan to 
TJ, 9 May 1787. 

To William Short 

DEAR SIR Nice May 1. 1787. 

I arrived here this evening, and set out tomorrow morning at 
day break for Marseilles. From thence I must write to Mr. Jay, 
and I cannot write till I receive some information at Marseilles. 
The letter will get to Paris the 8th. or perhaps not till the 9th. and 
as the packet should sail the 10th. the object of this letter is to 
pray you to have a trusty Courier ready to start for Havre the 
moment my letter for Mr. Jay comes to your hand. He should go 
by the Diligence as far as that goes without stopping, and then 
by post horses and return by the Diligence. I fear, with all this, 
there is a possibility of missing the occasion by the packet: how- 
ever, the wind or other accident may perhaps retard her. If she is 
gone, he should bring back the letter. Should M. de Crevecoeur 
be going, I should be very happy to have it put into his hands: 
otherwise you must be so good as to desire M. Limosin to put it 
into good hands on board the packet. Does the order against re- 
ceiving letters after the mail is made up on board the packet still 
subsist? If it does, it may be necessary to ask a special order from 
M. Le Couteulx, because if Limozin can not get a trusty hand to 
take private charge of it, it must go into the mail at Havre. I have 
been thus streightened in time by contrary winds which came upon 
me half way from Genoa here and obliged me to quit my Felucca 
and take mules, so that I have been 4. days instead of 2. on the 
way. The 1st. a day of mortal sea-sickness, the last two of great 
fatigue on the mules and on foot clambering the precipices of the 
Appennines. This disposes me more to sleep than to write; after 


2 MAY 1787 

desiring you therefore to let my daughter know I am well and 
that she shall hear from me at Marseilles, I shall conclude with 
assurances of the sincere esteem with which I am Dr. Sir your 
affectionate friend & servant, TH: JEFFERSON 

ES. Be so good as to have my letters henceforth sent to Nantes 
poste rest ante. If in the mean time any thing was to arise to call me 
instantly to Paris, letters lodged with our agents at Bourdeaux, 
Nantes, L'orient, would find me at one of those places j according 
to the time at which they should come. 

RC <ViW); without indication of -with his important letter of 4 May to 
addressee; endorsed: "Jefferson May. 1 Jay was well grounded and his pre- 
87 [received] 13." Not recorded in SJL. cautions in the present letter were to 

As Short's endorsement indicates, no avail (see Short to TJ, 14 May 

TJ's fear of MISSING . . . THE PACKET 1787). 

From James Currie 

HBLE. SIR Richmond May 2d. 1787 

In the midst of bustle and confusion I take the liberty to write 
you a few lines, by Mr. John Ammonett a native of Chesterfield 
County who I understand is come over to France in the Ship Robert, 
Capt. Ramsay. He is a descendant of French Emigrants here about 
the year 1700 and is now come to France in quest o an estate, 
to which he thinks he has a just claim, after the Vouchers of his 
Authenticity which he will bring over with him. He has been in 
different Stores here, tho young in business and with one of the 
best hearts in the "World, unequal to the task he has now under- 
taken without some friendly aid. Any Services you can with pro- 
priety render him in investigating this claim with your best advice 
to him how to act in every respect whatever, and of which he'll 
stand in need, I shall thank you and it will be obliging a man who 
will be ever gratefull for the favor conferred upon him. The last 
letter I had the honor of receiving from your Excellency was dated 
Paris Jany. 28th. 86. Since which time, I had the pleasure of re- 
ceiving a Number of Volumes and half Volumes of the Encyclo- 
paedia, tho not bound as you once intended I believe, from what 
your letter says of the binding being cheaper in France than else 
where. Colo. Munroe's came by same Opportunity which I had 
care taken of and delivered to him. I thank you likewise for the 
other Books sent me upon Air &c. &c. My friend Mr. Wm. Hay 


2 MAY 1787 

has had their perusal and much delighted with them, as well as 
the Encyclopaedia of which it is probable he has informed you as 
he writes by this Opportunity. My knowledge in the French has 
rather diminished than encreased since you left us, being kept in 
a constant bustle with a variety of attentions to mechanickes of 
different kinds &c., all of which have vanished into smoke. 

The Observations you made upon Messrs. Jay and Little Page 
were pertinent and too just. Their altercation happened after the 
date of my letter and after L. P. left this place on his Way to 
France. His head I thought a good one, his heart I wish I may 
not have been disapointed in* 

I have spoke several times to Archbd. Stuart, concerning the 
different things he was to procure for you and which I told him 
I would contrive to you in France. He tells me he has as yet been 
unable to procure any of them tho in hopes he soon will. I for- 
warded some time ago a Box from Colo. N. Lewis containing leaves 
seeds &c. &c., the produce of this Country, by the Way of P. Mouth 
Virga. to L^Orient. As Neil Jamieson has long left New York and 
Alexander's Ships are monthly sailing for France, I preferred the 
nighest Port as the safest. Further I forwarded several Packetts 
from you sent on by Edwd. Carrington to my care to Colo. N. 
Lewis, Colo. Banister &c. &c., all of whom have been received 
before now. Ross and Pleas ants had some time ago respectively 
letters from you and intend themselves the honor of soon -writing 
you; Mr. Wm. Hay I fancy will give you a short sketch of the 
internal state of this Country at present, in regard to agriculture 
and manufacture, which have been both shamefully neglected and 
the last almost entirely laid aside since the return of peace. Your 
designs for the Capitol arrived long ago and pleased I believe very 
much, but alas the fund voted by last Assembly is altogether un- 
productive and I fear exceedingly, and indeed am almost certain, 
that nothing will be done this year in the matter. We have like- 
wise a French Academy and play house under one roof established 
by a Mr. Quesnay who I believe is now in France. The[y] stand 
so near together, that I cant help feeling hurt at % such objects of 
our folly and impotence, as both are unfinished and likely to re- 
main so for some time to come. With much difficulty the Canal 
from W. Ham here has been kept going on and tho perfectly practi- 
cable, I shall be very agreeably dissapointed, if it does not soon 
stop likewise. We are a Luxurious Voluptuous indolent expensive 
people without CEconomy or Industry. Our private and publick 
Virtue you can judge of. Our publick and private faith are much 

[328 } 

2 MAY 1787 

shaken since you left the American Continent and in short without 
some speedy and Effectual as well as prudently administred remedy 
I may venture to say that we are on the Eve of political Damnation. 
I have just now while writing been informed that Congress have 
resolved that a payment of British debts is to take place, and it 
will be communicated to the publick very soon. The Expediency 
and policy of the Measure, I expect, they have maturely weighed. 
I wish for the Sake of this Country the Doctrine had been inculcated 
from the moment peace took place as it would have stimulated to 
CEconomy and Industry thousands who have been quite the re- 
verse and who unavoidably will and must fall Victims to their 
extreme imprudence and ill timed show and dissipation of every 

Every thing pointed politically respecting this country you hear 
no doubt from those the best informed, therefore shall not say any 
thing from my own knowledge, in regard to individualls, or par- 
ticulars respecting the country at large, but leave that to the 
Statesmen of our country and your correspondents here; your 
friends here are all pretty well. Your nephew Mr. P. Kerr I am 
informed has made considerable progress in his Education. I see 
him now and then; he was lately here at Mr. Eppes. Miss Polly 
will inform you of Eppington &c. I believe I before told you Col. 
R. Randolph Curies died about 12 Months ago. Your old friend 
Colo. Gary of Ampthill left the stage the 27th. of last Feby. about 
2 in the morning and I believe from every one I have heard that no 
Gentleman of this Country in the memory of man ever left his 
affairs so distracted. The debts are immense. I had almost said 
innumerable. His family will be left very bare indeed. The Execu- 
tions of your friends Eppes and Skipwith and that of Tayloe's 
Executors are now tearing the Estate to pieces, tho they are blame- 
less, only with much difficulty now getting what they long ago 
were entitled to. Those of his family he has left have my friendly 
and most cordial Sympathy. 

A Fire broke out in this City the 8 of Jany. 87. about 4 in the 
morning that destroyed the most flourishing and wealthy part of 
this small place. I lost an Estate, that was about bringing me in 
(having just completed my buildings) 700. p. annum. In 2 hours 
the deed was done. The general opinion is that it was done on 
purpose; nothing has ever been done by Government or the Corpo- 
ration to endeavor to discover the perpetrators of the dark deed. 
Many are wholely ruined and as many more almost irrecoverably 
injured. Among which class I rank myself. It occasioned, I must 


2 MAY 1787 

confess, a shock from which I am not yet entirely relieved. Time 
I hope will efface the painfull reflection that I was deprived without 
any fault of my own of the fruit of many years hard earned industry 
in the very moment of expected fruition (as no return of rents had 
ever been made) for disbursements that for me, were immense. 
It will ever confer much honor and give me real and very sincere 
pleasure to have a letter from you when ever you please. The 
Oftner it will be the more agreeable to me; I was sorry to under- 
stand by the Governor E. R. Esqr. you had received an Injury 
in one of your arms or hands. I hope it is well before you read this 
letter, I should be glad if it is not ill timed or impertinent to be 
informed confidentially whether you have any views of returning 
soon (or ever) to your native Country. There never was a time 
when it was more in want of able statesmen than the present. Til 
thank you to tender my very respectfull Compliments to Miss 
Jefferson, who will receive a letter from Tuckahoe herewith en- 
closed. And tell Mr. Short I send him sound health and good 
spirits &c. &c. that is good. In flattering hopes of hearing from 
you soon and pretty frequently, I have the honor to Subscribe 
myself Yr. Excellency's most obt. & Very H. Servt., 


ES. Mr. Jas. Buchanan has been confined with a dangerous 
illness 2 Months and will be a considerable time longer. I believe 
the publick buildings &c. &c. are hurt by his absence. 

RC (DLC); endorsed. Recorded in SJL as received 3O June 1787. Enclosure 
not identified. 

From William Fleming 

SIR Richmond, 2d. May, 1787. 

This will be handed to you by Mr. John Amonat, a native of 
the Manakin town, of French ancestry, who is going to France 
in quest of a patrimonial estate. He has lived some time in this 
city, in the mercantile line, and is a young man of excellent char- 
acter, but of great simplicity; and, from his inexperience in life, 
and from his want of knowledge of the French language, I am 
apprehensive he will find himself much at a loss in the pursuit of 
his object. 

I am persuaded, sir, that you will want no other impulse than 
your pwn benign disposition to offer him your Advice and counte- 


3 MAY 1787 

nance in a matter which, to him, will be of great importance and 

By particular desire of Mr. Eppes, he goes in the ship with Miss 
Polly Jefferson; and, from his philanthropy, and obliging disposi- 
tion, I have not a doubt but he will pay her every proper attention 
that circumstances will admit, to alleviate the irksomeness of the 
voiage, and to support her spirits, in times of bad weather. I most 
sincerely wish her a pleasant passage, and a happy meeting you 
and her sister. 

You have, no doubt sir, been informed that a congress, to be 
composed of delegates from the several states in the union, elected 
for the especial purpose of reforming the Confederation, are to 
meet in Philadelphia, early in this month. The members from this 
state are General Washington, Geo: Mason, Geo: Wythe, John 
Blair, Edmd. Randolph, James Madison, and Dr. McClurg, instead 
of P. Henry, who did not accept his appointment. 

Expectations are formed that this convention will lay a founda- 
tion for energy and Stability in our federal government, and for 
rendering us, as a nation, more respected abroad; though I am 
apprehensive, as there are many different objects and interests to 
reconcile, it will be a work of time and of difficulty. 

We have, for some time, had a cold and dry season, very un- 
favourable for Tobacco plants, of which there seems to be a general 
scarcity; but those who were careful to keep their beds closely 
covered with brush, have great plenty. 

I have the honor to be, with great regard, sir, your friend, and 
obedt. serv., WM. FLEMING 

RC (DLC); endorsed. Recorded in SJL as received SO June 1787. 

From Peter J. Bergius 

MONSIEUR Stockholm ce 3 de xnai, 1787. 

J'ai Phonneur de Vous presenter ma sincere reconnoissance pour 
Votre bont avec le diplome de Pillustre Society litteraire de 

C'est un bonheur pour moi d'etre favorablement connu d*un 
corps si respectable. Je tacherai a mon tour de me faire digne de 
ce souvenir flateur. Mr. Sparrman, professeur de Phistoire naturelle 
a Stockholm, et membre de notre Academie des sciences, Vous 
presentera cette lettre, et en mSme terns, temoignera le devourment 

[331 } 

3 MAY 1787 

respectueux avec lequel j'ai Thonneur d'Stre Monsieur votre tres 
humble et tres obeissant Serviteur, P: J: BERGIUS 

Je me prend la liberty de joindre ici un memoire, que j'ai adressS 
a Votre Societ6 litteraire illustre. 

RC (DLC); endorsed. Recorded in SJL as received 26 July 1787. Enclosure not 
identified; if received by TJ, it evidently was not forwarded to the American Philo- 
sophical Society, for that institution has no record of having 1 received such a 
memoire by Bergius (communication of Gertrude D. Hess to the editors, 27 Jan. 

To Castries 

Aix en Provence. May 3. 1787. 

I have received at this place the letter of the 1 9th. of April which 
your Excellency did me the honor of writing on the claim of 
Nicholas Valentin Fontaine for services performed on board the 
Indian, while employed by the state of South Carolina. I am an 
entire stranger to the other difficulties which have hitherto retarded 
the adjustment of those claims. One however has lately become 
known to me, as the documents were sent thro my hands to our 
Charg6 des affaires at Madrid for the settlement of a very con- 
siderable demand against that court, for services rendered by the 
same vessel. I will immediately transmit, for the Government of 
South Carolina your Excellency's letter, and may assure you before- 
hand of the respect with which that and whatever comes from you, 
will be attended to. I shall with pleasure communicate to the 
parties interested, in the first possible moment, such resolutions 
as the government of South Carolina may take for the final liquida- 
tion and paiment of their claims: and avail myself of every occasion 
of offering you the homage of those sentiments of respect and at- 
tachment with which I have the honor to be your Excellency's most 
obedient & most humble servant, TH: JEFFERSON 

PrC (DLC). 

From William Hay 

SIR Richmond May 3d. 1787 

Your favour of the 26th. December inclosing Bill of Lading for 
the Model of the Capitol came safe to hand, adressed to Mr. 
Buchanan and myself, and have to appologize for answering it in 

{ 332 } 

3 MAY 1787 

my private Capacity. There has not been a Meeting of the Directors 
of the Public Buildings for some considerable Time past and Mr. 
Buchanan is now confined by a severe spell of Sickness, so that I 
could neither have the Advice of the Directors nor the Assistance 
of Mr. Buchanan in the Business. No Delay in the work has been 
occasioned by the Models not coming to hand, last Summer, and I 
fear it will stop where it now is for some Time. The pedestal Base- 
ment and the principal story were finished by last October, and 
nothing has been done since. The fund of the 2 p.ct. Additional 
Duties upon which was charged 5000 to be applied towards com- 
pleting the public Buildings, has proved unproductive, for the 
Treasurer assures me, it will not produce the sum which was 
charged on it in the first Instance for the support of the Members 
of Congress. The Directors therefore can make no Contract upon 
this Fund without sacrificing too much to the extravagance of the 
Times, and when the Assembly meets again I fear no further 
Assistance will be given on account of the Distress which is uni- 
versally complained of thro* the State. The Capitol may then remain 
in its present state for many Years. The Directors themselves have 
been neglectful, in many things and in none more, than in the 
want of Acknowledgements to you, for the great Assistance you 
have given them in this Business. Permit me therefore, to return 
my sincere thanks, and I am sure they will be those of the Directors 
in general, for the Interest you have taken in procuring proper 
Plans and a model for the Ornamenting the Capital of your native 
Country, and to assure you that I have the Honour to be with Per- 
fect Esteem Sir Your most Obt. Hb. Ser., WM. HAY 

RC (DLC); endorsed. Recorded in SJL as received 30 June 1787. 

From Martha Jefferson 

MY DEAR PAPA Paris May 3 1787 

I was very sorry to see by your letter To Mr. Short that your 
return would be put off, however I hope of not much, as you must 
be here for the arival of my sister. I wish I was my self all that 
you tell me to make her, however I will try to be as near like it 
as I can. I have another landskape since I wrote to you last and 
began another peice of music. I have not been able to do more 
having been confined some time to my bed with a violent head ake 
and a pain in my side which afterwards blistered up and made me 


3 MAY 1787 

suffer a great deal. But I am now much better. I have seen a 
phisician who has just drawn two of my companions out of a most 
dreadful situation which gave me a great deal of trust in him but 
the most disagreable is that I have been obliged to discontinue all 
my masters and am able now to take only some of them, those that 
are the least fatiguing. However I hope soon to take them all very 
soon. Mde. L'abesse has just had a fluxion de poitrine and has 
been at the last extremity but now is better. The pays bos have 
revolted against the emperor who is gone to Prussia to join with 
the empress and the venitians to war against the turcs. The plague 
is in spain. A Virginia ship comming to Spain met with a corser of 
the same strength. They fought And the battle lasted an hour and 
a quarter. The Americans gained and boarded the corser where 
they found chains that had been prepared for them. They took 
them and made use of them for the algerians them selves. They 
returned to Virginia from whence they are to go back to algers to 
change the prisoners to which if the algerians will not consent the 
poor creatures will be sold as slaves. Good god have we not enough? 
I wish with all my soul that the poor negroes were all freed. It 
greives my heart when I think that these our fellow creatures 
should be treated so teribly as they are by many of our country 
men. A coach and six well shut up was seen to go to the bastille 
and the baron de Breteuil went two hours before to prepare an 
apartment. They supose it to be Mde. De Polignac and her sister, 
however no one knows. The king asked Mr. DTiarcourt how much 
a year was necessary for the Dauphin. M. D'harcourt [af ]ter having 
looked over the accounts told [him] two millions upon which the 
king could [not] help expressing his astonishernent because each of 
his daughters cost him nine, so Mde. de Polignac has pocketed the 
rest. Mr. Smith is at Paris. That is all the news I know. They told 
me a great deal more but I have forgot it. Adieu my dear papa 
believe me to be for life your most tender and affectionate child, 


RC (MHi); addressed and endorsed. Recorded in SJL as received 31 May 1787 
at Nantes, being- enclosed in Short to TJ, 8 May 1787. 

To Rigoley d'Ogny 

Aix en Provence. 3me. Mai. 1787. 

Je viens de recevoir 91, Monsieur le Baron, & mon retour d'une 
petite voiage au-dete des Alpes la lettre, en date 6me. Avril, dont 


3 MAY 1787 

vous avez bien voulu m'honorer. Agreez, je vous en prie mes 
remercirnens pour votre bont6 en falsant remettre en franchise le 
paquet de gazettes qui m'avoit et6 adress de New York par la 
voye des paquebots fran^ais. II y a longtems que j'ai vu avec regret 
les inconvenients qui resultent de ce qu'il n'y a rien encore de regl 
pour la correspondance entre la France et les etats unis. J 7 ai ecrit 
1 dessus au Congr^s, et je suis charm6 que votre lettre me donne 
occasion de rapeller encore cet objet & leur attention. Je saislrai 
avec empressement le premier moment que leurs ordres me permet- 
tront d'entrer en arrangement avec vous sur cet objet, et je me 
profite de cette occasion de vous donner les assurances les plus 
sinceres de ces sentimens de respect et d'attachement avec lesquels 
j 7 ai Phonneur d'etre, Monsieur le baron, votre trds humble et tres 
obeissant serviteur, TH: JEFFERSON 

PrC (MHi); at foot of text: "M. le baron d'Ogny." 

From Edmund Randolph 

DEAR SIR Richmond May S 1787 

Mr. John Ammonett, who will deliver this letter into your 
hands, is a descendant from one of the French refugees, patronized 
and fixed here by King William. He has persuaded himself, upon 
seeing some publication or other, that restitution is to be made of 
all the property, which was abandoned by his ancestor. I know 
not, what testimonies he possesses of his right to inherit, but pre- 
sume that he is properly provided. He has requested me to recom- 
mend him to your protection; to do which I am inclined from the 
knowledge of his good nature, and of the approbation, which he 
has received from the merchant, with whom he has lived, as an 
assistant. But I am convinced, that it would be a sufficient reason 
with you to befriend him, merely to learn that he is a helpless 
Virginian and meriting every favor, which integrity and an oblig- 
ing disposition ought at any time to receive. 

I am, dear sir, with great truth yr. friend and serv. 


RC (DLC); endorsed. Recorded in SJL as received SO June 1787. 

[ 335 

From American Traders in Guadeloupe 

Pointe & Pitre Guadeloupe 3d- May 1787. 

We the Proprietors, and masters of different Vessells belonging 
to the united states of America actually at anchor in this harbour 
take the liberty of addressing to your Excellency our Petition to 
the Marechal De Castries Secretary of State to his most Christian 
Majesty. Your Excellency's efforts [in] our favour, and representa- 
tions to the Ministry shall undoubtedly hinder the inevitable ruin 
of our Trade in these parts, which the Execution of the Kong's 
Edict must naturally occasion. 

This harbour is now shut up to Americans, and we are forced 
to dispose of our Cargoes at Basseterre, the only port where we 
are allowed to anchor at. This cruel revolution is attended with 
so many inconveniences that it not only hurts the Colony in general, 
but puts an absolute stop to our Commercial operations, and ruins 
the American traders whose speculations prompt them to frequent 
these Islands for a mutual exchange of their Commodities. We 
flatter ourselves that your Excellency will exert himself in our 
favour and obtain from his Majesty the revocation of this fatal 
Edict. The benefits that will accrue from such a repeal must be 
advantageous to the Commercial interest of America. We have the 
honour to remain Your Excellency's most obedient & very humble 




RICHD. TOPPAN For twenty three more 

RC (ViWC); endorsed by TJs "Rus- and facilities for transporting' their 

sell et al* on the removal of the free cargoes on their own craft and taking: 

port in Guadeloupe from Pointe 3. Pitre on rum and molasses safely and quickly, 

to Basseterre." Recorded in SJL as re- whereas interests of both growers and 

ceived 9 July 1787. Enclosure: Dupl of shippers would be adversely affected by 

petition to Castries, dated 3 May 1787, the decree and requesting that they be 

signed by those who signed the present allowed to continue using Pointe & Pitre 

letter to TJ, plus twelve others, all of (MS in ViWC; Tr in Short's hand in 

whom signed "For ten more," setting DJLC; Tr in DNA: PCC, No. 107, n, 

forth the advantages of Pointe Si Pitre the last being enclosed in TJ to Jay, 

over Basse-Terre a good harbor, a 6 Aug. 1787). 
central location near their customers, 


To Ferdinand Grand 

DEAR SIR Marseilles May 4. 1787. 

I take the liberty of putting the inclosed letter under your cover 
to avoid it's being opened. It contains one for Mr. Jay which is to 
go by the packet sailing from Havre on the 10th. You will perceive 
therefore at the time of receiving this that there is not a moment 
to lose. I must therefore beg the favor of you to send a Commis- 
sioner instantly with it to my hotel: and, if Mr. Short should hap- 
pen to be in the country as he may be, to instruct my Maitre d'Hotel 
to open the letter to Mr. Short, and to do what I have therein de- 
sired, which is to dispatch a courier instantly to Havre. Pardon me, 
Sir, for the trouble I give you which circumstances force me to, 
and be assured of the sentiments of esteem & respect with which I 
have the honour to be Sir your most obedient humble servt., 


PrC (DLC). Enclosure: TJ to Short, this date, and its enclosure to Jay. 
TJ was correct in supposing- that Short might HAPPEN TO BE IN THE COUNTRY 
(see Short to TJ, 14 May 1787). 

From Delahais 

MONSIEUR Paris Ce 4. may 1787. 

Permett6s que je rappelle a votre Excellence Le payement des 
pensions de Messieurs Les officiers de L'amerique. Vous aves eu 
La bontg de me faire Esperer il y a d6ja du Terns que Ce paye- 
ment ne Seroit point Eloign6; Cependant il ne se fait point et 
Monsieur Grand dit n'avoir regu aucuns ordres a Ce sujet. Voila 
deux ann^es Echties au premier Janvier Dernier: Je suis Charg 
de les recevoir pour Monsieur Le Marquis de La Rouerie, M. Le 
Major Shaffner et Mon frere, qui m'en demandent Continuellement 
des Nouvelles et me Chargent de Vous prier de les faire payer. 
En consequence J'ose prier Votre Excellence, pour Ces Messieurs 
de Vouloir bien presser les ordres necessaires pour Ce payement. 
J'aurois desir Vous addresser moy mSme Cette priere de vive 
Voix, mais La Crainte de Vous tre Trop & Charge m'a fait pre- 
ferer Le party de vous 1'addresser par Ecrit. 

Je suis avec un profond respect Monsieur Votre Trfes humble 
et trs Ob6issant Serviteur, DELAHAIS 

RC ( DLC ) ; endorsed. This is doubtless the letter which TJ incorrectly recorded 
in SJL as dated 24 May 1787 and received 25 May at Bordeaux. 


To John Jay 

g IR Marseilles May 4. 1787, 

I had the honour of receiving at Aix your letter of Feb. 9. and 
immediately wrote to the Count de Montmorin, explaining the 
delay of the answer of Congress to the king's letter, and desired 
Mr. Short to deliver that answer with my letter to Monsieur de 
Montmorin, which he accordingly informs me he has done. 

My absence prevented my noting to you in the first moment the 
revolution which has taken place at Paris in the department of 
Finance by the substitution of Monsieur de Fourqueux in the place 
of Monsieur de Calonnes, so that you will have heard of it through 
other channels before this will have the honour of reaching you. 

Having staid at Aix long enough to prove the inefficacy of the 
waters, I came on to this place for the purpose of informing myself 
here, as I mean to do at the other sea-port towns, of whatever may 
be interesting to our commerce. So far as carried on in our own 
bottoms, I find it almost nothing; and so it must probably remain 
till something can be done with the Algerines. Tho' severely 
afflicted with the plague, they have come out within these few 
days, and shewed themselves in force along the coast of Genoa, 
cannonading a little town and taking several vessels. 

Among other objects of enquiry, this was the place to learn 
something more certain on the subject of rice, as it is a great 
emporium for that of the Levant and of Italy. I wished particularly 
to know whether it was the use of a different machine for cleaning 
which brought European rice to market less broken than ours, 
as had been represented to me by those who deal in that article 
in Paris. I found several persons who had passed thro' the rice 
country of Italy, but not one who could explain to me the nature 
of the machine. But I was given to believe that I might see it my- 
self immediately on entering Piedmont. As this would require but 
about three weeks I determined to go and ascertain this point; as 
the chance only of placing our rice above all rivalship in quality 
as it is in colour, by the introduction of a better machine, if a better 
existed, seemed to justify the application of that much time to it. 
I found the rice country to be in truth Lombardy, 100 miles further 
than had been represented, and that tho' called Piedmont rice, not 
a grain is made in the country of Piedmont. I passed thro the rice 
feilds of the Vercellese, and Milanese, about 60 miles, and returned 
from thence last night, having found that the machine is absolutely 


4 MAY 1787 

ne as ours, and of course that we need not listen more to 
.ggestion. It is a difference in the species of grain, of which 
vernment of Turin is so sensible, that, as I was informed, 
rohibit the exportation of rough rice on pain of death, I have 
neasures however for obtaining a quantity of it, which I think 
>t fail, and I bought on the spot a small parcel which I have 
le. As further details on this subject to Congress would be 
:ed, x I propose on my return to Paris to communicate them, 
ind the rice to the Society at Charlestown for promoting 
Iture, supposing that they will be best able to try the ex- 
;nt of cultivating the rice of this quality: and to communicate 
*cies to the two states of S. Carolina and Georgia if they find 
,ver. I thought the staple of these two states was entitled to 
tention., and that it must be desireable to them to be able to 
a rice of the two qualities demanded in Europe, especially 
greater consumption is in the forms for which the Lom- 
quality is preferred. The mass of our countrymen being 
sted in agriculture, I hope I do not err in supposing that in 
s of profound peace as the present, to enable them to adapt 
productions to the market, to point out markets for them, 
ndeavor to obtain favourable terms of reception, is within 
te of my duty. 

journey into this part of the country has procured me in- 
tion which I will take the liberty of communicating to Con- 
In October last I received a letter dated Montpelier Octob. 2. 
announcing to me that the writer was a foreigner who had 
ter of very great consequence to communicate to me, and 
d I would indicate the channel thro which it might pass 
. I did so. I received soon after a letter in the following 
;, omitting only the formal parts. . . . 2 As by this time I had 
advised to try the waters of Aix, I [wrote] to the gentleman 
esign, and that I would go off my road as far as Nismes, 
the pretext of seeing the antiquities of that place, if he would 
me there. He met me, and the following is the sum of the 
nation I received from him. 'Brazil contains as many inhabit- 
as Portugal. They are 1. Portuguese. 2. Native whites. 3. 
and mulatto slaves. 4. Indians civilized and savage. 1. The 
guese are few in number, mostly married there, have lost 
of their native country, as well as the prospect of returning 
and are disposed to become independant. 2. The native whites 
the body of their nation. 3. The slaves are as numerous as the 


4 MAY 1787 

free. 4. The civilized Indians have no energy, and the savage would 
not meddle. There are 2O,000 regular troops. Originally these 
were Portuguese; but as they died off they were replaced by 
natives, so that these compose at present the mass of the troops 
and may be counted on by their native country. The officers are 
partly Portuguese, partly Brasilians: their bravery is not doubted, 
and they understand the parade but not the science of their pro- 
fession. They have no bias for Portugal, but no energy neither for 
any thing. The Priests are partly Portuguese, partly Brasilians, and 
will not interest themselves much. The Noblesse are scarcely 
known as such. They will in no manner be distinguished from the 
people. The men of letters are those most desirous of a revolution. 
The people are not much under the influence of their priests, most 
of them read and write, possess arms, and are in the habit of 
using them for hunting. The slaves will take the side of their 
masters. In short, as to the question of revolution, there is but one 
mind in that country. But there appears no person capable of 
conducting a revolution, or willing to venture 8 himself at it's 
head, without the aid of some powerful nation, as the people of 
their own might fail them. There is no printing press in Brasil. 
They consider the North American revolution as a precedent for 
theirs. They look to the United States as most likely to give them 
honest support, and from a variety of considerations have the 
strongest prejudices in our favor. This informant is a native and 
inhabitant of Rio Janeiro the present metropolis, which contains 
50,OOO inhabitants, knows well St. Salvador the former one, and 
the Mines d'or which are in the center of the country. These are all 
for a revolution, and, constituting the body of the nation, the 
other parts will follow them. The king's fifth of the mines 
yields annually 13. millions of crusadoes or half dollars. He has 
the sole right of searching for diamonds and other precious stones, 
which yields him about half as much. His income alone then from 
these two resources, is about 10. millions of dollars annually. But 
the remaining part of the produce of the mines, being 26. millions, 
might be counted on for effecting a revolution. Besides the arms 
in the hands of the people, there are public magazines. They have 
abundance of horses, but only a part of their country would admit 
the service of horses. They would want cannon, ammunition, ships, 
sailors, souldiers, and officers, for which they are disposed to look 
to the U.S., always understood that every service and furniture will 
be well paid. Corn costs about 20 livres the 100 tb . They have flesh 
in the greatest abundance, insomuch that in some parts they kill 


4 MAY 1787 

beeves for the skin only. The whale fishery is carried on by 
Brasilians altogether, and not by Portuguese; but in very small 
vessels, so that the fishermen know nothing of managing a large 
ship. They would want of us at all times shipping, corn, and salt 
fish. The latter is a great article, and they are at present supplied 
with it from Portugal. Portugal being without either army 

or navy, could not attempt an invasion under a twelvemonth: Con- 
sidering of what it would be composed it would not be much to be 
feared, and, if it failed, they would probably never attempt a sec- 
ond. Indeed, this source of their wealth being intercepted, they are 
scarcely capable of a first effort. The thinking part of the nation 
are so sensible of this, that they consider an early separation as 
inevitable. There is an implacable hatred between the Brasilians 
and Portuguese: to reconcile which a former minister adopted the 
policy of letting the Brazilians into a participation of public offices; 
but subsequent administrations have reverted to the antient policy 
of keeping the administration in the hands of native Portuguese. 
There is a mixture of natives of the old appointments still remain- 
ing in office. If Spain should invade them on their Southern 
extremities, these are so distant from the body of their settlements 
that they could not penetrate thence, and Spanish enterprise is not 
formidable. The Mines d'or are among mountains, inaccessible to 
any army. And Rio Janeiro is considered as the strongest port 
in the world after Gibraltar. In case of a succesful revolution, a 
republican government in a single body, would probably be es- 

I took care to impress on him thro^ the whole of our conversation 
that I had neither instructions nor authority to say a word to any body 
on this subject, and that I could only give him my own ideas as a 
single individual: which were that we were not in a condition at 
present to meddle nationally in any war; that we wished particu- 
larly to cultivate the friendship of Portugal, with whom we have 
an advantageous commerce. That yet a succesful revolution in 
Brasil could not be uninteresting to us. That prospects of lucre 
might possibly draw numbers of individuals to their aid, and 
purer motives our officers, among whom are many excellent. That 
our citizens, being free to leave their own country individually 
without the consent of their governments, are equally free to go 
to any other. 

A little before I received the first letter of the Brasilian, a gentle- 
man informed me there was a Mexican in Paris, who wished to 
have some conversation with me. He accordingly called on me. 


4 MAY 1787 

The substance of the information I drew from him was as follows. 
He is himself a native of Mexico, where his relations are prin- 
cipally. He left it at about 17. years of age, and seems now to be 
about 33. or 34. He classes and characterizes the inhabitants of 
that country as follows. 1. The natives of old Spain, possessed of 
most of the offices of government, and firmly attached to it. 2. The 
clergy equally attached to the government. 3. The natives of 
Mexico, generally disposed to revolt, but without instruction, with- 
out energy, and much under the dominion of their priests. 4, The 
slaves, mulatto and black, the former enterprising and intelligent, 
the latter brave, and of very important weight, into whatever scale 
they throw themselves; but he thinks they will side with their 
masters. 5. The conquered Indians, cowardly, not likely to take 
any side, nor important which. 5. The free Indians, brave and 
formidable, should they interfere, but not likely to do so as being 
at a great distance. I asked him the numbers of these several 
classes, but he could not give them. The first he thought very 
inconsiderable; that the 2d. formed the body of the freemen: the 
3d. equal to the two first: the 4th. to all the preceding: and as to the 
5th. he could form no idea of their proportion. Indeed it appeared 
to me that his conjectures as to the others were on loose grounds. 
He said he knew from good information there were 300,000 in- 
habitants in the city of Mexico. I was still more cautious with 
him than with the Brasilian, mentioning it as my private opinion 
(unauthorised to say a word on the subject otherwise) that a suc- 
cesful revolution was still at a distance with them; that I feared 
they must begin by enlightening and emancipating the minds of 
their people; that as to us, if Spain should give us advantageous 
terms of commerce, and remove other difficulties, it was not prob- 
able that we should relinquish certain and present advantages tho' 
smaller, to incertain and future ones, however great. I was led 
into this caution by observing that this gentleman was intimate at 
the Spanish Ambassador's, and that he was then at Paris, employed 
by Spain to settle her boundaries with France on the Pyrenees. He 
had much the air of candour, but that can be borrowed: so that I 
was not able to decide about him in my own mind. 

Led by a unity of subject, and a desire to give Congress as 
general a view of the dispositions of our Southern countrymen as 
my information enables me, I will add an article which, old and 
insulated, I did not think important enough to mention at the time 
I received it. You will remember, Sir, that during the late war, the 
British papers often gave details of a rebellion in Peru. The char- 

t 342] 

4 MAY 1787 

acter o those papers discredited the information- But the truth 
was that the insurrections were so general, that the event was long 
on the poise. Had Commodore Johnson, then expected on that 
coast, touched and landed there 2OOO men, the dominion of Spain 
in that country was at an end. They only wanted a point of union 
which this body would have constituted. Not having this, they 
acted without concert, and were at length subdued separately. This 
conflagration was quenched in blood, 2OO,OOO souls on both sides 
having perished; but the remaining matter is very capable of com- 
bustion. I have this information from a person who was on the 
spot at the time, and whose good faith, understanding, and means 
of information leave no doubt of the facts. He observed however 
that the numbers above supposed to have perished were on such 
conjectures only as he could collect. 

I trouble Congress with these details, because, however distant 
we may be both in condition and dispositions, from taking an active 
part in any commotions in that country, nature has placed it too 
near us to make it's movements altogether indifferent to our in- 
terests or to our curiosity. 

I hear of another Arr8t of this court increasing the duties on 
foreign stock fish, and the premiums on their own, imported into 
their islands; but not having yet seen it I can say nothing certain 
on it. I am in hopes the effect of this policy will be defeated by the 
practice which I am told takes place on the banks of Newfoundland 
of putting our fish into the French fishing boats and the parties 
sharing the premium, instead of ours paying the duty. 

I am in hopes Mr. Short will be able to send you the medals of 
General Gates by this packet. I await a general instruction as to 
these medals. The academies of Europe will be much pleased to 
receive each a set. 

I propose to set out the day after tomorrow for Bourdeaux (by 
the canal of Languedoc), Nantes, Lorient and Paris. 

I have the honour to be with sentiments of the most perfect es- 
teem & respect, Sir, your most obedient & most humble servant, 


PrC (DLC); slightly faded. Tr stating- that he -would visit Nimes (see 
(DNA: PCC, No. 107, n). A few Vol. 10: 637). ANOTHER ARRT: See 
illegible words in PrC have been sup- Short to Jay, this date, 
plied from Tr. RC (missing-) was en- 
closed in TJ to Short, this date. 1 Thus in MS, though all editions 

TJ's letter to MONTMORIN was writ- read "misplaced." 

ten 6 Apr. 1787 (missing). I [WROTE] 2 Here TJ inserted all that part of 
TO THE GENTLEMAN OF M:Y DESIGN: Da Maia's letter of 21 Nov. 1786 em- 
TJ probably added a postscript to his bracing the second and third para- 
letter to Jose" da Maia of 26 Dec. 1786 graphs ("Je suis Bresilien . . . Vous 

C 343 } 

4 MAY 1787 

trouverez necessaires" ) , omitting- only very exact. In that letter Da Maia had 

the first paragraph and the complimen- employed the pseudonym "Vendek." 

tary close and signature. His transcript a This word interlined in substitution 

varied slightly in punctuation, capital!- for "expose," deleted, 
zation, and spelling, but was otherwise 

From Edmund Randolph 

SIR Richmond May 4. 1787. 

Being on the point of my departure for Philadelphia, I have only 
time to inform your excellency, that the information given you by 
me in my last letter, concerning the bayonets, which were supposed 
to remain at Havre appears now to be without foundation. I am 
Sir with the highest respect yr. mo. ob. serv., 


RC (DLC); endorsed. FC (Vi, Ex- as early as 30 June (see TJ to St. 

ecutive Letter Book). Not recorded in Victour, 7 Augf. 1787). 
SJTL, and presumably not received until 

late July or early Aug. 1787, though IMY LAST LETTER: That is, Randolph's 

Randolph's of 3 May 1787 was received letter of 28 Jan. 1787. 

To William Short 

DEAR SIR Marseilles May 4. 1787. 

I received last night at Aix your favors of April 4. 6. and 24. by 
which I perceive that M. de Crevecoeur goes by the present packet 
and leaves Paris the 7th. I must therefore beg the favor of you to 
dispatch the inclosed letter to Mr. Jay by a courier in the instant 
of receiving this to M. de Crevecoeur if he shall have left Paris. 
The courier must go day and night rather than run any risk of 
not getting to Havre before the packet sails. Having been just able 
to finish my letter to Mr. Jay in time for this day's post, I must 
refer writing to you more lengthily to a future post. I took the 
liberty in my letter of May 1. from Nice, of desiring you to have 
future letters sent to me to Nantes, poste restante. I am with senti- 
ments of pure & sincere esteem, Dear Sir your affectionate friend 
& servant, TH: JEFFERSON 

RC (Vi); endorsed: "[Mr.] Jefferson versations with Jose" da Mala, his ur- 

May 4 [received] 13 1787." PrC gency in making arrangements for the 

(DLC). Enclosure: TJ to Jay, this dispatch to gx> by the packet of 1O May 

date. The present letter and its en- to say nothing- of his exhausted physi- 

closure were enclosed in TJ to Grand, cal state after an extraordinary trip 

this date. across the Apennines (see TJ to Short, 

Smce TJ's letter to Jay was concerned 1 May, and to Martha Jefferson, S May 

principally with the results of his con- 1787) tells much of the effect that the 

C 344} 

4 MAY 1787 

secret discussion in Nimes had upon well paid,' 1 he was disappointed. Jay 

him. But if TJ expected that Congress, transmitted his letter, as Congress re- 

or Jay, mi^ht be tempted by his glow- ceived and filed it, without comment. 

in# account of the Brazilian mines to The fact that Short did not receive the 

undertake the furnishing of "cannon, letter that was to go by COURIER . . . 

ammunition, ships, sailors, souldiers, I>AY AND NIGHT until after the packet 

and officers'* to support a revolution had sailed was not a disaster in Ameri- 

ag-ainst Portugal, even on promise that can diplomacy, 
"every service and furniture will be 

William Short to John Jay 

SIR Paris May 4. 1787 

I have the honor of forwarding to your Excellency by M. de 
Crevecoeur, the medal for Genl. Gates mentioned in my letter sent 
by Mr. \Valton and accompanying that for Genl. Greene. M. de 
Crevecoeur takes charge also of twenty four medals of bronze to 
be delivered to your Excellency. These have been made agreeably 
to the contract with Colo. Humphries. 

I inclose also sir two arrts of the King's council, one of which 
is particularly connected with the commerce of the United States. 
This is the first opportunity I have had since their publication, of 
forwarding them, although they were passed in the month of Feb- 
ruary. But your Excellency who well knows the impenetrable 
secrecy of this cabinet will not be surprized at the delay. It is pos- 
sible you will recieve the first intelligence of these arrts by the 
way of the West-Indies; as they must have been sent there long 
before they were allowed to appear here. 

I take the liberty of sending you also Sir, the second speech of 
the King to the Assembly still sitting at Versailles. It will give 
your Excellency a proper idea of the progress then made by the 
Assembly and also of the situation of the finances of this Kingdom. 
The annual deficit as stated by M. de Calonne in his speech was 
so alarming that it produced an almost universal discontent of his 
administration and at length took from him the King's confidence 
which had been without bounds until a few days before his dis- 
mission. He is succeeded by M. de Fourqueux a Counsellor of 
State, a man far advanced in life, and without any decided char- 
acter. He has not as yet shewn what his views in general will be, 
but there is reason to hope that he will not be unfriendly to the 
commerce of America. Much depends on the dispositions of the 
Comptroller general. 

Your Excellency is well acquainted with the letter which M. 
de Calonne wrote to Mr. Jefferson on the subject of commerce. 


4 MAY 1787 

For various reasons he never could be prevailed on during his ad- 
ministration to have his letter registered in council so as to give it 
its full force. His delay was always supposed to proceed from the 
confusion and multiplicity of his affairs. He always promised to do 
it from day to day, and gave uniformly his assurances that when 
registered, it should have retrospect to the day of its date, so as 
to indemnify such of the American merchants as had been, and 
should be, obliged to pay the duties from which his letter promised 
an exoneration. This letter has never yet been registered in coun- 
cil and of course remains without effect. M. de Fourqueux has 
promised however to attend to it the first moment that the multi- 
plicity of his affairs with the Assembly, will admit of it. In this 
situation remains the letter which is considered here as the basis 
of the commerce with America. Should it recieve its sanction before 
the departure of the packet the 10th. of this month, I will not lose 
a moment in communicating it to your Excellency. 

I have delivered to Monsieur de Montmorin, the letter from 
Congress to the King which came by the last packet. 

I inclose for your Excellency two letters from Mr. Dumas. Mr. 
Jefferson is still absent but may be expected here in a very short 
time at present, being on his return from the south of France. It is 
his absence which induced me to take the liberty of troubling your 
Excellency with this letter. That the interruption may be as slight 
as possible I have introduced only such circumstances as relate to 
this country or America, and which I suppose you would wish to 
be acquainted with. One other however, I hope you will permit 
me sir to add; that of assuring you that I have the honor to be with 
sentiments of the most profound respect Your Excellency's most 
obedient & most humble Servt., \V. SHORT 

ES. May 5. At the moment of sealing my letter Sir, I have learned 
that Mr. de Fourqueux has resigned his office, supposed to be be- 
cause he was made subordinate to a council of finance of which 
the Archbishop of Thoulouse is chief. The successor is not yet 
announced, but the Marquis de la fayette has written to me that 
he will certainly be M. de Villedeuil, late Intendant of Rouen. 
As both the Archbishop and M. de Villedeuil are enlightened and 
virtuous men, and were also of the committee, which met several 
times last year on the subject of American commerce, and were 
instrumental in forcing M. de Calonne to write his letter to Mr. 
Jefferson, there is not the smallest doubt at present that this letter 


5 MAY 1787 

will be immediately registered in council and thus have its full 

RC (DNA: PCC, No. 87, n); en- 
dorsed. Enclosures: (1) Arret of 11 
Feb. 1787 for extending to "Eight 
Livres the Duty of five Livres per 
Quintal imposed by the arre*t of 25 
Septr 1785 on all dried Codfish of the 
foreign fisheries imported into the 
Windward and Leeward Islands, and 
3rtending to twelve Livres the Bounty 
of ten Livres granted by the Arret of 
the 18 of the same Month, on every 
Quintal of dried Codfish of the french 
Fishery imported into the said islands" 
(translation made in Jay's office, from 
accompanying printed text; same, n, 
15-6, 21-2). (2) Decree of Louis XVI 
correcting- abuses concerning standard 
gauges for hogsheads of sugar, barrels, 
and casks so far as they had arisen 
from neglect of the regulations of the 
Arret of 1 Mch. 1744 (translation made 
in Jay's office, from accompanying 
printed text; same, n, 7-14). (3) Speech 
of Louis XVI to the Assembly of No- 
tables, 23 Apr. 1787 (clipping from 
pages 1165-6 of an unidentified French 
publication; clipping 1 from an English 
newspaper, both in same, u, 17-9). (4) 
Dumas to Jay, 23 Mch. 1787, reporting 
on developments in Holland, and urging 

again "the necessity of keeping secret 
the financial operations, on the subject 
of which Mr. Jefferson has laid a propo- 
sition before Congress'*; to this Dumas 
added that no one else should be allowed 
"to interfere with it except that gentle- 
man and myself, under him. This is 
absolutely necessary, from the very na- 
ture of the business, for its success. 
The persons who would undertake it, 
and who will make themselves known 
in proper time, on the one hand, with 
France on the other, will be the chief 
contracting parties; and the United 
States, if they agree to it, will be only 
consenting to what will be very ad- 
vantageous for themselves" (from full 
text hi Dipt. Corr., 1783-89, m, 567-70; 
FC in Dumas Letter Book, Rijksarchief, 
The Hague; photostats in DLC; cf. note 
to Dumas to Short, 2 Feb. 1787). (5) 
Dumas to Jay, 30 Mch. 1787, enclosing 
copy of address of Prince of Orange 
to the Diet of Overyssel of 13 Mch., 
together with a copy of the Diet's re- 
sponse of 21 Mch all printed in Dipt. 
Corr.i 1783-89, m, 571-6; FC in Dumas 
Letter Book, Rijksarchief, The Hague; 
photostats in DLC. See also Dumas to 
Short, 2 and 27 Mch. 1787. 

To Thomas Barclay 

DEAR SIR Marseilles May 5. 1787. 

After the letter I did myself the honour of writing you to assure 
you that I would reimburse you the necessary expences for sending 
young Mercier to his own country, I took occasion in my first to 
the Governor of Virginia to mention your attention to him, and 
my undertaking, and to pray that he would endeavor to find out his 
family. I now receive a letter from the present governor, Mr. Ran- 
dolph, in which he informs me their enquiries have hitherto been 
fruitless, but that they will be responsible for the necessary ex- 
pences. If you will be so good as to furnish me with an account 
of your disbursements for him, I will replace them. 

I proceed from hence the day after tomorrow to Bourdeaux; but 
as I propose to examine well the canal of Languedoc on my way, 
I do not expect to leave Bourdeaux till sometime between the 2Oth. 
and 25th. of this month. I shall be happy should your return chance 


5 MAY 1787 

to place you there before that period, or at Nantes from the 25th. 
to the 30th. It is two months since I left Paris, so I have no news 
to offer you. But I can always offer with truth assurances of the 
sincere esteem with which I have the honour to be Dear Sir Your 
friend & servt., TH: JEFFERSON 

RC (DLC). PrC (DLC). The pres- VIRGINIA of 9 Aug. 1786; no letter from 

ence of the RC in TJ Papers is unex- TJ to Barclay offering- TO REIMBTJBSE 

plained; Barclay acknowledged the letter YOU XHE NECESSARY EXPENCES has 

on 12 June 1787 a fact which sug- been found, though it is possible that 

g-ests that Barclay's letter may have TJ added a postscript to this effect to 

been added to TJ Papers after their his of 31 Aug. 1786 in which he ac- 

acquisition by the federal government. knowledged, among 1 others, Barclay's 

TJ received Barclay's letter of 26 of 26 June 1786. The IJETTER FROM 

June 1786 about MERCIER on IS Aug. THE PRESENT GOVERNOR is Randolph's 

1786 and on that day added a postscript of 28 Jan. 1787. 


To Martha Jefferson 

MY DEAR PATSY Marseilles May 5. 1787. 

I got back to Aix the day before yesterday, and found there your 
letter of the 9th. of April, from which I presume you to be well 
tho' you do not say so. In order to exercise your geography I will 
give you a detail of my journey. You must therefore take your map 
and trace out the following places. Dijon, Lyons, Pont St. Esprit, 
Nismes, Aries, St. Remis, Aix, Marseilles, Toulon, Hieres, Frejus, 
Antibes, Nice, Col de Tende, Coni, Turin, Vercelli, Milan, Pavia, 
Tortona, Novi, Genoa, by sea to Albenga, by land to Monaco, Nice, 
Antibes, Frejus, Brignolles, Aix, and Marseille. The day after 
tomorrow I set out hence for Aix, Avignon, Pont du Gard, Nismes, 
Montpelier, Narbonne, along the Canal of Languedoc to Toulouse, 
Bourdeaux, Rochefort, Rochelle, Nantes, Lorient, Nantes, Tours, 
Orleans and Paris where I shall arrive about the middle of June, 
after having travelled something upwards of a thousand leagues. 
From Genoa to Aix was very fatiguing, the first two days having 
been at sea, and mortally sick, two more clambering the cliffs of 
the Appennine, sometimes on foot, sometimes on a mule according 
as the path was more or less difficult, and two others travelling thro' 
the night as well as day, without sleep. I am not yet rested, and 
shall therefore shortly give you rest by closing my letter, after 
mentioning that I have received a letter from your sister, which 
tho a year old, gave me great pleasure. I inclose it for your perusal, 
as I think it will be pleasing to you also. But take care of it, and 
return it to me when I shall get back to Paris, for trifling as it 


5 MAY 1787 

seems, it is precious to me. When I left Paris, I wrote to London 
to desire that your harpsichord might be sent during the months 
of April and May, so that I am in hopes it will arrive a little before 
I shall, and give me an opportunity of judging whether you have 
got the better of that want of industry which I had began to fear 
would be the rock on which you would split. Determine never to 
be idle. No person will have occasion to complain of the want of 
time, who never loses any. It is wonderful how much may be done, 
if we are always doing. And that you may be always doing good, 
my dear, is the ardent prayer of yours affectionately, 


RC (NNP); endorsed. PrC (MHi). Enclosure: Mary Jefferson to TJ, ca. 22 
May 1786, q.v., received by TJ on 3 May 1787. 

From Andre Limozin 

Le Havre, 5 May. 1787. Encloses a letter for TJ which "I received 
yesterday by the English Mail . . . under my Cover."" He hopes to hear 
soon of TJ's safe return to Paris. 

RC (MHi); 2 p.; addressed and endorsed. This is probably the letter from 
Limozin which TJ recorded in SJL as without date and as received 25 May 1787 
at Bordeaux. Enclosure not identified. 

To William Short 

DEAR SIR Marseilles May 5. 1787. 

I wrote you a short letter of the 1st. from Nice, and another 
of the 4th. from this place. I have now a little more time to go thro' 
the articles of your several favors of the 4th* 6th. and 24th. "With 
respect to the maps to be struck on bank paper, if there be any 
difficulty they may be omitted, because I can have them done at 
London where that operation is familiar. Nothing can have been 
more cross-grained than the circumstances of the seeds from Lon- 
don. I fear however, by the trouble Mde. de Tessy 1 has given 
herself, that she overrates them, and has forgotten what I had 
mentioned to her on some occasion, that there are only 5. or 6. 
kinds, and these in great quantity, ordered at the desire of M. de 
Malesherbes, who plants whole forests. You must be so good as 
to remind her of this to prevent her being disappointed. I must 
pray you to return my thanks to Mde. de Tess6 for the pamphlets 
she has been so kind as to send me, for her letter, and all her at- 

C 349 } 

5 MAY 1787 

tentions: nor forget me to Mde. de Tott. I have not yet been to 
Montpelier but I can pronounce that Rousseau has done it injury 
in ascribing to it the character of pillaging strangers, as if it was 
peculiar to that place. It is the character of every place on the great 
roads along which many travellers pass. He should also have con- 
fined the character to postillions, voituriers, tavern keepers, waiters, 
and workmen. The other descriptions of people are as good to 
strangers as any people I have ever met with. I am unable to tell 
you where you can find a copy of my book for M. de Crevecoeur. 
I rather apprehend they are all locked up. No matter now, as I can 
send one to him by the first packet. If Colo. Smith shall be pass- 
ing from Paris to Madrid, he will probably come by Bourdeaux, 
where I should be happy to meet him. Your right to charge the 
coach hire to Versailles appears to me perfect: and your ideas just 
as to the putting either your name or mine to any petition. The 
thing being done without our knowlege, it will be better to appear 
to know nothing of it; but if ever it should be mentioned to me, 
I must disavow it. I shall be glad to avoid this because I know it 
proceeded from a well meant zeal in the person who did it. 
Ramsay's history costs in London 12/ sterling- unbound; judge then 
whether it can be brought from thence to Paris and sold for 12*. 
You enquire kindly the effect of the waters on my wrist. None at 
all. But time is doing slowly what they cannot do. It strengthens 
a little. I am just come from the theatre where I have been much 
pleased with Mde. de Pontheuil: she has all the excellencies, 1 with- 
out any of the faults of Mde. Dugazon. I am sleepy, not yet having 
had rest enough: so I will bid you Adieu, after giving you sincere 
assurances of the affection with which I am Dear Sir your friend 
& servant, TH: JEFFERSON 

ES. Be so good as to desire Monsr. Frouill6 to procure for me the 
Ephemerides societatis meteorologicae Palatinae, printed at Man- 
heim by C. Fr. Schwan, in 4to. begun in 1781. and consisting by 
this time of 4. or 5. vols. I shall have occasion for it on my return 
to Paris. Desire Petit also to notify the servants whom I have dis- 
missed that they must remove by the 25th. of this month, with 
their effects, and he must see that it be done. 

RC (ViW); endorsed: "Jefferson May 5 [received] 13 1787." PrC (DLC). 
i Thus in Ms. 

C 350} 

To Edward Bancroft 

DEAR SIR Marseilles May 6. 1787* 

I recieve your favor of Mar. 27. just as I am setting out for 
Bourdeaux, Nantes, Lorient and Paris where I shall be about the 
middle of June. I have hastily scribbled therefore the inclosed 
letter to Mr. Wythe, which will explain to Mr. Paradise what I 
suppose best for him to do, without repeating it here which my 
hurry scarcely admits. If I can do any thing further for him in 
this or any other matter hereafter, I beg him at all times to com- 
mand me freely. As he is thinking to retire from London, I cannot 
help supposing he will find it best to exchange the gloomy climate 
of England for the genial one of Provence or the riviere of Genes. 
Be so good as to assure both him and Mrs. Paradise of my constant 
esteem and accept yourself those sentiments of friendship and re- 
spect with which I have the honour to be Dear Sir your most obedt. 
& most humble servt., TH: JEFFERSON 

PS. Bring Mr. Paradise with you to Paris and we will there 
have a consultation on the climate which may best suit him. 

PrC (DLC); MS faded. Enclosure: TJ to George Wythe of this date. 

From John Banister, Sr., and 
Anne Blair Banister 

DEAR SIR May 6th. 1787 

This it is very probable will be delivered you by Capt. Ramsay, 
a very worthy Man who has the Care of your Daughter Miss Polly, 
in her Voyage to England; and I am confident from my knowledge 
of him he will be perfectly attentive to her. A few days ago I 
received your favor inclosing Mr. De Vernon's Paper to whose 
interest I shall pay the greatest attention and as far as it can now 
be effected remit to him his monies in the funds here, but I fear 
Mr. Mark has drawn a great proportion of them, as I see but 
little, that is only 250. Virga. due now in this State. I have forbid 
any further Payment to Mr. Mark. I beg to be informed by the 
first opportunity in what way Messrs, de Vernon & Dangerard will 
have the Money as it is received, remitted, whether in Tobacco, 
or bills. I have every opportunity of selecting Tobacco here, as I 
know the Planters and in general the lands where it is made. 


6 MAY 1787 

I find the Wind fair for Capt. Ramsay which allows me no 
further time at present than to assure you that I am with every 
Sentiment of esteem and Regard Dr. Sir your Friend & Mo: obedt. 
Servant, J BANISTER 

Commissioners of this State viz. Edmund Randolph Govr., Geo: 
Wythe, Genl. Washington, Geo: Mason, J. Blair esquires are 
gone to Philadelphia to assist in a revision of the Articles of Con- 

In a few hasty Lines, accept Dear Sir, my Congratulations on 
the arrival of your Daughter. Captn. Ramsay takes charge of a 
large Pacquet to you. The contents I hope are not new, as it is 
only a Duplicate of what I trust has reached your Hands. Mrs. 
Oster has saiPd for France and will either see, or -write to you on 
her arrival. I therefore, take the liberty to beg your care of the 
Letter directed to her, as I know not where to say she is. She is 
very uneasy to discover (just as she was about to set sail) that 
Mr. Oster (with his accustom'd ill-nature) prevented her having 
the charge of your Daughter; a circumstance she had at Heart 
(which was sufficient Reason for him to disappoint her) as well 
as Mrs. Eppes. Poor Mr. J. Banister is confined in New York 
(where he arrived in 50 days from Havre de Grace) with a Cold 
and Fever caught at Sea. The Letters must away. I can no more, 
than that I am as ever Your Truely Sincere Friend, 


RC (MHi); Mrs. Banister's note, in Banister through Captain Ramsay may 

her hand, is at foot of text; endorsed: have been the DUPLICATE of her letter 

"Bannister, John Senr." Recorded in SJL, to TJ concerning* Mrs. Oster's difficulties 

as received 3O June 1787. See TJ to (see Mrs. Banister to TJ, 19 Feb. 1787, 

De Vernon, 12 Aug. 1787. note on Dupl). 

The LABGE PACQUET sent by Mrs. 

To Jean Baptiste Guide 

SIR Marseilles May 6. 1787. 

A desire of seeing a commerce commenced between the domin- 
ions of his majesty the king of Sardinia, and the United States of 
America, and a direct exchange of their respective productions, 
without passing thro a third nation, led me into the conversation 
which I had the honour of having with you on that subject, and 
afterwards with Monsieur Tallon at Turin, to whom I promised 
that I would explain to you in writing the substance of what passed 
between us. The articles of your produce wanted with us are 

t 352} 

6 MAY 1787 

brandies, wines, oil, fruits, and manufactured silks: those with 
which we can furnish you are Indigo, potash, tobacco, flour, salt 
fish, furs and peltries, ships and materials for building them. The 
supply of tobacco particularly being in the hands of government 
solely, appeared to me to offer an article for beginning immediately 
the experiment of direct commerce. That of the first quality can be 
had at first hand only from James river in Virginia: those of the sec- 
ond and third from the same place and from Baltimore in Maryland. 
The first quality is delivered in the ports of France at 38 tt the quin- 
tal, the second at 36.* the third at 34. tt weight and money of France, 
by individuals generally. I send you the copy of a large contract 
wherein the three qualities are averaged at 36. tt They must be deliv- 
ered at Nice for those prices. Indeed it is rny opinion that by making 
shipments of your own produce to those places and buying the to- 
baccos on the spot they may be had more advantageously. In this 
case it would be expedient that merchants of Nice, Turin, and Amer- 
ica should form a joint concern for conducting the business in the 
two countries. Monsr. Tallon desired me to point out proper persons 
in America who might be addressed for this purpose. The house of 
the most extensive reputation concerned in the tobacco trade, and 
on the firmest funds, is that of Messieurs Ross and Pleasants at 
Richmond in Virginia. If it should be concluded on your part to 
make any attempt of this kind, and to address yourselves to these 
gentlemen or to any others, it would be best to write them your 
ideas, and receive theirs before you make either purchases or ship- 
ments. A more hasty conduct might occasion loss, and retard, 
instead of encouraging the establishment of this commerce. I would 
undertake to 'write at the same time to these, or any other merchants 
whom you should prefer, in order to dispose them favorably, and 
as disinterestedly as possible for the encouragement of this essay. 
I must observe to you that our vessels are fearful of coming into 
the Mediterranean on account of the Algerines: and that if you 
should freight vessels, those of the French will be most advan- 
tageous for you, because received in our ports without paying 
any duties on some of those articles, and lighter than others on all 
of them. English vessels on the other hand are distinguished by 
paying heavier duties than those of any other nation. Should you 
desire any further information, or to pass letters with certainty to 
any mercantile house in America, do me the favour to address 
yourselves to me at Paris, and I shall do whatever depends on me 
for promoting this object. I have the honour to be with sentiments 

353 } 

6 MAY 1787 

of high esteem & respect, Sir, your most obedient and most humble 
servant, TH: JEFFERSON 

PrC (DLC). Enclosure: Presumably a copy of Robert Morris* contract with the 
farmers-general (see Vol. 9: 586-8). 

To Philip Mazzei 

DEAR SIR Marseilles May 6. 1787. 

I found at Aix your favor of the 17th. April, on my return 
thither the 3d. inst. I now inclose the order you desire. I think I 
cannot be at Paris before the 15th. of June but shall make a point 
to be there at that time on account of the approaching Packet. I 
have made a little tour from Nice across the Alps at the Col de 
Tende, to Turin, thence thro' the rice country of the Vercellese, 
Novarese, Milanese, by Milan to Pavia, thence to Genoa, from 
Genoa about half way by sea, the other half by land to Nice. This 
will afford us topics for some conversations when I shall have the 
pleasure of seeing you at Paris. I have received a letter from the 
Govr, E. R. in which is the following paragraph (date Jan. 28. 
1787.) TBeing engaged in preparing for an official visit to the 
naval offices below I shall for the present only beg you to inform 
Mr. Mazzei that I have remitted him money wrote to him in the 
summer am settling with Mr. "Webb, and shall give him a fuH 
detail very soon.' 

I inclose you two letters which, being under my cover, have 
come to me from Paris. I thank you for your attention to James, 
and will pursue the party you propose of leaving him to the antient 
cook. With respect to the new one should he not give some reason 
why he is entitled to more than his master demands? Should he 
not shew that some person has been fool enough to give him half 
a guinea a day? Is there any proportion between the annual price 
of 1200.* or monthly one of 200. tt and the daily one of 12*? These 
however are only my grumblings, for I suppose I must finish by 
paying. I have desired Mr. Short to give the order relative to the 
servants. I set out tomorrow morning very early on my Western 
tour, and it being the hour of bed, I shall bid you Adieu after 
assurances of the sincere esteem with which I am Dr. Sir your 
friend & servt., TH: JEFFERSON 

PrC (DLC). Tr (DLC); with several to Mr. Philip Mazzei or order six 
minor variations, not noted here. En- hundred livres and charge the same to 
closures: (1) Order on Grand "to pay Sir your Tery humble servt," dated 


6 MAY 1787 

Marseilles, 6 May 1787 (PrC on same for Mazzei have not been identified; 

sheet as PrC of the present letter; see very likely they had come under the 

also note to TJ to Mazzei, 4 Apr. cover of letters to TJ from Virginia. 
1786). (2) The two enclosed letters 

To St. Victour 8c Bettinger 

MONSIEUR Marseilles 6me. Mai. 1787. 

Quand le gouvernement de la Virginia nous fit 1'honneur, & 
Monsr. le M. de la Fayette, M. Barclay et moi, de nous charger 
de la procuration des armes, pour lesquelles nous nous sommes 
adresses & votre manufacture, il nous donnoit raison de croire qu'il 
auroit besoin d'encore bien d'autres, Mais jusques ici, il ne s'est 
explique ulterieurement la dessus, et il ne seroit PELS sage ni & nous, 
ni vous, de prendre aucune demarche pour cet objet qu'aprs 
avoir regu leurs ordres precises. Us viennent de recevoir les premiers 
envois de ces arnies, et seront bientot en etat de nous informer s'ils 
en sont contents et pour la qualit et pour le prix. Je me ferai une 
veritable plaisir de vous communiquer leurs sentiments la dessus au 
premier moment qu'ils me les feront connoitre. JPai Phonneur d'etre 
avec beaucoup de consideration, Monsieur, votre tres humble et 
tres obeissant serviteur, TH: JEFFERSON 

PrC (ViWC); endorsed. 

To George Wythe 

DEAR SIR May 6. 1787. 

Mr. Paradise being desirous of placing the conduct of his steward 
under the controul of some one or two good gentlemen in the neigh- 
borhood of his estate, has desired me to recommend his affairs to 
the persons whom I should think best. But since my departure 
from \Villiamsburg things are so much changed that I am incom- 
petent to that nomination. I therefore advise him to execute a 
power of attorney, leaving a blank for the two names, and that I 
would ask the favor of you to perform the office, which he had 
desired of me, of inserting two names. I have been led to take this 
liberty by a knowlege of your desire to do good, and have it in 
my power to assure you that you can never render service to a 
better man. I have mentioned to him Colo. Taliaferro as adjoining 
his estate, understanding perfectly what a steward should do, and 
therefore most capable of making one do his duty: but at the 


7 MAY 1787 

same time that I did not know whether Colo. Taliaferro's own 
affairs would permit him to undertake this office. I remit and recom- 
mend therefore Mr. Paradise to your goodness, and beg you to 
accept th[ose] assurances which both duty and inclination ever 
prompt me to make of the perfect esteem & respect with which 
I am Dear Sir Your friend & servant, TH: JEFFERSON 

PrC (DLC). Recorded in SJL as written from Marseilles. Enclosed in TJ to 
Bancroft, this date, unsealed in order that Paradise might see it, thus obviating the 
need for a separate letter to him. 

From Elizabeth Wayles Eppes 

[Osborne's, 7 May 1787] 

This will, I hope, be handed you by my dear Polly, who I most 
ardently wish may reach you in the health she is in at present. I 
shall be truly wretched till I hear of her being safely landed with 
you. The children will spend a day or two on board the ship with 
her, which I hope will reconcile her to it. For God's sake give us 
the earliest intelligence of her arrival. 

MS not found; text is taken from Randolph, Domestic Life, p. 124-5, where it is 
printed without date. The letter, of which this extract may be the whole, is cer- 
tainly that from Mrs. Eppes written 7 May 1787 from Osborne's and recorded in 
SJL as received SO June 1787. 

From William Short 

DEAR SIR Paris May 8. 1787 

My last was of the 24th. and 25th. of April. Yours was from 
Nice the 12th. Agreeably to your calculation at that time I may 
now daily expect to hear of your return on this side of the Alps, 
and I imagine you will certainly be at Aix as soon as this letter. 
It is the last I shall write you Sir, to that place, unless I find that 
you will be longer there than I had supposed. 

Crevecoeur has gone for Havre, to sail from thence the 10th. He 
took with him the medals of Genl. Gates. He went from hence in 
high spirits with respect to the American commerce in consequence 
of the late revolution in the ministry. The Archbishop of Thoulouse 
as Chief of the council of finance is considered at present as prime 
minister. M. de Villedeuil late Intendant of Rouen, Comptroller 
general, succeeding to M. de Fourqueux after his very short ad- 
ministration. I think there is no doubt that M. de Calonne's letter 

[356 } 

8 MAY 1787 

will be immediately registered in council. Notwithstanding the 
enormous deficit at present existing in the finances of this govern- 
ment, France has certainly gained much by the embarassment. The 
King has become acquainted with the real situation of his affairs, 
has determined on efficient economies, and acquired a ministry 
that already possesses the confidence of all the nation, and will very 
soon, I doubt not, that of all the world. I cannot think the prospects 
of France were ever more flattering than at this moment. She will 
certainly be well indemnified for the immense debt 1. by the 
provincial assemblies, 2. by ameliorations in several departments 
and 3dly. by learning the necessity of oeconomy and good ad- 
ministration even in times of peace. The Parisians seem in the 
highest state of exultation at this moment and so general is the 
satisfaction on the coming into the ministry of the Archbishop that 
I have heard not one calembour on the occasion. The assembly is 
proceeding slowly but surely in its views. The late change has 
occasioned a kind of stand, but they will go on rapidly in future 
because the Ministry and Assembly will co-operate. 

Colo. Smith has been here nine or ten days; he sets off to-morrow 
without fail for Bourdeaux on his way to Madrid and Lisbon. His 
business is at the latter place. He was appointed by Congress the 
first moment of their meeting to go and thank the Queen of Portu- 
gal for her civility in desiring her fleet last year to protect the 
American vessels against the Barbary cruisers. He desires much 
to see you and desires me to beg you will write to him poste restante 
at Bordeaux, and tell him where he can join you the nearest in his 
route. He will be at Bordeaux in a week from this time and will 
stay there two days; he would willingly make a detour to have an 
interview with you. Should he not see you he begs you to write 
to him at Madrid to the care of Mr. Carmichael. 

Miss Jefferson has been indisposed but has recovered. I send you 
a letter from her which will probably mention it. The other letters 
which are here will be taken by Colo. Smith, who will leave them 
at Bourdeaux with his banker whose address I shall send you 
before you arrive there. I wait with great anxiety sir to hear from 
you and I hope you will be persuaded of the pleasure that your 
return in good health will give to your sincerest friend & servant, 


RC (DLC). PrC (DLC: Short Papers); endorsed. Recorded in SJL as received 
31 May 1787 at Nantes, Enclosure: Martha Jefferson to TT, 3 May 1787. 


From Stephen Cathalan, Jr. 

SIR Marseilles the 9th. May 1787 

I hope this Letter will meet your Excellency at Cette, and on that 
account I direct it to M. Meinadier. 

I dare say, you have been pleased in Seing the famous Fontain 
of Vaucluse, as famous, by the lampid waters Spliting with a great 
noise against the rocks, as it is by the Loves of Petrarch and Laura. 

The Country about L'Isle and avignon is also Charming, tho 1 
by the Cold wheathers we have had lately, you will have Seen the 
poor Country people in the desolation, by the lost of a great part of 
their growing Crops. 

I remit you here inclosed the Copy, of the general Idea of the 
trade of Marseilles, by abbe raynal. I will Send one to Thos. 
Barclay Esqr. as Soon as I will have of his Letters, till now I have 
received none. If you meet him at Bordeaux, I will be much obliged 
to you, to tell him that I am in great need of Money, and any 
remittances he would make to me, as Small as they would be, will 
be always acceptable. They would be always a proof that he wish 
much to be able to discharge his Ballance, tho' I doubt not of his 
Sentiments on that account. 

I remit you also the note of one Couffe Levant rice of the Best 
sort, and of a Bag rice from nice of the Best quality called there 
esc&ma crfcoelata. This cost dearer than the price I Spoke to yon; 
but being for your own use, and free of Bruised grain and Dust, it 
becomes cheaper than that of I5 n 10s. or 16.* ^ qL 

The lombardy rice in Bags of Ifo. 350 cost only 13-10 to 14. tt 
but it is tale and quale. 

The amount of this trifling you will be So good as to remit under 
their receipts either to M* Meinadier, or Sir John Lambert my 
Bankers at Paris, when Convenient to you. 

I have not received yet any answers from the farmers Generals 
about the Cargo of Tobacco I expect, on the British Ship Minerva; 
if that I expect from them, is not favorable, I will beg of you to 
interfer in it, in behalf of Messrs. Willing Morris & Swanwick. 

Messrs. Bretoux and me, yesterday gave orders to one of our 
friends for two Couffes of Levant Rice not milled. They will be 
here in about 4 Months and I will forward them to you, as Soon as 
they will be in my power. 

The American Capn. harison Came yesterday to my house to 
tell me, they will discharge him and his Crew, on account of his 


9 MAY 1787 

Colour, and the algerians; I advised him that he must be forced to 
it by law, and he must be paid and his crew of all their wages, 
expences, and Passage, till their arival at new york; in Such trans- 
actions an American Consul would be very necessary here. 

All my family present you their respects and we wish you an 
agreable Journey and an happy return to Paris. My wife and me, 
regret very much that we could not have the pleasure of accompany 
you. We will be happier Some days or other, in meeting you at 

I beg you to command me in whatever I may be usefull to you, 
and to continue me the honour of your Friendship. And remain 
Very respectfully Sir of Your Excellency the most humble obedt* 
& Devoted Servant, STEPHEN CATHALAN Junr. 

M. Meinadier will give you Letters for Some flour Merchants 
at montauban and Toulouse, if you desire it. 

RC (DLC); endorsed. Recorded in not been identified. (2) Invoice for 

SJL as received at "Cette" [Sete] on one "couffe" of Levant rice and one 

13 May 1787; see TJ to Cathalan, 21 bag: of Piedmont rice, amounting- to 

July 1787. Enclosures: (1) RaynaPs 85 4s. 6d., shipped on board the 

"Idea of the trade of Marseilles" has Louise, Capt. Adrien Thibault (DLC). 

From John Sullivan 

DEAR SIR Durham May 9th. 1787 

The Box I wrote you of containing the Skin Skeleton and Horns 
of a moose together with the Horns of the Deer, Elk, Carribou, 
Roe Buck and Spike horned Buck, was Left by Captain Pierce 
either through Accident or Design. He sailed the 2d. Instant* I now 
send it by Capt. Seaward to Boston, who Engages to put it on 
board some vessel bound to Havre De Grace and in Case of none 
being ready for Departure to forward it to New York to go by the 
packet. I enclose you my Letters to Capt. Pierce, and have wrote 
Monsieur De la Tomb Consul at Boston to assist Capt. Seaward 
with his advice in forwarding it either by way of New York or 
Boston, to Havre De Grace, and have wrote the American Consul 
there to forward it to you and am with great respect Dr. Sir your 
most obedient servant, JNO. SULLIVAN 

RC (NNP). Recorded in SJL as received 1 Sep. 1787. Enclosures: (1) Sullivan 
to TJ, 26 and SO Apr. 1787, with enclosures in the former which included Sulli- 
van's letter of the same date TO CAPT. PIERCE the only one that has been found. 


From John Ammonet 

Norfolk^ 10 May 17 '87. Encloses letters of introduction; though he 
had expected to sail with Capt. Ramsay, the bearer, he postpones his 
voyage on account of illness. Asks TJ to make inquiries into the matter 
of his claim to the estate, "perhaps in the Town of Tessey, in lower 
Normandy," of Jacob Ammonet, who left France for Virginia about 
1700. He has credentials proving himself the "legal representative" 
of Jacob, and encloses a copy of several depositions. TJ's reply should 
be directed to the care of Edmund Randolph. 

RC (DLC); 2 p. Recorded in SJL Chastain before John and Thomas 

as received SO June 1787. Enclosures: Harris, justices of the peace for Pow- 

(1) Hay to TJ, 26 Apr. 1787. (2) hatan co., on 9 Aug. 1786. (6) Copy 

Currie to TJ, 2 May 1787. (3) Flem- of certification by Edmund Randolph, 

ing to TJ, 2 May 1787. (4) Randolph dated 14 Apr. 1787, that the Harrises 

to TJ, 3 May 1787. (5) Copy in Am- were magistrates (both this and fore- 

monet's hand of the deposition con- going: in DLC). See TJ to Randolph, 

cerningr his identity by John Barnes, 11 Aug. 1787. 
Charles Ammonet, and Charlotte J. 

From G. A. Auckler 

MONSIEUR a argenton le 11 may 1787 

Pardonnez si je derobe un moment, aux importantes occupations, 
dent votre place vous a charg, par des demandes, que vous 
trouverez peut-Stre frivoles, mais qui ne sont cependent pas etran- 
geres a la gloire de ITiumanite. 

Je soutenois que les nouveaux Stats de Tamerique Septentrionale, 
qui viennent de se former, etoient ouverts a tout etranger, qui 
vouloit s*y tablir, et que ds qu'il y avoit acquis quelque possession 
fonci&re, il avoit touts droits de citg, et devenoit membre de la 
republique, et en cette qualite pouvoit exerger toutes sortes de pro- 
fessions, mgme les plus nobles, telles que celle d'avocat. C'est ce 
qui me paroissoit devoir 6tre, du moms, dans un pays nouveau, 
qui ne demande qu'a se peupler. On me soutenoit le contraire. Je 
vous supplie, Monsieur, de vouloir bien, si ce n'est pas trop abuser 
de vos moments, nous decider. 

Daignez agreer, Monsieur, que je joigne ici mon profond respect 
a celui que vous obten^z de touts ceux, qui vous connoissent. 


Mon adresse est Auckler avocat a argenton en berry. 

RC (DLC); endorsed. Recorded in SJL as received 31 May 1787 at Nantes. 

C 360 ] 

From the Abbe Guibert 

May 1787. n.p. Recorded in SJL as received 31 May 1787 at 
Nantes. Not found. 

From William Short 

DEAR SIR Paris Monday 14th. of May 1787 

I went into the country on Wednesday last, the day of Colo. 
Smith's departure from this place, and returned here yesterday 
evening. The Porter who has never failed forwarding me my 
letters with the greatest punctuality except in this instance, omitted 
it entirely, so that on my arrival yesterday I recieved in the same 
instant your three letters of May 1.4. and 5* The reason of this 
neglect I cannot learn, or rather there is no reason at all. He says 
that the letter of May 1 did not arrive until friday. I should sup- 
pose he must be mistaken, as that of the 4th. was sent here on 
thursday by Mr. Grand. That also had its misfortune. Mr. Grand 
inclosed it to me, and added on the address to be opened by the 
Maitre dTiotel in case of my absence. This addition escaped notice; 
so that his letter inclosing yours waited quietly here my arrival. 
This being the 13th. in the evening, and the packet being to sail 
the 10th. I deemed it altogether vain to make any effort to send 
your letter for Mr. Jay by that conveyance. I have written to Mr. 
Limosin desiring he would let me know if there was any vessel at 
Havre to sail in a very short time to America, and at the same time 
I shall look out for an opportunity for England, and forward your 
letter by one or the other of these chanels as circumstances may 
direct. I am extremely sorry for the disappointment, but hope you 
will see clearly that it has been occasioned by ill fortune, and by 
the porter, rather than any neglect on my part. You expected that 
your letter would arrive here the 8th. or 9th. but Mr. Grand did 
not recieve it until the 10th. At least his letter inclosing it to me is 
of that date and I am persuaded he lost no time in forwarding it. 
Thus as it arrived here only the evening of the day on which the 
packet was to sail, the chance against its having been delivered at 
Havre in time, is very great. At this season of the year it is certainly 
probable that the packet would sail on the day fixed, and more than 
probable, before the end of the day after that fixed. It is this Sir 
which makes me suppose that even had I been in Paris at the 
arrival of your letter it would not have prevented this inconvenience. 


1 4 MAY 1787 

You have acknowleged the reclept of all my letters except my 
last. It was dated the 8th. inst. and sent to Aix. I am apprehensive 
you may have passed by that place before its arrival. I hope how- 
ever you will have left instructions to have your letters sent after 
you, I am the more desirous you should recieve it because it con- 
tains a letter from your daughter. She has been indisposed, but at 
present perfectly recovered as I learn from Mr. Petit, who carried 
her your letter this morning. The letters which Colo. Smith took 
for you from hence will be left with his banker at Bordeaux, in case 
he should not meet with you himself. You will be therefore so good 
as send for them on your arrival there at the house of Messrs. N. P. 
French & Nephew. 

At length the fatal box of seeds has arrived. Petit recieved it 
four days ago and immediately sent it to the hotel de Tess. He 
tells me there is only one kind of seeds. I have not since seen Mde. 
de Tesse so that I know not the kind. 

I am very happy your idea respecting Crevecoeur's memoire is 
the same with that which I had taken up. I am perfectly satisfied 
it should rest as it is, bec